BCP DRAFT SCI 58

First Grade - Science - Lesson 36 - Oceans

Adapted from Project Wild Aquatic Education Activity Guide, p. 8.

Objectives

Recognize that nearly three quarters of the Earth is covered by ocean.

Locate the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic and Antarctic oceans on a map.

Describe the difference between ocean water and fresh water.

Materials

World map and globe

Clear glass salad or mixing bowl (1 gallon or more capacity)

Container of table salt

Wooden mixing spoon

1/4 teaspoon measure filled with water

Picture of the Earth from space, optional

Suggested Books

Dorros, Arthur. Follow the Water from Brook to Ocean (Let's-Read-And-Find-Out-Science series). New York: Harpercrest, 1991. Follows the journey of water down streams to rivers, over waterfalls and through canyons to the ocean. Watercolor illustrations are beautiful.

Fowler, Allan. The Earth Is Mostly Ocean. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1995.

Simon, Seymour. Oceans. New York: Morrow, 1990. Text is at a fourth grade level, but illustrations of concepts are excellent. Contains a good picture of our planet as seen from space.

Teacher Resource

Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. Project Wild Aquatic Education Activity Guide. Bethesda, MD: Project Wild, 1987.

Procedure

Show the children a globe. Have one of the children come up and point out the United States where we live. Remind the children that the blue part on the globe represents water and the brown and green parts represent land. Tell the children that when astronauts orbit the Earth in the space shuttle, they can look out the window and see the Earth. They say the Earth looks like a beautiful blue marble. If you have a picture of the Earth from space, show it to the children.

Spin the globe slowly and ask: When you look at this model of the earth, does it look like there is more water or more land? (water) Remind the children that nearly three-quarters of the Earth is covered with water. (see Geography/Science Lesson 6.) Draw a circle on the board and divide it into quarters. Shade one of the quarters and tell the children that if all the continents on earth were crowded together, they would take up this much space on the earth's surface. The rest would be ocean. Instead of calling it Earth, maybe we should call it the Blue Ocean Planet.

Tell the children that they will be learning about the ocean--about the plants and animals that live in the ocean, about what is at the bottom of the ocean and about how the ocean behaves at its edges where it meets the land.

BCP DRAFT SCI 59

First Grade - Science - Lesson 36 - Oceans

Point to the world map and ask the children to name the oceans with you. After you have

named them together, have some volunteer ocean spotters come up and identify particular oceans on the map. When the children seem familiar with all the ocean names, tell them that although we have different names for oceans, the waters of the oceans are really all connected. They are really one big ocean. Show the children on the globe how the oceans are connected. Tell them the land masses are all islands sticking up out of one big ocean.

Tell the children that you are going to read them a silly nursery rhyme. Tell them this is a "what if..." nursery rhyme because it asks us to pretend and imagine "what if." Spin the globe as you read it.

 

If All the World Were Apple Pie

 

If all the world were apple pie

And all the sea were ink,

If all the trees were bread and cheese,

What would we have to drink?

Say: We all know the sea is not really full of ink. What is the sea or the ocean? (water) Ask: What kind of water is in the ocean? (salt water) Ask: Has anyone ever been swimming in the ocean and accidentally swallowed some water? What does it taste like? (It tastes salty.) The ocean is salt water. We can't drink it. That is why a person who is floating on a raft in the middle of the ocean might say, "Water water everywhere, but not a drop to drink."

Show the children the glass bowl. Say: Pretend that this bowl can hold all the sea water on earth. We're going to fill up the oceans. Pour the gallon container of water into the bowl. Tell the children that since the ocean is salt water, you need to add some salt. Ask a child to come up and pour some salt from the salt container into the bowl. Have another child come up and stir it with the spoon.

Say: Now we have filled up the oceans on earth. Show the children a 1/4 teaspoon of water. Tell them that this tiny amount of water is all the fresh water there is on earth. Fresh water is not salty. This small amount represents all the fresh water there is in lakes, rivers, streams and in underground springs. The amount of fresh water on the earth is a tiny amount compared to the amount of salt water in the oceans. All the plants and land animals on earth must share this tiny amount of fresh water because it is the only drinking water we have. That is one of the reasons it is important not to pollute streams and lakes. We all need to help keep the fresh water on the earth clean.

