BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 113

First Grade - World Civilization - Mexico - Overview

These lessons are an introduction to modern Mexico. The geography, culture, people and traditions are explored. A review of the Mayan and Aztec Cultures from October is also included. Students will learn more about Mexico, including the Mexican War, in grades three and five.

The Literature Lesson on Medio Pollito, the Visual Arts Lesson on Diego Rivera, and Music Lessons on La Cucaracha and Chipanecas should be taught in conjunction with these World Civilization Lessons in order to provide the children with an introduction--through story, drama, art, and music--to the people and culture of Mexico.

BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 114

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 42

Objectives

Recall the names and locations of the seven continents and four oceans.

Review the countries of North America.

Make a map of Mexico (label Yucatan Peninsula, Rio Grande, Gulf of Mexico, Pacific Ocean, Sierra Madre, and Mexico City).

Materials

A classroom size world map

A globe

A piece of light-blue construction paper (8 x 11) one per student

A piece of light-brown construction paper (8 x 10) one per student

Patterns of the shape of Mexico for tracing (attached)

A sheet of paper labels (attached) one per student

A black crayon or marker

One of the books listed below (or one of your choosing)

Suggested Titles

Jacobsen, Karen. Mexico. Chicago: Children's Press, 1982

This is an excellent book to share with the children as it introduces the land and people of Mexico. Simple text and colorful photographs make it suitable for reading aloud.

Kalman, Bobbie. Mexico: The Land. New York: Crabtree, 1993.

This book is too complicated to read in its entirety but excerpts may be read aloud. The photographs are excellent.

Lye, Keith. Take a Trip to Mexico. New York: Franklin Watts, 1982.

Mexico's geography, sights, and prominent places are described in this book full of colorful photographs.

Teacher Resource

Mailbox Magazine. Primary April/May 1996.

This issue contains several pages of information and ideas about Mexico.

Procedure

Draw attention to the map or globe. Ask students to recall the names of the continents and oceans by pointing to each and asking who can name it.

Point to North America on the world map. Review that North America is divided into several countries. Ask: Who can name the countries that make up the continent of North America? (Review Geography/Science Lesson 8--United States, Mexico and Canada.) Review that another part of the continent of North America is Central America. Assist the children in recalling that Central America is not a country, but an area located south of Mexico that is made up of many countries. (Point to and name some of the countries of Central America.)

Say: Today we are going to begin some lessons about our neighbors to the south. Look at the map again. Which country is south of the United States? (Mexico) Say: We are going to learn about the country of Mexico. Ask: What are some things you may already know about Mexico?



BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 115

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 42

(Allow children to share any prior knowledge they may have. Children may recall lessons about the Mayan culture and Aztec Civilization. These lessons will be reviewed in the next lesson.)

Say: Mexico is a country in North America. Mexico is shaped like a giant, curving horn. (Point out the shape of Mexico on the map.) At the wide end of the horn, Mexico shares a border with the United States. (Point out this border on the map.) Say: The Rio Grande River is located here. (Locate the Rio Grande on the map.) The river acts as the border between Texas and Mexico. At the narrow southern end of the horn, Mexico borders Central America. (Point out this border on the map.)

Say: Look carefully at the map. (Point to the Pacific Ocean.) Say: This ocean touches Mexico along its western coast. Ask: What is the name of this ocean? (Pacific Ocean) (Point to the Gulf of Mexico.) Say: This body of water touches Mexico along its eastern coast. This body of water is called the Gulf of Mexico.

Point to the Sierra Madres. Say: Two towering mountain ranges stretch along the coastlines of Mexico. These mountains are called the Eastern and Western Sierra Madres (see-ER-ah MAH-drayz) which means "mother mountains" in Spanish. Most Mexican people live between these two mountain ranges.

(Note for Teacher: These mountain ranges are actually known as Sierra Madre Oriental and Sierra Madre Occidental.)

Say: The capital of Mexico is Mexico City. (Locate Mexico City on the map. Review that a capital is a place where leaders of a country or state meet and work.) Ask: What is the capital of the United States? (Washington, D.C.) Mexico City is a very large city. More than 20 million people live in the city. Mexico City was built in the same place as the Aztecs' city Tenochtitlan (tuh nawch tee TLAHN). Over many years the beautiful capital of the Aztec Empire has changed into another great city. Mexico City has many interesting buildings, parks, and museums.

