BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 55b

First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - February Overview

February lessons continue the study, started in January, of the American Revolution. Children will understand how the war concludes and be introduced to famous patriots who served America during that time period.

American symbols are also introduced this month.



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First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 26

Objectives

Review and recall the Boston Tea Party, Paul Revere, Redcoats and Minutemen, Thomas Jefferson and the Declaration of Independence.

Define a patriot as one who defends his country.

Identify Benjamin Franklin as a patriot, inventor and writer.

Materials

Select one of the books listed below to read aloud

A classroom size U.S. and world map

Franklin Sayings paper (attached)

Supplies needed to conduct experiments are listed with each experiment.

Suggested Titles

Read Alouds

Aliki, The Many Lives of Benjamin Franklin. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988.

This is an informative and entertaining introduction to Franklin's life and many achievements. It is excellent for reading aloud. The book contains many of Aliki's drawings with dialogue in very small print. Make sure the children can get a close look at the pictures as you read.

D'Aulaire, Ingri and Edgar. Benjamin Franklin. Garden City: Doubleday, 1950.

This book contains large, colorful illustrations. It is suitable for reading aloud.

Greene, Carol. Benjamin Franklin: A Man With Many Jobs. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1988.

A brief, clear biography, this book presents highlights of the many accomplishments of Franklin's life. It is appropriate for reading aloud to young children.

Teacher Reference

The Ben Franklin Book of Easy and Incredible Experiments. Edited by Lisa Jo Rudy. A Franklin Institute Science Museum Book. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1995.

This book contains many easy to replicate experiments. It also contains numerous facts and anecdotes about Ben Franklin, the inventor.

Procedure

Review with the children the lessons covered in January regarding the American Revolution. The teacher should conduct a question and answer type discussion where the following points are firmed up:

The Boston Tea Party was an event staged by the colonists to show their anger over the tax on tea.

Paul Revere warned the colonists of the British attack through his famous midnight ride. The term Redcoat refers to the English soldiers, and Minutemen were the colonists who were ready to fight at a minute's notice.

Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence, which was a document declaring the colonies free from English rule.

Say: We are going to continue our lessons on the American Revolution. There were many famous people who helped the colonies win their independence from England. We have learned BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 57

First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 26

about Paul Revere and Thomas Jefferson. Today we are going to learn about Benjamin Franklin.

Say: Thomas Jefferson, Paul Revere, and Benjamin Franklin all have something in

common. These men are all called patriots. A patriot is a person who defends his country.

At the time of the American Revolution there were many people living in the colonies who were not sure that the colonists should be fighting for our independence from England. They thought the colonies should stay loyal to the English king and continue to follow the English rules and laws. These people who remained loyal to the King were called Loyalists. They did not fight against the English soldiers. Thomas Jefferson, Paul Revere, and Benjamin Franklin were just the opposite of these

people. They believed that the colonists should defend the new country of America. They believed that America should set up a new form of government with new rules and laws. They were called patriots, people who defend their country. The word defends means to protect from danger. Patriots were willing to protect America from any kind of danger.

Say: Benjamin Franklin was a very famous patriot. He was a man of many talents.

Read one of the books about Ben Franklin listed above.

Following the reading of the book, children should understand that Franklin contributed many things to his country. His role in the American Revolution should be emphasized. If the book you read did not cover that aspect of Franklin's life, the following information should be shared with the children.

Franklin was sent to England to represent the colony of Pennsylvania. (Locate Pennsylvania and England on the map.) He lived in England for 16 years. He tried to make the lawmakers in England understand what the people in the thirteen colonies wanted. When he realized that England was not going to grant the colonies their independence he returned to America.

Franklin helped with the writing of the Declaration of Independence by making some changes in Jefferson's original version. He traveled to France to ask the French government for help in fighting the English. (Locate France on the map.) He spoke to the king and queen of France. They agreed to help America and sent help in fighting the English.

Franklin helped write the agreement that ended the American Revolution. He signed the peace treaty that ended the war between America and England in Paris, France. He returned to America and continued to serve his country in many ways.

Franklin helped write the Constitution of the United States. He urged the end of slavery. He wanted to help free the slaves, but he was nearing the end of his life.

He died in his home in Philadelphia at the age of 84.

Suggested Follow-Up Activities

Discuss Poor Richard's Almanac. Tell the children Franklin wrote a book that told about farming, weather and holidays. Franklin included sayings to put in the book. Children may enjoy completing the attached paper decoding some of Franklin's sayings. Be sure to discuss the sayings with the children as they are decoded. You may wish to review sayings and phrases previously covered, many of which are credited to Ben Franklin.

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First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 26

Name_________________________________________

FRANKLIN SAYINGS

Many sayings appeared in Benjamin Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanac. Follow the code and complete some of these famous sayings.

CODE

A C D E F G H I K L N O P R S T U W Y
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19




1. Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man _ _ _ _ _ _ _ [7 4 1 10 16 7 19], _ _ _ _ _ _ _ [18 4 1 10 16 7 19] and _ _ _ _ [18 8 15 4]



2. If at first you don't _ _ _ _ _ _ _[15 17 2 2 4 4 3] , try, try _ _ _ _ _ [ 1 6 1 8 11].





3. Better _ _ _ _ [15 1 5 4] than _ _ _ _ _ [15 12 14 14 19].



4. An _ _ _ _ _ [1 13 13 10 4] a day keeps the _ _ _ _ _ _ [3 12 2 16 12 14] away.







5. You can _ _ _ _ [10 4 1 3] a _ _ _ _ _ [7 12 14 15 4] to _ _ _ _ _ [18 1 16 4 14 ], but you can't make him _ _ _ _ _ [ 3 14 8 11 9].

Bonus: Turn this paper over and draw a picture of one of these famous Ben Franklin sayings!

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First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 26

The following experiments are from the book The Ben Franklin Book of Easy & Incredible Experiments, A Franklin Institute Science Museum Book, Edited by Lisa Jo Rudy (John Wiley and Sons Publisher, 1995).