Additional Activity

Have the children draw a picture of what the Earth might look like to the astronauts in the space shuttle or draw a picture of the apple pie world in the nursery rhyme with oceans of ink and bread and cheese trees.

 

BCP DRAFT SCI 60

First Grade - Science - Lesson 37 - Oceans

Adapted from Nature in Nutshell for Kids by Jean Potter.

Objectives

Describe landscape and conditions on the ocean floor.

Explain how wind pushes water to make waves and ocean currents.

Materials

Pitcher of water, baby powder

For each group of four: a shallow pie tin, drinking straws

World map

Suggested Books

Cole, Joanna. The Magic School Bus on the Ocean Floor. New York: Scholastic, 1992. Ms. Frizzle's class travels by school bus-submarine from the intertidal zone to the continental shelf to the ocean floor and finally to a coral reef. While the story text makes a good read aloud, sidebar text is most informative, especially the students' written reports in the margins.

Kesselman, Wendy. Sand in My Shoes. New York: Hyperion, 1995. A girl enjoys her last day at the seashore and then returns to the city with fond memories and sand in her shoes.

Rothaus, Don. Oceans. Seattle: The Child's World, 1997. Beautiful topographical maps and photos plus sections: What is seawater? What are currents?

Rotner, Shelly and K. Kreisler. Ocean Day. New York: Macmillan, 1993. Simple text and photographs describe the sea and sand on a summer's day.

Williams, Brian. Under the Sea. New York: Random House All-About series, 1989. Stunning illustrations of the weird fish that live in the deep sea. Also many pictures of submersibles and other deep sea exploration equipment.

Teacher Resources

Bennett, Jill. A Cup of Starshine, Poems and Pictures for Young Children. New York: Harcourt, 1991.

Potter, Jean. Nature in a Nutshell for Kids. New York: John Wiley, 1995.

Procedure

Remind the children that last time they learned that nearly three-fourths of the Earth is covered with water. The continents are like islands poking up out of a great ocean. Ask: What kind of water makes up the ocean? (salt water) Can we drink salt water? (no) Tell the children that today they will be learning about what is at the bottom of the ocean and about why there are waves in the ocean.

Ask: Has anyone ever visited the seashore, played in the sand, jumped in the waves? Tell the children that they are going to take a make-pretend trip to the beach. Have the children stand in a line. Take a deep breath and say: Mmm. I smell ocean breezes. I think the ocean is this way. Point in a direction and lead the class around the classroom. After a short walk, shade your eyes and say: There it is! There is the ocean. I can see the sun sparkling on the water. Ask the children if they can hear the seagulls calling and the crash of the waves. Ask them if the sand is getting in BCP DRAFT SCI 61

First Grade - Science - Lesson 37 - Oceans

their shoes. Shade your eyes again and say you think you see some dolphins way out in the water jumping and diving. Ask the children what else they see, hear or smell at the beach. Have the children put on their underwater diving suits. Tell them they are going to take a hike down to the bottom of the ocean. Their special diving suits will let them breathe underwater and communicate with walkie-talkies.

Lead the children into the "water" and tell them that they will be walking downhill for a while, going deeper and deeper into the ocean. Warn them not to get tangled in the seaweed. Point out schools of fish swimming by, a big sea turtle, an octopus, a lobster, jellyfish, a whale. Ask the children what they see. Tell them that they are walking along the continental shelf. Here the sunlight warms the water and there are many plants and animals. Tell them that as they go deeper into the ocean, they will come to a cliff edge. It is where the continent ends. Say: Here it is. This is the edge of the continental shelf. Down below it is very dark and very cold because the sunlight cannot reach this far. Lucky for us we have lights and heaters built into our diving suits. We're going to jump off this cliff, float down and see what is at the bottom of the ocean. "Jump" off the cliff and float down, down, down to the bottom. Tell the children that now they are walking on a flat plain on the ocean floor. Looking out across the plain you can see underwater mountains, volcanoes and huge canyons. Some of the mountains here in the ocean are taller than the tallest mountains up on land. The canyons are much bigger than the Grand Canyon.





























Tell the children that the animals that live down here are strange looking. Because it is so dark, many of the fish have glow-in-the-dark spots on them. Say: Look, there is a school of lantern fish. And those spots of light over there are flashlight fish. In the deep ocean where we are walking, there are also swallower fish with big, big jaws and teeth that can swallow fish bigger than they are. They can't swallow anything as big as a person, so you don't have to worry about them. Tell the children that just ahead is an angler fish. The angler fish has a small glow-in-the-dark tassel near its mouth. It shakes the tassel to make small fish curious about it. Then when the small fish swim over to see what it is, the angler fish gobbles them up. That way it doesn't have to go hunting for meals in the dark.