Draw attention to how the Eastern and Western Sierra Madres meet south of Mexico City to form a gigantic V. Say: Below this area lie the hot, humid lowlands of southern Mexico. Forests cover much of this area. The northern tip of this area that juts into the water like a thumb, is called the Yucatan (U-kah-tan) Peninsula. A peninsula is a piece of land that has water on three sides. (Note this on the map.) Look carefully at the map. Ask: Can you find another peninsula in Mexico? (The Baja California Peninsula)

Say: There are large desert areas in northern Mexico and volcanoes in the central regions of Mexico. A volcano is a mountain created by the flow of melted rock through an opening in the Earth's surface. (You may wish to draw a simple diagram of a volcano on the chalkboard.)

Say: Generally, the days are hot and nights are cool in Mexico. However, the weather changes in each of the different areas of Mexico. For example, it is usually hot along the coastlines, mild throughout the central regions, and cold along the mountain ranges.

Conclude the lesson by sharing a book about the geography, flora, and fauna of Mexico.

Assist the children in making a map of Mexico.

1. Distribute the brown construction paper to each student.

2. Provide the children with patterns of Mexico to trace onto the brown paper.



BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 116

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 42

3. Instruct the children to carefully trace and cut out the shape of Mexico on the brown paper.

4. Distribute the light-blue paper to the children.

5. Model how to glue the shape of Mexico onto the blue paper so it sits correctly.

6. Instruct the children to glue their shape of Mexico onto their blue paper.

7. Distribute a sheet of labels to each student. Read each label one at a time. Instruct the children to cut out only the label you direct them to. Model where to glue the label on the map. Assist the children in correctly gluing each label, one at a time, to their map.

8. Tell the children to use a black crayon or marker to draw on the mountain ranges, the Rio Grande, and Mexico City. Label the map "Mexico."

BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 117

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 42

Mexico (provide patterns for the students to trace)







BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 118

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 42



Labels for map of Mexico (duplicate one set of labels for each student)



Pacific Ocean Yucatan Peninsula
Rio Grande Eastern Sierra Madre
Mexico City Western Sierra Madre
Gulf of Mexico


Pacific Ocean Yucatan Peninsula
Rio Grande Eastern Sierra Madre
Mexico City Western Sierra Madre
Gulf of Mexico


Pacific Ocean Yucatan Peninsula
Rio Grande Eastern Sierra Madre
Mexico City Western Sierra Madre
Gulf of Mexico


Pacific Ocean Yucatan Peninsula
Rio Grande Eastern Sierra Madre
Mexico City Western Sierra Madre
Gulf of Mexico


BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 119

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 43

Objectives

Review Mayan culture and Aztec civilization.

Recognize September 16 as Mexico's Independence Day.

Discover the people of Mexico.

Materials

A classroom size world map

One of the books listed below

Suggested Titles

Read Aloud

Garza, Carmen Lomas. Family Pictures. Chicago: Children's Press, 1990.

The author recounts some of the memorable events from her life in a traditional Hispanic/American family. Beautifully illustrated. Each page contains both English and Spanish text.

Kalman, Bobbie. Mexico: The People. New York: Crabtree, 1993.

This book looks at the way of life of Mexican people, including family life, education, religion, city and village life, and work. Too complicated to read in its entirety but excerpts may be read aloud.

Moran, Tom. A Family in Mexico. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1987.

Describes the life of a Mexican family. Includes colorful photographs.

Mexican Folktales/Picture Books

Aardema, Verna. Borreguita and the Coyote: A Tale from Ayutla, Mexico. New York: Knopf, 1991.

The story of a little lamb and her dealings with a persistent coyote. Illustrations of rural Mexico are charming.

Balet, Jan. The Fence: A Mexican Tale. New York: Delacorte, 1969.

A delightful story about a poor family accused of stealing the smell of its rich neighbor's food.

dePaola, Tomie. The Lady of Guadalupe. New York: Holiday House, 1980.

Striking illustrations and poignant text tell the story of Mexico's patron saint.

Grossman, Patricia. Saturday Market. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard, 1994.

A lively book about the farmers and craftsmen who sell their wares at the Saturday market. Spanish vocabulary, explained in context, is included.

Kouzel, Daisy. The Cuckoo's Reward/El Premio del Cuco. Garden City: Doubleday, 1977.

The adaptation of a Mayan legend tells why the gray cuckoo lost its splendid feathers

and beautiful singing voice. Written in both English and Spanish.

Procedure

Review the location of Mexico on the map. Assist the children in recalling that Mexico is the country south of the United States and one of the countries of North America.