Discovering Electricity

Electricity is everywhere. With the children, brainstorm a list of the ways electricity is used in the classroom and at home.

In 1752, scientists in Europe and America were fascinated by electricity. They knew it as a strange power that could create painful shocks, move objects, and make sparks fly out of a person's fingers. Ben Franklin was very interested in electricity. His famous kite-and-key experiment gained him world recognition. He proved that lightning and electricity are the same thing. Franklin's discovery led to many inventions, the first of which was the lightning rod, a long metal pole that attracts lightning away from houses and leads it into the ground. Further discoveries about electricity led to the invention of the battery, the electric motor, and the alternating electrical current used everywhere today.

When Franklin conducted his experiments, he did not work with electrical wires, power stations, or transformers. He worked with static electricity.

Allow the children to experiment with static electricity. Prior to the experiments talk with the children about the dangers of electric current. Review safety rules about electricity such as never putting an object into an outlet, keeping water and electric appliances away from each other, etc.

Tell the children how Franklin only worked with static electricity. Explain Static Electricity as electricity that is not moving through a wire.

The following experiments are intended as teacher demonstrations:

An Electroscope

An electroscope is an instrument that can help detect electricity.

Materials

Scissors, ruler

A piece of corrugated cardboard GRAPHIC

A paper clip

Aluminum foil

A plastic comb, a balloon, piece of wool cloth (such as a mitten)

Procedure

1. Cut a piece of corrugated cardboard into a 1 x 4" rectangle.

2. Bend a paper clip into the shape of a fishhook. This will be your "electrode."

3. Cut the aluminum foil into a x 4" strip.

4. Poke the straight end of the hook (paper clip) through the inside layer of the cardboard.

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First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 26

5. Gently fold the aluminum strip in half, and hang it over the hook.

6. To test your electroscope:

a. Rub the comb and balloon with the piece of wool cloth for about 60 seconds each.

b. Hold the electroscope by the cardboard, and bring it close to the comb. Then, bring it close to the balloon. Watch what happens to the foil.

c. Touch the comb, and then bring the electroscope close to it. Observe what happens. Now touch the balloon and bring the electroscope close to it. Observe.

 

Note: When you brought the electroscope toward the charged comb and balloon the ends of the foil moved apart. By touching the charged comb and balloon, the static electricity will transfer to your body. The electroscope will no longer be affected by the comb or balloon.

 

Children will further enjoy static electricity by rubbing an inflated balloon against a carpet or hair. The balloon will stick to the wall or pull the hair up and out.

Moths in Motion

Further exploration of static electricity

Materials GRAPHIC

Scissors

Tissue paper

A small clear box with a plastic lid

Wool cloth

Procedure

1. Cut out several small moth shapes from the tissue paper. Decorate with markers if you wish.

2. Place the moths in the clear box, and place the plastic lid on top.

3. With the wool cloth, rub the top of the box in one direction. Observe what happens.

Results: When you rubbed the wool cloth against the plastic lid, an electric charge built up on the lid. The moths inside the box became oppositely charged, and so were attracted to the lid. When the charge on the lid became great enough, the moths were actually pulled up to the lid, and appeared to be jumping. Eventually, the charge will leak away, and the moths will fall back into the box.

You may wish to conduct further experiments listed in the book. They are quite easy to replicate.

Concluding the experiments, again caution children to the dangers of electricity. Conclude how Franklin experimented with electricity much the same way as you did today, by observing static electricity.

 

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First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 27

Objectives

Review the term patriot.

Identify Deborah Sampson and Phillis Wheatley as famous women of the American Revolution.

Materials

Puppet and clothes patterns (attached)

Craft stick (one per student)

Construction paper (variety of colors)

Crayons or markers

Wallpaper samples (optional)

Suggested Titles

Read Alouds

Clyne, Patricia Edwards. Patriots in Petticoats. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1976.

This book is a collection of biographies about many famous women patriots. It does not contain any pictures. The short section on Deborah Sampson is factual and entertaining. It is appropriate to use as a read-aloud.

Greene, Carol. Phillis Wheatley: First African-American Poet. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1995.

This Rookie Biography, written in big print with simple language and many pictures, is an excellent read-aloud introduction to Phillis Wheatley.

McGovern, Ann. The Secret Soldier: The Story of Deborah Sampson. New York: Scholastic, 1990.

This brief biography of Deborah Sampson is a compelling story. It is well written and appropriate for reading aloud.

Stevens, Bryna. Deborah Sampson Goes to War. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda, 1991.

This story, with black-and-white pictures, is written in big print for about a second grade reading level. It is a good read-aloud for first grade.

Procedure

Review with the children the term patriot. Children should be firm that a patriot is a person who protects and defends his or her country. Ask: Who can name some famous patriots of the American Revolution? (Ben Franklin, Paul Revere, Thomas Jefferson)

Say: Today we are going to learn about two famous people from the American Revolution. One of them was a brave patriot who defended the colonies and believed strongly in America. The other famous person from the American Revolution is remembered for another reason. Both the famous people we are going to learn about were women. There were many brave women who served their country during the American Revolution. The two we are going to learn about today are Deborah Sampson and Phillis Wheatley (print the names on the chalkboard).

Say: This is the story of Phillis Wheatley. Listen carefully and see why she is remembered.

Phillis Wheatley was born in Africa. When she was 7 or 8 years old she was stolen from her family and brought to Boston. She was sold as a slave to a man named John BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 62

First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 27

Wheatley. Because she could not speak English and they could not speak her native language, they were unable to ask her what her name was. They named her Phillis and gave her their last name, Wheatley.

Even though Phillis suffered, she was luckier than most slaves because her owners taught her to read and write and encouraged her to study and learn many things. She began writing poems when she was 14 years old and had her first book of poetry published when she was only 20 years old. One of her poems was about General George Washington.