Tell the children that it is time to head back up to the surface. Ask them to push the buttons on their rocket backpacks and jet to the surface with you. When you get back to the beach, have them remove their diving suits, hang them up and return to their seats. Ask: What did we see at the bottom of the ocean? (tall mountains, volcanoes, deep canyons, a flat plain, BCP DRAFT SCI 62

First Grade - Science - Lesson 37 - Oceans

glow-in-the-dark fish) Write the answers on the board. Was it dark and cold down there? Why? (because the sunlight could not reach down that far)

Tell the children that now they are going to try to find the answer to another "why" question--Why are there waves in the ocean? Give each group of four children a pie tin or shallow dish and four drinking straws. Pour enough water into each pie tin to cover the bottom. Tell the children to take turns holding their straws near the surface of the water and blowing first gently and then hard. Ask: What happens to the surface of the water? (It ripples. The water is pushed to the other side of the pan.) Ask: What do you think pushes the water? (The air from the straw.) Tell the children when they blow on the water, it is like the wind blowing on the ocean. The wind pushes the water and makes waves. When the wind blows harder, the waves are bigger.

Sprinkle a small amount of baby powder on the water in each pie pan. Have the children take turns gently blowing on the water without using the straws. Tell them the powder will help them see how the water is moving. Ask: Which way is the water moving? (in circles) Tell the children that as wind blows across the top of the ocean, it moves the water in circular patterns called currents. Write the word on the board. Currents can carry warm water to colder parts of

the ocean. Write Gulf Stream on the board. Tell the children a current called the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic Ocean swirls up the coast of the United States. Show them on the world map the path the Gulf Stream takes up the coast. Tell them the Gulf Stream is a current that carries warm water. The warm water from the Gulf Stream warms up our climate here in Maryland and all the way up the coast.

Tell the children that they have seen how water can be pushed by wind, but there is another way to move water--it can be pulled. Say: Can you think how water could be pulled? (Accept all answers.) Tell the children that, believe it or not, it is the moon that pulls water in the ocean. Draw a circle on the board for the moon and another larger circle next to it for the Earth. Tell the children that as the Earth spins, the moon's gravity tugs on the Earth's oceans. Twice a day, there are high tides when the water is pulled higher up the beach. Then as the Earth spins away from the moon, there are low tides twice a day. Ask: If you made a sand castle in the wet sand at the beach when the tide was low, what would happen to the castle later in the day? (The high tide would come up and waves would sweep the castle away.)

Collect the pie pans and straws. Tell the children that you are going to read them a poem about some fishermen who were after a special kind of fish that lived deep, deep in the ocean where they were hiking today. Read the following poem.

 

The Fish With the Deep Sea Smile

They fished and they fished

Way down in the sea,

Down in the sea a mile.

They fished among all the fish in the sea,

For the fish with the deep sea smile.

One fish came up from the deep of the sea,

From down in the sea a mile,

It had blue-green eyes

And whiskers three

But never a deep sea smile.

BCP DRAFT SCI 63

First Grade - Science - Lesson 37 - Oceans

They fished and they fished

Way down in the sea,

Down in the sea a mile.

They fished among all the fish in the sea,

For the fish with the deep sea smile.

One fish came up with terrible teeth,

One fish with long strong jaws,

One fish came up with long stalked eyes,

One fish with terrible claws.

They fished all through the ocean deep,

For many and many a mile,

And they caught a fish with a laughing eye,

But none with a deep sea smile.

And then one day they got a pull,

From down in the sea a mile.

And when they pulled the fish into the boat,

HE SMILED A DEEP SEA SMILE.

And as he smiled, the hook got free,

And then, what a deep sea smile!

He flipped his tail and swam away,

Down in the sea a mile.

Margaret Wise Brown

from A Cup of Starshine, Poems and Pictures

for Young Children



Possible Homework

Tell the children that next time they will be learning about plants and animals that live in the ocean. Ask them to be thinking about their favorite ocean animal. Perhaps they can cut out pictures of their favorite ocean animals from magazines and bring them in to use for a bulletin board.