Review American Civilization Lessons 4 and 5 from October. These lessons were about the Mayan culture and the Aztec civilization. Ask the children to recall information covered in those lessons. Review that once the Mayan Indians had a large empire. They built beautiful stone temples to worship their gods. Later, the Aztec Indians became the most important tribe in

BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 120

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 43

Mexico. They ruled other tribes in southern Mexico. (Review--The capital city of the Aztec Empire, Tenochtitlan, is now the location of Mexico City.) The Aztecs owned gold and jewels. (Review American Civilization Lesson 8 and the arrival of Cortes and the fall of the Aztec Empire.) Be sure children are firm that Cortes was a Spanish conquistador.

Following the review, say: After the fall of the Aztec Empire, Mexico was a Spanish colony owned by the king of Spain. The king gave large pieces of land to Spanish soldiers. Many of Cortes's soldiers stayed in Mexico instead of traveling back to Spain. They married Indian women and had children. Spanish priests arrived and taught the Indians their religion. They took the stones of Aztec temples to build churches. The Spanish settlers brought plants, animals and tools to Mexico. They taught the Indians how to use the wheel, farm with a plow, and make things out of iron. The Indians taught the Spaniards how to use plants and foods that grew in Mexico.

Say: While the two groups of people mixed, the Spanish never treated the Indians as their equals. The Spanish controlled Mexico's land and money. Only Spanish children were sent to school. The Indians were forced to work for the Spanish for little or no pay. Ask: How do you think the Indians felt about this treatment? (Allow discussion)

Say: The Indians grew tired of this treatment. They became angry and decided to fight for their freedom from Spanish rule. The War of Independence lasted for eleven years. Finally, in 1821, Mexico won its freedom. September 16 is a national holiday for the people of Mexico. It is Independence Day, the date the Indians won their freedom from Spanish rule. (You may wish to review January American Civilization Lessons regarding America's fight for freedom from English rule and July 4 as America's Independence Day.)

Say: Today there are still Indians in the mountains and lowlands of Mexico who follow their traditional way of life. Many live in houses made from bamboo trees and palm leaves. The culture of Spain is also present in Mexico today. Most Mexicans speak Spanish and follow the Catholic religion brought over from Spain those many years ago. Many people live in cities and towns. They live in modern houses and apartment buildings, and dress the way people of the United States dress: T-shirts, jeans, skirts, pants and so on. Outside the cities of Mexico, some people live in houses made of wet clay and straw that hardens like cement. This sun-dried clay brick is called adobe (ah-DOH-bee). The people that live in these regions wear clothing to protect themselves from the hot sun. Ask: What are some ways they could dress to avoid the heat of the sun? (Allow discussion.) Say: Mexican men wear white cotton shirts and pants, they wear wide-brimmed hats called sombreros (som-BRARE-ohs). For warmth in the cool evenings, they might wear a wool blanket called a serape (sir-RAH-pee). Mexican women usually wear cotton skirts and blouses. Often their clothes are decorated with beautiful needlework. A long shawl, called a rebozo (rih-BO-zoh), can be used for warmth. The culture of Mexico today is a blend of both Indian and Spanish cultures.

Conclude the lesson by reading several of the books listed above.

Suggested Follow-Up Activity

See the Literature Lesson on Medito Pollito as a follow-up to this lesson.

BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 121

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 44

Objectives

Create a flag of Mexico.

Make a paper doll puppet dressed in traditional Mexican clothing.

Materials

A picture of the flag of Mexico (obtain from books listed in bibliography or encyclopedia)

A piece of white construction paper (12" x 18") one per student

A piece of green construction paper (12" x 6" ) one per student

A piece of red construction paper (12" x 6") one per student

An eagle symbol (attached) one per student

Glue

Pictures of Mexican people dressed in traditional clothing (obtain from books listed in the bibliography)

A piece of tagboard or heavy paper (8 x 11) one per student

Paper doll patterns (attached)

Construction paper (variety of colors)

Clothes patterns (attached)

Crayons or markers

Procedure

Review information covered in Lessons 42 and 43. Children will make a Mexican flag and puppets dressed in traditional Mexican clothing as a review of the first two lessons of this unit.

Teacher Information: The national symbol in the center of the Mexican flag can be traced to an Aztec legend. The Aztec people searched to find a homeland. They searched until they came upon an eagle with a snake in its mouth sitting on a cactus. They interpreted this to be a sign from the gods. They settled in this location and built the great city of Tenochtitlan where Mexico City now stands.

Mexican Flag

1. Show pictures of the Mexican flag obtained from books and encyclopedias.

2. Note the eagle emblem on the center strip of the flag. (You may wish to share some of the information listed above in Teacher Information.)

3. Review that the eagle is also a national symbol of the United States (American Civilization Lesson 32--a symbol represents something real. The eagle was chosen to be a symbol of the United States because it is thought of as a strong, noble bird. The eagle is used on American coins, on buildings, at the top of flag poles, etc.)