Teacher Note: Phillis Wheatley's poetry is quite difficult to explain to children. The closing lines of her poem about Washington follow. You may wish to read the verse to your class or you may choose to skip this poem and continue the lesson following the verse.

"Proceed, great chief, with virtue on thy side,

Thy every action let the goddess guide.

A crown, a mansion, and a throne that shine,

With gold unfading, Washington! be thine."

After she sent the poem to Washington, he wrote back and thanked her for it. He invited her to visit him, which she did.

Shortly after that the Wheatleys gave Phillis her freedom. She later married and had several children. She died when she was 31 years old. She became the first African American poet to be widely recognized for her work.

Discuss with the children that Phillis Wheatley is remembered today as a great poet. She wrote poems about political and moral issues.

Read the book Phillis Wheatley: First African-American Poet by Carol Greene if you have access to it.

Say: The other famous American woman we are going to learn about today is Deborah Sampson. Deborah Sampson was a white woman who loved her country very much and wanted to do whatever she could to defend it and make it free from English rule. Deborah Sampson was a great patriot. Listen carefully to her story. (If you have access to one of the titles listed above, read a book about Sampson's life. If you do not have access to one of the books, share the following information with the children.)

Deborah Sampson was born in 1760. Her father died in a storm at sea. Because Mrs. Sampson could not take care of Deborah and her five brothers and sisters, the family was split apart and the children were sent to live with relatives.

Deborah went to live with the Benjamin Thomas family. She plowed fields, milked cows, fed the farm animals, and made her own clothes. But she also got to go to school. Not many girls were sent to school during that time period. Deborah was lucky. She learned how to read and soon she was reading all the newspapers. She was reading about taxes and the colonists' unfair treatment by the English. Deborah learned that many colonists were angry with the English king, they called themselves patriots. Deborah agreed with them. She thought of herself as a patriot, too.

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Soon the American Revolution began. Deborah read about the Minutemen defending America. She wanted to fight, too. But she was only 14 years old and she was a girl. Only men and boys were allowed to join the army.

Seven years later Deborah was 21 and the war was still going on. Deborah had grown tall and strong. She wanted to help fight for America's freedom. She sewed herself a man's suit and tied her hair back the way men did. Then she walked 35 miles to Massachusetts where she joined the army disguised as a man!

No one in Massachusetts knew Deborah, she told them her name was Robert Shurtleff. Everyone thought she was a young man. The soldiers took baths in the Hudson River in the evening. Deborah always took her baths late at night. No one found out that she was a woman.

Deborah fought hard and bravely. During one of the battles a bullet hit Deborah's head, two went into her leg. She begged not to be taken to the hospital because she didn't want her secret to be found out. But another soldier put her on his horse and took her to the hospital.

The doctor bandaged her head. He asked if she had any other wounds. Deborah told him no. She left the hospital before she was completely well so know one would find out she was a woman.

During the winter Deborah's shoes wore out. She didn't have enough money to buy a new pair. Soon she became ill. Once more she was taken to a hospital. This time Deborah was so sick she slept for days. The doctors thought she was dead. Deborah tried to groan, a nurse heard her and ran for help. When the doctor examined her, he figured out she was not a man, but really a woman! The doctor did not tell her secret. He helped her get well.

Deborah went back to her group to continue fighting, but she was called to the general's office instead. The doctor wrote a letter telling them that Robert Shurtleef was really a woman. Deborah Sampson was honorably discharged from the army.

She soon married a man named Benjamin Gannett. They had several children. Deborah earned money by giving speeches about her Revolutionary War experiences. She was the first woman lecturer in the United States.

Deborah received $95.00 in army back pay and Paul Revere helped her get a pension of $8.00 a month because she was wounded.

Deborah Sampson died in 1827 and was buried in Massachusetts. The back of her tombstone reads, Deborah Sampson Gannett, Robert Shurtleff, The Female Soldier. Service 1781-1783.

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First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 27

Suggested Follow-Up Activity

Assist children in creating a Deborah Sampson/Robert Shurtleff puppet.

Directions

1. Provide several puppet and clothes patterns for the children to trace.

2. Tell the children to trace the puppet pattern on light-colored construction or drawing paper.

3. Instruct the children to dress the puppet as a woman. (Wallpaper samples may be used to make the dress and shirt.)

4. Tell the children to turn the puppet over, and on the other side, dress the puppet as a Revolutionary War soldier. (Brown pants, blue shirt)





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First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 27

Puppet Pattern



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BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 64b

First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 27

Clothes Patterns

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BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 64c

First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 27

Duplicate the following two information sheets (one set per student). They will be cut out and glued to the top of the craft stick and attached to the puppet's hand.

The information sheets are repeated here to cut down on your duplication expense.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -









I am Deborah Sampson. I wanted to fight for America's independence. Women weren't allowed to fight. I did something so I could help my country.













I dressed myself up as a man and used the name Robert Shurtleff. I joined the army and fought in the war. One day I had a high fever, and the doctor discovered I was a woman. I could no longer fight.


I am Deborah Sampson. I wanted to fight for America's independence. Women weren't allowed to fight. I did something so I could help my country.













I dressed myself up as a man and used the name Robert Shurtleff. I joined the army and fought in the war. One day I had a high fever, and the doctor discovered I was a woman. I could no longer fight.
















BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 64d

First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 27

Sample puppet

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First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 28

Objectives

Recognize the contributions of General George Washington to the American Revolution.

Discuss the events that led to the conclusion of the American Revolution.

Materials

Select one of the books listed below to read aloud

A classroom size U.S. map

Suggested Titles

Adler, David. A Picture Book of George Washington. New York: Holiday House, 1989.

This biography depicts the life of George Washington from his childhood to his presidency. It is appropriate for reading aloud.

Adler, David. George Washington: Father of Our Country. New York: Holiday House, 1988.

This is an excellent biography of the first President of the United States. It is an appropriate read-aloud for young children.

Chalk, Gary. Yankee Doodle: A Revolutionary Tail. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1993.