BCP DRAFT SCI 64

First Grade - Science - Lesson 38 - Oceans

Adapted from Project Wild Activity Guide, page 274.

Objectives

Identify and create cut-out pictures of some marine animals.

Describe ways people's actions can endanger ocean animals.

Materials

Clear plastic bag

Plastic ring holder for six-pack beverage cans

Half cup of vegetable oil mixed with a little red food coloring

Large clear bowl of water

Mural paper, colored construction paper, scissors, paste

Suggested Books

Chermayeff, Ivan. Fishy Facts. New York: Harcourt, 1994. Bold, simple cut-paper illustrations feature various fish and a line or two about the habits of each. The picture of the hammerhead shark is sure to be popular. Chermayeff's style may inspire children to create their own fish pictures using construction paper and paste.

Curran, Eileen. Life in the Sea. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1985. A very simple text accompanies large illustrations of individual sea creatures: "Away goes a squid."

Doubilet, Anne. Under the Sea from A to Z. New York: Crown, 1991. Large color photos of ocean inhabitants from anemones to zebrafish.

Fowler, Allan. The Best Way to See a Shark (Rookie Read-About Science series). Chicago: Childrens Press, 1995.

Fowler, Allan. The Biggest Animal Ever (Rookie Read-About Science series). Chicago: Childrens Press, 1992. Features the blue whale and information about other types of whales.

Gales, G. My First Visit to the Aquarium. New York: Barrons Juvenile, 1990.

Gibbons, Gail. Whales. New York: Holiday House, 1991. This popular author/illustrator's books on sea animals are excellent.

Gibbons, Gail. Sea Turtles. New York: Holiday House, 1995.

Gibbons, Gail. Sharks. New York: Holiday House, 1992. Great illustrations of various species of sharks.

Lauber, Patricia. An Octopus is Amazing (Let's-Read-And-Find-Out series). New York: Crowell, 1990.

Ling, Mary. Amazing Fish (Eyewitness Juniors series). New York: Knopf, 1991.

Milton, Joyce. Whales, The Gentle Giants (Step-Into-Reading series). New York: Random House, 1989. A suitable read aloud with excellent information on all sorts of whales.

Miller, Sarah ed. Sea Life. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1992. While the pages are rather busy, the photos of sea animals are outstanding. There are full-page spreads on sharks, sea turtles, octopuses, crabs and whales among others.

Pallotta, Jerry. Underwater Alphabet Book. New York: Charlesbridge, 1991. Describes fish and other creatures that call a coral reef habitat home.

Teacher Resource

Western Regional Environmental Education Council. Project Wild Activity Guide. Bethesda, MD: Project Wild, 1992.

BCP DRAFT SCI 65

First Grade - Science - Lesson 38 - Oceans

Procedure

Remind the children that last time they took a hike to the bottom of the ocean and saw the tallest mountains and the deepest canyons on Earth. Tell them that the biggest animal in the whole world lives in the ocean. Ask: What do you think is the name of that animal? (whale) Tell the children that there are many different kinds of whales but the biggest is the Blue Whale. It is so big that it is bigger than an elephant, bigger than the biggest dinosaur that ever lived, bigger than six school busses parked bumper-to-bumper. Its heart is the size of a car. The Blue Whale is a big eater, too. It can eat four tons of small shrimp every day.

Remind the children that they saw some animals smaller than the Blue Whale on their hike. Ask: What are some other animals besides whales that live in the ocean? Brainstorm with the class and make a list on the board (shark, dolphin, sea turtle, jellyfish, tuna, electric eel, stingray, octopus, crab, seal, starfish, sea horse, shrimp, etc.) Tell the children that you'd like to play a riddle game about animals that live in the ocean. Read the children the following clues and see if they can guess what ocean animal you are describing. When they have guessed, show them a picture of the animal from one of the books suggested above.

Riddle me, riddle me under the sea,

Can you guess what my name might be?

I have big jaws full of sharp, pointy teeth.

There's a triangle fin on my back.

People are afraid of me. They think I will bite them.

But I only bite people by accident.

(shark)

Riddle me, riddle me under the sea,

Can you guess what my name might be?

I float in the sea

I don't have any bones.

I catch my food with my stinging tentacles.

My name sounds like it goes with peanut butter.

(jellyfish)

Riddle me, riddle me under the sea,

Can you guess what my name might be?