This book traces the origin of the famous song Yankee Doodle. Wonderful animal illustrations reveal Revolutionary War dress and period details. This is a delightful book to share as a conclusion to the study of the American Revolution.

D'Aulaire, Ingri and Edgar. George Washington. Garden City: Doubleday, 1936.

This pictorial biography includes full-page illustrations that highlight the life of George Washington. It is a nice read-aloud book.

Fritz, Jean. George Washington's Breakfast. New York: Putnam, 1969.

Although not a biography, this book is fun to read aloud. A young boy named George Washington Allen goes to the library, the Smithsonian, and Mount Vernon to find out what his namesake ate for breakfast.

Giblin, James Cross. George Washington: A Picture Book Biography. New York: Scholastic, 1992.

Beautifully illustrated, this book discusses many of the myths concerning George Washington.

Greene, Carol. George Washington: First President of the United States. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1991.

This Rookie Biography highlights the life of George Washington from his childhood, his work as a surveyor and a soldier. It touches upon Washington's leadership during the Revolution, then goes on to tell some interesting details about his life as president and after. Some strong first-grade readers may be able to read the book independently; otherwise, it can be read aloud.

Roop, Peter and Connie. Buttons for General Washington. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda, 1986.

This book is based on a true incident. It tells the story of a fourteen-year-old boy who carries secret messages to George Washington in his coat buttons. The book contains both color and black-and-white illustrations. It is in large print and could be read independently by some strong first-grade readers. This is a good read-aloud book.

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Procedure

Say: Today we are going to learn how the American Revolution ended. Ask: Who remembers why the colonists were fighting the English? (to gain independence from English rule) Ask: Can you guess who won the fight? Think about how a president is elected by the people of America, instead of having a king as our ruler, and you can figure out who won the American Revolution.

Say: The colonists needed a leader to help them fight the English. They thought of a man who had already proven himself as a leader in another war called the French and Indian War.

That man was General George Washington. They asked General Washington to lead the American army against the English. That was a huge job. Washington had to get food and clothes for his soldiers, he had to train them how to fight. But Washington shaped the Americans into a fine army.

The American Army won an important battle at Trenton, New Jersey (locate on the map). The news of this victory was a thrilling event. Thousands of Americans volunteered to fight and joined General Washington's American Army.

Another important battle took place in Saratoga, New York (locate on the map). The American Army again defeated the English in this battle. Remember how Ben Franklin asked for help from the French? After the battle at Saratoga, the French joined the fight against the English.

Hard times were ahead, however. That winter, General Washington led his troops to their winter camp at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania (locate on the map). The troops ran out of supplies. They didn't have blankets, coats or shoes. At first they lived in tents in the snow. When they got food, it was often rotten. Many soldiers died that winter from sickness, and some of them just quit and went home.

But the army did not break up completely. The main reason it didn't was General Washington. The troops knew he cared about them and suffered with them. Washington's belief in the colonists' quest for freedom made men proud to stay with him and continue the fight.

There were many other battles. The colonists won some and the English won some. The last great battle of the war was fought in Yorktown, Virginia (locate on the map). Under the leadership of George Washington, 17,000 French and American troops attacked the English. The English general surrendered. The war was over. America was a free country. George Washington went home to his wife and family.

Read aloud one of the titles listed above.

Washington as first President of the United States will be discussed in the following lesson.









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First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 28

Suggested Follow-Up Activities

Tell your students the story of Washington and the cherry tree.

Say: There is a legend about George Washington as a boy. We are not sure if it is a true story, but it shows how honest everyone believed Washington to be.

Ask: What does it mean to be honest? (Allow children to respond.)

Say: Honesty is truthfulness and being honorable in actions, thoughts, and words. Being honest is very important. People respect and trust you to make important decisions when they think you to be an honest person. Honesty was a great characteristic of George Washington. It helped him to become the leader of the American Army.

Following is the story as taken from What Your First Grader Needs to Know.

Young George Washington was given a new hatchet. He tried it out by cutting down one of his father's favorite cherry trees! Naturally his father was angry. He asked George: "Who cut down the tree?"

George knew he could be punished. There were other people he could have tried to blame it on. But he said: "Father, I cannot tell a lie. I cut down your cherry tree with my new hatchet."

Discuss the story with the children. Point out that it may have been easier for George to lie rather than face the anger of his father. Give children a chance to talk about honesty in their own lives.

You may wish to review previously read stories such as Pinocchio. Discuss how honesty played a part in this story.











































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First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 28

Honesty Badges

Duplicate this sheet of badges. Distribute one to each student. Tell the children to color and sign the badge. Instruct the children to cut the badge out. Assist them in pinning it on. The children should wear the badge for the day. At the end of the day, you may wish to tape the badge to the children's desks as a constant reminder of their pledge to be an honest person like George Washington.



Graphic

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First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 29

Objectives

Recognize that George Washington is known as the Father of our Country.

Identify George Washington as the first president of the United States.

Identify Martha Washington as the wife of George Washington.

Materials

A classroom size U.S. map

Tagboard patterns of Washington (pattern attached)

One sheet each of red, white and blue construction paper for each child

One sheet of handwriting paper for each child

Scissors, crayons

Suggested Titles

Anderson, LaVere. Martha Washington: First Lady of the Land. New York: Chelsea House, 1991.

This biography is part of the Discovery Biography Series. It may be read aloud to first graders.

Thomas, Jane Ann. Happy Birthday Mr. President! New York: Nystrom, 1991.

Martha Washington tells her two grandchildren about their grandfather while they are waiting to celebrate his birthday. This is a delightful book to read aloud.

Wagoner, Jean Brown. Martha Washington: America's First Lady. New York: Macmillan, 1986.

This biography is part of the "Childhood of Famous Americans" series. It may be read independently by a strong first-grader reader. It is appropriate to read aloud.

Procedure

Say: After the American Revolution, the thirteen colonies became an independent country called the United States of America. The leaders of the new United States had a very important job to do. They had to decide what the government of our country would be like.

Ask: Do you think they wanted a King to rule their new country? Why not? (Allow children to recall information regarding the unfair rule of the English king and how the war was fought to win freedom from such rule.)

Say: The leaders of the United States wanted to be sure the government was fair. They met to plan the new government and to decide on its laws.

Ask: Whom do you think the leaders of the United States were? (Ben Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington)

Say: These men met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. (Call on a student to locate Philadelphia on the map.) They decided to write down the plan for how our new country should be run. They called the document The Constitution. It contains all the most important laws for our country. It says that the people of America should decide who the leaders should be. It says that the people should choose the leaders of each of the states. It also says Americans should choose one person as leader of the country. This person should be called the president. The president should make sure all the laws in our country are carried out. The people in our country elect the president by voting for the person they want as leader.

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Say: Once the plan was written down, it was time to elect the first president of the United States. George Washington, the man who led the American Army and proved his trustworthiness as a leader, was elected as the first president of the United States. Because Washington helped start our country, and since he was our country's first president, George Washington is called The Father of Our Country.

Read one of the books under Suggested Titles that introduces Martha Washington and her role as first lady of the United States.

Read the following poem about Washington.

The Father of His Country

The Father of His Country

Was once a lad like me.

He played and wrestled on the green

And swung from leafy tree.

But when his country called him

He put aside his play.

I hope that I, like Washington,

May serve my land some day!

Donovan Marshall

Suggested Follow-Up Activity

Children will make a George Washington Booklet.

Directions

1. Make several tagboard patterns of George Washington's profile (attached).

2. Distribute the red, white, and blue construction paper and the handwriting paper (lined paper may be substituted).

3. Instruct children to trace and cut out the Washington pattern from each of the pieces of paper (including the handwriting paper).

4. On the lined paper, have children write a sentence or two about something they have learned about Washington.

5. Children should illustrate their words by drawing a picture on the white profile.

6. Staple the lined and illustrated profiles between the blue and red profiles.

7. Children may print George Washington on the front cover of the booklet.

8. Encourage children to take their booklets home and share what they have learned with someone at home.

BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 69a

First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 29

George Washington Profile Pattern





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First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 30

Objectives

Identify Washington, D.C., as the capital of our country.

Explain why our country's capital is named for George Washington.

Identify Bill Clinton as our current U.S. President.

Materials

A classroom size U.S. map

A picture of Bill Clinton (obtained from a magazine or newspaper)

Suggested Titles

Ferris, Jeri. What Are You Figuring Now?: A Story About Benjamin Banneker. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda, 1988.

This is a wonderful biography of Benjamin Banneker who, besides being a mathematician and astronomer, was the surveyor for the new capital city of the United States. It is a chapter book that would require several sessions to complete if read aloud.

Krementz, Jill. A Visit to Washington, D.C. New York: Scholastic, 1987.

Good for reading aloud, this book features a six-year-old boy who introduces the sights of Washington, D.C. to the reader.

Lumley, Katherine. District of Columbia: In Words & Pictures. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1981.

The simple text and pictures of famous sites in Washington, including the White House, make this book an excellent choice for reading aloud.

McMullan, Kate. The Story of Bill Clinton and Al Gore, Our Nation's Leaders. New York: Dell, 1993.

Although too complicated to read aloud, this book contains many photographs of the current president and vice-president.

Munro, Roxie. The Inside-Outside Book of Washington, D.C. New York: Dutton, 1987.

Detailed drawings portray many famous buildings of Washington, D.C. from in and outside. This is a nice book to share with the children.

Provensen, Alice. The Buck Stops Here. New York: HarperCollins, 1990.

This book is filled with details that tell the history of the Presidents of the United States in humorous, rhymed text. The illustrations help relate the presidents to their accomplishments.

Sullivan, George. How the White House Really Works. New York: Scholastic, 1989.

This book is full of photographs of life inside the White House. It is too complex a book to read aloud, however, children will enjoy the photographs and small pieces of the information contained in the book.

Waters, Kate. The Story of the White House. New York: Scholastic, 1991.

This book is a colorful photo essay about the White House and its history. It is suitable for reading aloud.







BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 71

First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 30

Procedure

Say: We have learned that the United States won its freedom from the English by fighting the American Revolution.

We know that George Washington was one of the many brave people who helped us win our independence. Washington was then elected as our first president. When he began his service as president, the capital of our country was located in New York City (Challenge a student to locate New York City on the map).

Ask: Do you know what we mean when we say the capital of our country? (Allow children to speculate. Explain that the capital of our country is the place where the leaders of our country meet to discuss important topics.)

Say: Washington was elected President twice. He probably could have been elected as many times as he wished, for he was the most popular man in the United States. But, Washington decided that two terms was enough and he returned to his home at Mount Vernon.

Say: A term is the length of time one serves as president. One term lasts for four years. Ask: If Washington was elected to two terms, can you figure out how many years Washington was our president? (Guide children to conclude they must add 4 + 4 in order to solve the question.)

After Washington's first year as President, the nation's capital moved from New York City to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Challenge a student to locate Philadelphia on the map). At that time it was decided to build a new capital city for the nation. But the question on everyone's mind was where. Where should our new capital be built?

Ask: Do you know where the people decided to build our capital? (Allow children to make guesses.)

When the leaders of our country met in Philadelphia to write the plan for our new government, they included in that document that a special place should be chosen as the capital of the United States. But the document did not say where the capital

should be built. For the next few years, the people in different parts of the country

argued over where the capital should be.

The people of New York wanted New York City to be chosen as the nation's capital. It had already been the capital once. But the people of Maryland thought Baltimore should be chosen; New York was too far north (point this concern out on the map).

The people of Philadelphia thought their city should be the capital, because the city had been capital for ten years and the Declaration of Independence was signed there. Finally, land was offered by Virginia and Maryland. The two states thought this land would be a good place for the capital because it was halfway between the North and the South (emphasize this on the map).

It was called the District of Columbia. Later it became known as Washington, D.C.