I have a shell and claws to pinch.

I walk sideways on four pairs of legs.

My eyes are on the ends of stalks.

(crab)

Riddle me, riddle me under the sea,

Can you guess what my name might be?

I have eight arms and a soft body.

Suction cups on my arms help me grab starfish and crabs to eat.

If a shark is chasing me, I can shoot out a cloud of ink and make my getaway.

(octopus)

BCP DRAFT SCI 66

First Grade - Science - Lesson 38 - Oceans

Riddle me, riddle me under the sea,

Can you guess what my name might be?

I have a shell that protects my body.

I have no teeth, but I can crush crabs with my beak. I also like to eat jellyfish.

I use my flippers to push myself through the water.

I live in the ocean, but I crawl up onto land to lay my eggs in the sand.

(sea turtle)

Share pictures of some other sea animals with the children. Tell the children that there are also very, very tiny plants and animals that float in the ocean. Make a tiny dot on the board. Tell the children that these plants and animals are much smaller than the dot. They are so small that you need a microscope to see them. These plants and animals are called plankton. Write the word on the board and ask the children to repeat the word with you. Tell the children that sea water has lots and lots of plankton floating in it. Plankton is an important food for animals that live in the ocean.

Tell the children that people, of course, don't live in the ocean. We live on the land. Sometimes without thinking, people do things that hurt the ocean and the animals in it. People throw garbage into the ocean because they aren't thinking about the animals that live there. The garbage pollutes the water where the fish, whales and dolphins swim.

Show the children the plastic bag and drink rings. Ask the children to identify them. Put the bag in the water. Tell the children that floating plastic bags can look like jellyfish to sea turtles. When the sea turtle tries to eat the bag, it blocks up the turtle's stomach and the turtle starves to death. Tell the children that baby seals and sea birds get the drink rings stuck around their necks and cannot live. Demonstrate this with your hand. Tell the children that fishing boats lose nets and line in the water and animals get tangled in them and can't get out. Ask: What do you think people can do to protect ocean animals? (Don't throw trash into the ocean. Recycle plastic waste.)

Tell the children that another way people hurt ocean animals is by spilling things into the ocean. Sometimes big tanker ships carrying oil have accidents and lots of oil spills into the ocean. Pour the vegetable oil into the bowl of water. Tell the children that oil spreads out over the top of water like a blanket and blocks the sunlight. The animals get coated with the oil. The oil washes up on beaches and makes an oily mess that hurts birds, fish, shellfish and crabs. Ship designers are trying to design ships with super-strong hulls and tanks so the oil will not spill out.

Unroll the mural paper. Tell the children that the class is going to make a giant ocean picture. They are going to create all sorts of animals to live in this giant ocean picture. Distribute construction paper, scissors and paste. If they have not already seen them, show the children the cut-paper illustrations in Fishy Facts. Review the list of ocean animals on the board and tell the children to make creatures to fill the ocean picture.

 

Possible Field Trips

National Aquarium in Baltimore. The Aquarium has an electric eel, whale skeleton, dolphins, sea turtle, manta rays, jellyfish and "glow-in-the-dark" deep sea fish.

Local tropical fish store or fish market. Many supermarkets have tanks with live lobsters.

BCP DRAFT SCI 67

First Grade - Science - Lesson 39 - Food chains

Adapted from Who Eats What? Food Chains and Food Webs, page 24.

Objectives

Describe a food chain in the ocean.

Explain the importance of plants (plankton) in ocean food chains.

Create a model of a food chain in a meadow.

Materials

Ball of yarn or string

Seven paper clips

Eaters and eaten pictures (attached)

Eight name tags (sentence strip tags with yarn for hanging around a child's neck). Tags are titled buttercup plant, caterpillar, frog, snake, hawk and three tags titled clean-up crew

Suggested Books

Bender, Robert. A Most Unusual Lunch. New York: Dial, 1994. This funny story about a food chain from beetle to lion, although fantastical, shows what happens if you become what you eat.

Lauber, Patricia. Who Eats What? Food Chains and Food Webs (Let's-Read-And-Find-Out series). New York: HarperCollins, 1995. The second half of this book concerns food chains in the ocean. The illustration of the plankton to barracuda food chain is very good.