Ask: Can you figure out what D.C. stands for?

Ask: Why do you think it was named Washington? (after George Washington, our first president) Locate Washington, D.C. on the map, discuss its close proximity to Baltimore. Allow children who have visited the capital to share their impressions.

BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 72

First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 30

The job of designing the new capital city was given to a Frenchman named Pierre L'Enfant (pee AIR lahn FAHN). Before L'Enfant completed his planning of the city, he argued with other planners, and left. He returned to France and took his plans for the new city with him.

Benjamin Banneker, an African American, had helped L'Enfant. He was now put in charge of carrying out L'Enfant's plan. Banneker was able to remember all the plans. Work on the capital soon began with the help of Benjamin Banneker.

It was nine years before buildings in Washington, D.C. were ready. In 1800 the government moved again, this time from Philadelphia to its new, permanent home, Washington, D.C. The first president to live in Washington, D.C. was not George Washington. It was our country's second president, John Adams.

Every American President since John Adams has lived in Washington, D.C. in a special house built just for the president and their family.

Ask: Do you know what the name of the president's house is called?

Say: The President's home is called the White House. It is in Washington, D.C. The White House has 132 rooms. Visitors may tour some of the first-floor rooms. The second floor is home for the president and his family. The White House has many special rooms. It even has a private bowling alley, movie theater, and swimming pool!

Ask: Do you know who lives in the White House today?

Say: Bill Clinton is the President of the United States. In November, the grownups of the United States voted to keep Mr. Clinton as our President. This is his second time to be voted as President.

Ask: If this is Mr. Clinton's second term as president, how many years will he serve as our country's president?

(Show the picture of Bill Clinton that you have obtained from a magazine or newspaper.) If you have access to The Story of Bill Clinton and Al Gore, Our Nation's Leaders by Kate McMullan, you may wish to share it at this time.

Allow time for the children to discuss where they have seen pictures of Mr. Clinton and Mr. Gore.

Read one of the books listed under Suggested Titles about the White House.



























BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 73

First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 30

Suggested Follow-Up Activities

1. Read the book What Are You Figuring Now?: A Story About Benjamin Banneker by Jeri Ferris. If you do not have access to the book, you may wish to paraphrase the information below.

Teacher Information

Benjamin Banneker was born in Ellicott, Maryland. He was a mathematician and astronomer with an extraordinary talent for technological diagraming. When he was only 28 years old, he constructed the first clock made in the colonies. He also published a greatly respected weather almanac. George Washington appointed Banneker to a select team of six to plan the new country's capital. Pierre L'Enfant kept the blueprints for Washington, D.C., after his dismissal, but Benjamin Banneker, in a remarkable feat of memory, reproduced the plans exactly.

2. Explain to the children that they have been learning about many people who made great contributions to our country. Review Thomas Jefferson, Paul Revere, Ben Franklin, Deborah Sampson, George Washington, and Benjamin Banneker.

Tell the children that because of their special work, these people have become famous. Say: Many people do things to make our country better, but not everyone becomes famous.

Ask: What are ways in which people can help to make our country great? (Allow children to speculate. Assist with responses such as: Following the rules and laws of our country help keep our country great. Giving food and clothing to people who are needy is a great contribution to our country, and so on.)

Ask: Can you be a special American? What can you do to help make our country great?

Read the following poem to the children:

Just Like You

 

The famous men and women

Who helped our country grow Weren't always great and famous Those long, long years ago.

George Washington and Betsy Ross,

Ben Franklin, Paul Revere,

All started out as babies

And grew a bit each year.

They started out as children, Just boys and girls like you

Who worked and played and laughed and sang

And cried a little, too.

And learned their lessons when they could

And said their prayers at night.

They never knew we'd call them great

And keep their memories bright

They never knew someday they'd be

Famous names in history.

Margaret Hillert

 







BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 74

First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 31

Objectives

Review that symbols represent things.

Recognize the Liberty Bell as a symbol of freedom.

Construct a Liberty Bell.

Materials

Liberty Bell patterns (attached)

One piece of construction paper (any color) 8 x 12 (one per student)

Gray construction paper (8 x 8) one per student

Brown construction paper (5 x 8) one per student

Black construction paper (2 x 3) one per student

Liberty Bell information sheet (attached)

Suggested Title

Miller, Natalie. The Story of the Liberty Bell. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1965.

This book traces the history of why and how the Liberty Bell was created. It is suitable for reading aloud.

Procedure

Ask: Do you remember what a symbol is? (World Religion Lesson 18)

Review the symbols discussed in World Religion Lessons 18 and 20 (Star of David, church, synagogue, temple, crosses, crescent and a star, etc.)

Say: Remember a symbol stands for something. It represents a real thing or a feeling.

(If you have school symbols [school mascot, school flag, school colors] discuss those items and how they are symbols of your school.)

Say: Symbols are used to represent many things. There are some special symbols which stand for our country.

Ask: Can you guess any of the symbols used to represent the United States?

Say: We will be learning about the American Flag, the bald eagle, and the Liberty Bell. They are all important symbols used to represent America.

Say: The first symbol we are going to learn about is the Liberty Bell. The Liberty Bell is a symbol of freedom.

Ask: Do you remember how America won its freedom? (America won its freedom by fighting the English in the American Revolution.) Firm up that America's freedom was fought for and won during this war.

Say: The Liberty Bell is located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The bell was rung on July 8, 1776. The Liberty Bell rang out the news of freedom. Because there were no televisions or radios or telephones at that time, the bell told the people of Philadelphia to gather together to hear the reading of the Declaration of Independence.

Ask: Do you remember what the Declaration of Independence said? (It declared America's freedom from English rule.)

Say: After the American Revolution was won, the Liberty Bell was rung on special occasions. Almost sixty years later, it cracked. The Liberty Bell remains a symbol of our country BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 75

First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 31

and of our freedom. You can see the Liberty Bell if you go to Philadelphia. (Allow anyone who

has seen the Liberty Bell to discuss their experience.)