Teacher Resources

Anderson, Margaret. Food Chains, the Unending Cycle. Hillside, NJ: Enslow, 1991. Excellent information on food chains in the sea and the effects of overfishing and oil spills.

Procedure

Tell the children that today they are going to build something called a food chain. A food chain isn't a chain made out of food. A food chain helps us see how animals are connected to one another by what they eat.

Stretch out the string or yarn and secure the two end points. Say: Let's start our food chain with a girl who is eating a tuna sandwich. (Paperclip the picture of the girl to the string.) The tunafish in her sandwich came from the ocean. The tuna is a big fish. (Paperclip the tuna next to the girl.) What does a tuna eat? A tuna eats smaller fish like mackerel. (Paperclip the smaller mackerel fish next to the tuna) But what does a mackerel eat? It eats little herring fish. (Paperclip the herring next to the mackerel.) What do herring fish eat? They eat tiny shrimp. (Paperclip the copepods next to the herring.) What do the shrimp eat? They eat the tiny, tiny plants that float on the ocean. Ask: What is the name for these little plants too small to see? (plankton) Since they are too tiny to see, this is a picture of what they look like through the microscope. (Paperclip the phytoplankton next to the shrimp or copepods.) What do you think plankton eats?

Tell the children that the tiny plants use energy from the sun and nutrients from the water to make their own food. Making food from sunlight energy is something only plants can do. Animals cannot make food from sunlight. Animals and people have to eat plants or other animals BCP DRAFT SCI 68

First Grade - Science - Lesson 39 - Food chains

to get energy. So the girl at the end of the food chain eating her tuna sandwich needs all of these

animals and plants to feed the tuna fish. They are all part of this food chain.

Remove the pictures from the string except the plankton and shrimp. Say: Sometimes a

food chain is short. Ask: Do you remember what a blue whale eats every day? (tons of shrimp) Paperclip the whale on the string. Tell the children that this food chain is just the blue whale that eats the shrimp that eat the plankton. Remove the pictures of the whale and the shrimp. Tell the children that all the food chains in the ocean start with plankton. Ask: What do you think would happen if there was no plankton? (There would be no source of food and no life in the ocean.)

Say: Let's make a food chain of our own starting with a pretty flower in a meadow. Ask a student to come up and be a buttercup plant growing by a little pond. Have the child wear the buttercup plant name tag. Have him or her hold the ball of string. Tell the children that munching on the buttercup leaves is a yellow caterpillar. Have a child come up to be the caterpillar and wear a caterpillar name tag. Ask buttercup to hold the end of the string and hand the ball to caterpillar. Tell the children that sitting on a lily pad in the pond is a bright green frog. The frog spots the caterpillar and out shoots its sticky tongue. It gobbles up the caterpillar in one gulp. Have a frog come up, wear a frog name tag and hold the string ball. Tell the children that slithering through the grass is a snake. When the frog hops to the edge of the pond, the snake grabs the frog and eats him. Have another child come up to be snake, wear a snake name tag and hold the ball of string. The snake curls up in a warm, sunny spot. Perched in a tree is a sharp-eyed hawk. It sees the snake sunning itself. So it flies down and pounces on the snake with its sharp talons and then eats it. Have a hawk come up, wear a hawk name tag and hold the string ball. Say: The hawk is very old and soon it dies. Its body is on the ground covered with insects and tiny animals. We'll call these animals clean-up crew because they break down and recycle the dead body. Ask several children to come up, label them clean-up crew, and have them hold the string.

Tell the children that they have made a food chain. They are connected to each other by what they eat: buttercup to caterpillar to frog to snake to hawk to clean up crew. Have the food chain take a bow before the children go to their seats.

Tell the children you are going to read them a funny make-believe story about a food chain. Read A Most Unusual Lunch to the class. Using the board, make the food chain reflected in the story with the class. When you have finished the story, ask: If we really changed into what we ate, what would the girl who ate the tuna sandwich turn into? How about a boy who ate chicken noodle soup? Have the children create pictures of the girl or boy.

 

BCP DRAFT SCI 76

First Grade - Science - Lesson 40 - Food Chains

Objectives

Explain role of plants as food makers.

Brainstorm names of some plants that people eat.

Illustrate movement of energy from the sun through the food chain.

Materials

Potted plant, watering can

Bean bag

Strips of paper (3 1/2" wide x 11" long), crayons

Suggested Books

Geraghty, Paul. Over the Steamy Swamp. New York: Harcourt, 1989. The food chain is illustrated when a mosquito is chased by a dragonfly that is chased by a frog and so on through the steamy swamp.