If you have access to the book listed above, read it at this time.

Suggested Follow-Up Activity

Assist children in creating a paper replica of the Liberty Bell.

Directions

1. Make several tagboard patterns of the Liberty Bell.

2. Distribute the construction paper.

3. Tell the children to trace and cut out the bell shape on the gray construction paper.

4. Instruct the children to trace and cut out the bell support beam on the brown construction paper.

5. Tell the children to trace and cut out the bell clapper on the black construction paper.

6. The children will glue the brown beam on the top of the 8 x 12 construction paper.

7. Then they will glue the gray bell under the support beam. Tell them to draw on the crack in the bell with a black crayon.

8. Instruct the children to glue the black clapper under the bell.

9. Duplicate the Liberty Bell information sheet for each child (attached). Read the information

on the sheet to the children.

10.Tell the children to glue the facts about the bell's size and weight onto the brown support beam. (Explain that 2,080 pounds is about the same weight as a full-grown elephant. Measure 5' 3" on the floor with a yardstick so the children can appreciate the size of the Liberty Bell.)

11. Finally, tell the children to glue the story of the Liberty Bell under the black clapper (the sheet will hang below the background paper).

12. Encourage children to take the completed picture home and share the information about the Liberty Bell with a family member.









BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 75a

First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 31

Liberty Bell Patterns







Graphic













































































BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 75b

First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 31

Duplicate the following Liberty Bell information sheet for each student.

The Liberty Bell weighs 2,080 pounds.

The Liberty Bell is 5 feet 3 inches tall.



Liberty Bell

The Liberty Bell has been a symbol of freedom in the United States for more than 200 years. It rang loudly at the first reading of the Declaration of Independence. The Liberty Bell was rung every July 4th after the American Revolution until it cracked in 1835. It has not been rung since.

Today the Liberty Bell can be seen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.



sample of the completed project

Graphic

BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 76

First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 32

Objectives

Review that a symbol is a representation of a real thing.

Recognize the American Flag and the bald eagle as symbols of America.

Gain familiarity with the meaning of the Pledge of Allegiance.

Materials

A picture of a bald eagle (obtain from a book, an encyclopedia, etc.)

Classroom American Flag

Suggested Titles

Mayer, Albert I. The Story of Old Glory. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1970.

This book tells the history of the American flag as it developed from the Union Jack into a totally different symbol of a new nation. It is appropriate to read aloud.

Radlauer, Ruth Shaw. Honor the Flag: A Guide to Its Care and Display. Lake Forest, IL: Forest House Publishing, 1992.

Suitable for reading aloud, this book explains in simple terms how to care for the American flag.

Swanson, June. I Pledge Allegiance. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda, 1990.

This book describes how and why the Pledge of Allegiance was written, how it has changed in wording over the years, and precisely what it means. This is an excellent read-aloud book.

Wallner, Ruth Shaw. Betsy Ross. New York: Holiday House, 1994.

This picture book represents Betsy Ross as an active, enterprising person. The illustrations are quite good. It is suitable for reading aloud.

Teacher Information

Betsy Ross was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1752. Her maiden name was Griscom, and she was the mother of seven daughters. She was an excellent seamstress, upholsterer, and the official flag maker for the Pennsylvania State Navy. American legend tells us that three members of the Continental Congress - George Washington, Robert Morris, and George Ross - visited her in June 1776 and asked her to make the first American Flag. No records mention Betsy Ross's role in making the flag. It was not until a century later that her grandson, William Canby, related the tale.

The Pledge of Allegiance was first recited by public school children on October 12, 1892, during celebrations commemorating the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America. Its author was Francis Bellamy, an editor of a popular magazine for young people titled, Youth's Companion. In 1942, Congress wrote the Pledge into the official flag code; in 1954, the Pledge was amended to include the phrase "under God."

Procedure

Ask: Do you remember what a symbol is? (A symbol represents something real.)

Ask: The Liberty Bell is a famous American symbol. What does it represent? (America's freedom)

BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 77

First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 32

Say: Today we are going to learn about two more symbols that represent America. The American Flag and the bald eagle are both American symbols.

Say: The bald eagle was chosen to be a symbol of the United States because it is thought of as a strong, noble bird. It was designated as our national bird in 1782. The word "bald" doesn't mean the bird is lacking feathers. It means "marked with white." The bald eagle has white head feathers. (Show a picture of a bald eagle. Draw attention to its size and strength.)

Ask: Do you think the bald eagle is a good choice for a national bird? (It is a good choice because it represents America as a strong, noble country.)

Ask: Have you ever seen the eagle used as a symbol? Where are some of the places that you have seen the eagle used as a symbol? (on coins, on buildings, at the top of the flag pole)

Teacher Note: The children may be amused to know that Ben Franklin wanted the turkey as America's national bird.

Say: When our country was new, it had no flag. When the first flag was made, it became the first symbol of our country. It is said that a woman named Betsy Ross was asked by George Washington and other leaders of our country to make our country's first flag. Because there were no sewing machines at that time, Betsy Ross sewed the flag by hand with a needle and thread.

Point to or display the American Flag displayed in your classroom.

Say: The first American Flag looked very much like our flag today. It had red and white

stripes like the flag today has, and it had a blue square with white stars in it.

Say: The first flag of our country had thirteen stars in a circle, instead of fifty stars in a row. The thirteen stars stood for the first thirteen states in our country. As our country grew and more states were added, more stars were added to the flag.

Ask: If our flag has fifty stars, how many states are in our country?

Say: Every day the American Flag is displayed. It reminds us of the people, the land, the government, and the ideals of the United States. People are showing their pride in our nation when they fly the flag.

Ask: Can you name places where you have seen the American Flag? (school, government buildings, homes, parades, offices) How does it make you feel to see the American Flag?

Say: American citizens show their respect for the flag by holding their right hands over their hearts and saying the Pledge of Allegiance.

Say: The Pledge of Allegiance is a promise to be true to our country. Some of the words are a bit confusing. Listen carefully and I will help you understand the meaning of the Pledge of Allegiance.

Recite the pledge, stopping to define the italicized words.

I pledge (a solemn promise) allegiance (loyalty to our country) to the flag

of the United States of America and to the republic for which it stands,

one nation under God, indivisible (something that cannot be taken apart)

with liberty (freedom) and justice (fairness) for all.

Say: The flag Betsy Ross may have made was officially accepted by George Washington and other leaders on June 14, 1777. People display the flag on June 14 to remember the day that it was officially accepted as our first national symbol. June 14 is Flag Day in America, a day for all Americans' to display the flag and show pride in America.

BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 78

First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 32

Read the following poem:

Our Flag

How bright our flag

against the sky

atop its flagpole

straight and high!

 

How bright the red,

the white, the blue,

with what they stand for

shining through,

More meaningful

As years go by . . .

How bright, how bright,

the flag we fly.

Aileen Fisher

You may wish to discuss flag etiquette. Honor the Flag: A Guide to Its Care and Display by Ruth Radlauer is an excellent source.

Read any of the other books listed under Suggested Titles.

Suggested Follow-Up Activity

You may wish to have your children create some of the American flags from history. Copycat Magazine, May/June 1996, has a nice section titled "Flag Fever" that you may wish to consult.

Play some patriotic songs while the children are creating flags. Good choices include: "The Star-Spangled Banner," "America," "This Land is Your Land" and "You're a Grand Old Flag." Wee Sing America: Songs of Patriots and Pioneers (Price, Stern, Sloan, 1988) contains the standard patriotic songs plus some poetry readings that would make an excellent culmination for this unit.



BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 79

First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - The American Revolution

Bibliography

Suggested Read Aloud Titles

*Adler, David. A Picture Book of George Washington. New York: Holiday House, 1989.

*Adler, David. George Washington: Father of Our Country. New York: Holiday House, 1988.

*Anderson, LaVere. Martha Washington: First Lady of the Land. New York: Chelsea House, 1991.

*Aliki, The Many Lives of Benjamin Franklin. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988.

Baylor, Margaret. Ben Franklin: Amazing American. New York: Dell, 1988.

*Chalk, Gary. Yankee Doodle: A Revolutionary Tail. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1993.

*Clyne, Patricia Edwards. Patriots in Petticoats. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1976.

*D'Aulaire, Ingri and Edgar. Benjamin Franklin. Garden City: Doubleday, 1950.

*Fritz, Jean. George Washington's Breakfast. New York: Putnam, 1969.

*Giblin, James Cross. George Washington: A Picture Book Biography. New York: Scholastic, 1992.

Graves, Charles. Benjamin Franklin: Man of Ideas. New York: Chelsea House, 1993.

*Greene, Carol. Benjamin Franklin: A Man With Many Jobs. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1988.

*Greene, Carol. Phillis Wheatley: First African-American Poet. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1995.

*Greene, Carol. George Washington: First President of the United States. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1991.

*Krementz, Jill. A Visit to Washington, D.C. New York: Scholastic, 1987.

*Lumley, Katherine. District of Columbia: In Words & Pictures. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1981.

*Mayer, Albert I. The Story of Old Glory. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1970.

*McGovern, Ann. The Secret Soldier: The Story of Deborah Sampson. New York: Scholastic, 1990.

*Miller, Natalie. The Story of the Liberty Bell. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1965.

*Munro, Roxie. The Inside-Outside Book of Washington, D.C. New York: Dutton, 1987.

*Provensen, Alice. The Buck Stops Here. New York: HarperCollins, 1990.

*Radlauer, Ruth Shaw. Honor the Flag: A Guide to Its Care and Display. Lake Forest, IL: Forest House Publishing, 1992.

*Roop, Peter and Connie. Buttons for General Washington. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda, 1986.

*Stevens, Bryna. Deborah Sampson Goes to War. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda, 1991.

*Swanson, Ruth. I Pledge Allegiance. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda, 1990.

*Thomas, Jane Ann. Happy Birthday Mr. President! New York: Nystrom, 1991.

*Wagoner, Jean Brown. Martha Washington: America's First Lady. New York: Macmillan, 1986.

*Wallner, Ruth Shaw. Betsy Ross. New York: Holiday House, 1994.

*Waters, Kate. The Story of the White House. New York: Scholastic, 1991.



* indicates annotation in a lesson



BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 80

First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - The American Revolution

Bibliography

Suggested Reference Titles

*Ferris, Jeri. What Are You Figuring Now?: A Story About Benjamin Banneker. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda, 1988.

*McMullan, Kate. The Story of Bill Clinton and Al Gore, Our Nation's Leaders. New York: Dell, 1993.

*Sullivan, George. How the White House Really Works. New York: Scholastic, 1989.

*The Ben Franklin Book of Easy and Incredible Experiments. Edited by Lisa Jo Rudy. A Franklin Institute Science Museum Book. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1995.

Suggested Teacher Resources

Copycat Magazine, May/June 1996, "Flag Fever."

Heroines of the American Revolution: A Bellerophone Coloring Book by Jill Canon (Bellerophone Books, 1994) is an historical coloring book containing one-page biographies and ready-to-color drawings of more than twenty women who took part in the American Revolution. Bellerophone Activity Books produces many coloring books, as well as paper doll books, on a variety of American and World history topics. For a catalog and ordering information, send a long envelope with three first-class stamps to Bellerophone Books, 122 Helena Avenue, Santa Barbara, CA 93101.

Story of the American Revolution Coloring Book by Peter F. Copeland (Dover, 1988) is a coloring book of fairly intricate drawings representing scenes from the American Revolution. Dover offers a variety of activity books for children. Their coloring books have detailed line illustrations, sometimes a bit too detailed for very young children. For a catalog, write Dover Publications, 31 East Second Street, Mineola, NY 11501.



*indicates annotation in a lesson