Gibbons, Gail. From Seed to Plant. New York: Holiday House, 1991.

Relf, Patricia and B. Degen. The Magic School Bus Gets Eaten, A Book About Food Chains. New York: Scholastic, 1996. Ms. Frizzle's student is swallowed by a tuna and learns about the food chain.

Procedure

Remind the children that last time they made a food chain in a meadow starting with a buttercup plant. They also learned about food chains in the ocean that start with plankton, tiny ocean plants. Tell the children that plants are at the beginning of food chains.

Show the children the potted plant. Ask: What does a green plant like this one need to grow? Write the answers on the board (sunlight, water, soil). Tell the children that you planted the plant in soil, water it almost every day, and keep it in a sunny place. The plant breathes through tiny holes in its leaves so it needs air, too. Ask: How do you think the plant eats? (Accept all answers.) Tell the children that under the soil the plant has roots that suck up water and nutrition from the soil. Show the children how you water the plant around its roots. Tell them that if the plant was outside, the rain would fall on it, run down its leaves and stem to the roots under the soil.

Tell the children that plants can do something special, something animals cannot do. They can use the sunshine, water, air and soil to make their own food. Plants capture the energy from the sun and change it into food. Polar bears, people, grasshoppers, boa constrictors, pigeons, goldfish, rabbits, germs--all the creatures on Earth--have to eat food to get energy. Green plants can make food from the sun's energy, from sunshine. When we eat plants, we are getting the sun's energy. When we eat, we get energy to grow and run and jump and sing and read and draw pictures and many other things.

Have the children sit in a circle. Take out the bean bag. Tell the children that the bean bag is a packet of energy and they are going to pass the energy around the circle. Have the children pass the bean bag. Tell them they are to stop passing it when you say red light. Ask the child holding the bean bag when you say red light to name a plant that people eat. Write it on the board. Continue the passing game, stopping periodically to ask the holding child for the name of BCP DRAFT SCI 77

First Grade - Science - Lesson 40 - Food Chains

another plant people eat until you have a list of them on the board. Read the list to the class.

Tell the children that when we eat a plant, it makes a short food chain. Draw an apple on the board with an arrow to a stick figure person. Say: The sun's energy passes from the plant to the person, just one pass of an energy packet. Let's see if we can make a longer food chain.

Have a child come up and hold the bean bag. Tell the children that this child is the sun. Have the child pick another child to come up. Tell the children that this child is grass. Have the sun pass the bean bag "energy packet" to grass. Say: Now grass has the sun's energy packet. Have grass choose another child to come up. Tell the children that this child is cow. Ask grass to pass on the energy packet to cow. Tell the children that cow has eaten the grass and now has the sun's energy packet. Have cow choose a child to come up. Tell the children that this child is a first grader called Milk Drinker. Tell the children that cow gives milk and Milk Drinker drinks a tall glass of the milk. Have cow pass on the energy packet to Milk Drinker. Tell the children that now Milk Drinker has the energy packet that started with the sun. Count with the children the number of passes (links) in the food chain. Tell the children that Milk Drinker is at the top of the food chain. Nobody is going to eat him...unless a big dinosaur comes along...a Milk Drinker-eating dinosaur. Then the dinosaur would be the top of the food chain.

Have the children create food chain bookmarks on the strips of paper. Remind them that food chains begin with plants. Tell them they may include crocodiles, dinosaurs, sea monsters, dogs, cats, monkeys, sharks, or any other real or imagined animal. Strips can be taped or pasted together to make especially long food chains.

Additional Activity

Objective

Observe a plant as it grows from seed to seedling.

Explain what a plant needs to make its own food.

Materials

Peat pots, potting soil, plant tray

Seeds

Plastic spoons

Plant sprayer

Newspaper

Procedure

Ask: What are the four things a plant needs to grow? (sunlight, water, soil, air) Show the children the packets of seeds and the pictures of the plants on the fronts of the packets. Tell them that this is what the seeds will become if they get the things they need. Point out that two of those four things are already in the classroom: air and sunlight. Tell the children that they will be giving the seeds the other two things: soil and water.

Spread newspaper over the desks. Divide the class into groups of four and give each group a container of potting soil. Give each child a peat pot, spoon, and a few seeds to plant. Ask them to fill the peat pots with soil until they are more than half full. Lay the seeds on top of the BCP DRAFT SCI 78

First Grade - Science - Lesson 40 - Oceans/Food Chains

soil and sprinkle a spoonful or two of soil on top. Don't press the soil on top. Let the children take turns spraying the soil in their peat pots with the sprayer until damp. Collect the pots on the

plant tray and place in a sunny place. Display the seed packets next to the pots. Arrange for volunteers to spray the plants with the sprayer at least once a day. Clip together several pieces of paper as a plant journal, a page per week. Have volunteer plant watchers note progress of the plants with words or illustrations. When the seeds begin to sprout and show the first pair of leaves, tell the children that now the plants are making food. They are capturing the sunshine in their leaves. They are using the sunlight, water, soil and air to make food.

Possible Field Trip

Visit a grocery store to see how many different plants people eat. Don't forget popcorn, jelly, spinach, onions and sugar.

Suggested Books for Unit

Read Alouds

*Bender, Robert. A Most Unusual Lunch. New York: Dial, 1994.

*Chermayeff, Ivan. Fishy Facts. New York: Harcourt, 1994.

Cole, Joanna. The Magic School Bus on the Ocean Floor. New York: Scholastic, 1992.

Dorros, Arthur. Follow the Water from Brook to Ocean (Let's-Read-And-Find-Out-Science series). New York: Harpercrest, 1991.

Geraghty, Paul. Over the Steamy Swamp. New York: Harcourt, 1989.

Gibbons, Gail. From Seed to Plant. New York: Holiday House, 1991.

Gibbons, Gail. Whales. New York: Holiday House, 1991.

Gibbons, Gail. Sea Turtles. New York: Holiday House, 1995.

Gibbons, Gail. Sharks. New York: Holiday House, 1992.

Kesselman, Wendy. Sand in My Shoes. New York: Hyperion, 1995.

Lauber, Patricia. An Octopus is Amazing (Let's-Read-And-Find-Out series). New York: Crowell, 1990.

Lauber, Patricia. Who Eats What? Food Chains and Food Webs (Let's-Read-And-Find-Out series). New York: HarperCollins, 1995.

Milton, Joyce. Whales, The Gentle Giants (Step-Into-Reading series). New York: Random House, 1989.

Rotner, Shelly and K. Kreisler. Ocean Day. New York: Macmillan, 1993.

Reference

Curran, Eileen. Life in the Sea. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates, 1985.

Doubilet, Anne. Under the Sea from A to Z. New York: Crown, 1991.

Fowler, Allan. The Best Way to See a Shark (Rookie Read-About Science series). Chicago: Childrens Press, 1995.

Fowler, Allan. The Biggest Animal Ever (Rookie Read-About Science series). Chicago: Childrens Press, 1992.

Fowler, Allan. The Earth Is Mostly Ocean. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1995.

Gales, G. My First Visit to the Aquarium. New York: Barrons Juvenile, 1990.

BCP DRAFT SCI 79

First Grade - Science - Lesson 40 - Oceans/Food Chains

Ling, Mary. Amazing Fish (Eyewitness Juniors series). New York: Knopf, 1991.

Miller, Sarah, ed. Sea Life. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1992.

Pallotta, Jerry. Underwater Alphabet Book. New York: Charlesbridge, 1991.

Relf, Patricia and B. Degen. The Magic School Bus Gets Eaten, A Book About Food Chains. New York: Scholastic, 1996.

Rothaus, Don. Oceans. Seattle: The Child's World, 1997.

Simon, Seymour. Oceans. New York: Morrow, 1990.

Williams, Brian. Under the Sea (Random House All-About series). New York: Random House, 1989.

Teacher Resources

Anderson, Margaret. Food Chains, the Unending Cycle. Hillside, NJ: Enslow, 1991.

Bennett, Jill. A Cup of Starshine, Poems and Pictures for Young Children. New York: Harcourt, 1991.

Potter, Jean. Nature in a Nutshell for Kids. New York: John Wiley, 1995.

Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. Project Wild Aquatic Education Activity Guide. Bethesda, MD: Project Wild, 1987.

Western Regional Environmental Education Council. Project Wild Activity Guide. Bethesda, MD: Project Wild, 1992.











































* Strongly recommended or required for lessons