4. Distribute the white, red, and green construction paper.

5. Direct the children to turn the white paper horizontally. Instruct them to glue the red panel over the right third of the white paper and the green panel over the left third of the white paper, leaving the center third white. This will create the stripes of the Mexican flag.

6. Distribute the eagle emblem. Allow children an opportunity to color the emblem.

7. Instruct the children to cut the emblem out (follow the dotted lines) and glue the emblem onto the center of the white section of the flag.

BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 122

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 44

8. You may wish to have the children write Mexico across the bottom of their completed flag.

Puppets dressed in traditional clothing

Review Lesson 43 regarding the dress of people who live in rural areas of Mexico. (Men wear white cotton shirts and pants. They wear wide-brimmed hats called sombreros. For warmth in the cool evenings, they might wear a wool blanket called a serape. Mexican women wear cotton skirts and blouses decorated with beautiful needlework. A long shawl, called a rebozo can be used for warmth.) Show pictures of people dressed in traditional Mexican clothing.

1. Provide several puppet and clothes patterns for children to trace.

2. Direct the children to trace the puppet pattern on heavy paper or tagboard.

3. Children may dress the puppet as a Mexican man or Mexican woman. They should choose clothing patterns appropriate for their puppet.

4. Provide a variety of construction paper colors for the children to choose from in creating the clothes for their puppet. Children will trace the clothes patterns onto the construction paper.

5. Encourage the children to refer to the books showing pictures of traditional clothing to aid in the coloring and designing of the clothes. (Embroidered flowers and designs on skirts, etc.)

6. Instruct the children to glue the clothing onto their puppets.



















































BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 123

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 44

Eagle emblem for Mexican Flag. Duplicate one emblem for each student.



















































































BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 124

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 44

Puppet pattern



















































































BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 125

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 44

Clothes patterns (woman)













BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 126

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 44

Clothes Pattern (man)



BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 127

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 45

Objectives

Become familiar with a few Spanish words (gracias, señor, señora, señorita).

Discover some Mexican traditions (fiesta, piñata, siesta, Cinco de Mayo).

Materials

Small lunch-size brown bags (one per student)

Selection of construction paper (variety of sizes and colors)

Squares of tissue paper (3 x 3) any color (enough for each child to have a handful)

A bag or two of wrapped candies (enough for each child to have one or two handfuls)

Yarn

Glue, staples

A picture of a piñata (obtain from one of the books listed previously or suggested below)

Suggested Titles

Ancona, George. The Piñata Maker: El Piñatero. San Diego: Harcourt, 1994.

A bilingual, photographic look at a piñata maker in southern Mexico.

Behrens, June. Fiesta! Cinco De Mayo. Chicago: Children's Press, 1978.

Photographs and simple text describe the victory of the Mexican army over the French army on May 5, 1862. This book is suitable for reading aloud.

Emberley, Rebecca. My House/Mi Casa: A Book in Two Languages. Boston: Little, Brown, 1990.

Colorful captioned illustrations, in Spanish and English text, describe things found in a house.

Kalman, Bobbie. Mexico: The Culture. New York: Crabtree, 1993.

Colorful photographs, illustrations and text provide information about the culture of Mexico. Includes a hand-clap rhyme, recipes, and instructions on how to make a piñata.

MacKinnon, Debbie, My World of Spanish Words. New York: Barron, 1995.

Simple design and colorful photographs make this book an excellent source for Spanish words.

Procedure

Review information covered in Lessons 42 and 43. Read aloud one of the books listed in Lesson 43 if one is available.

Say: Today we are going to learn some of the special things about Mexico. Ask: Do you remember what country ruled Mexico after Cortes arrived and attacked the Aztec Indians? (Spain) Remember the Spanish brought their language and religion to the Indians. Many people in Mexico still speak the Spanish language. Today we are going to learn a few Spanish words.

Ask: What is the word we say when someone has given us something? (thank you). Say: Gracias (GRAH see es) is the Spanish word meaning "thank you." (Allow the children to say gracias a few times.) Create opportunities throughout the day for children to use the word gracias in place of "thank you."

Write "Mr." on the board. Allow a child to read the word. Ask: What does the word "Mr." mean? (referring to a man) Say: Señor (see NYOR) is the Spanish word for "Mr." (Write BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 128

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 45

señor on the board next to "Mr.") Allow the children to use the word señor in place of "Mr." to

name people within the classroom and school building.

Write "Mrs." on the board. Allow a child to read the word. Ask: What does the word "Mrs." mean? (referring to a married woman) Say: Señora (see NYOR ah) is the Spanish word for "Mrs." (Write señora on the board next to "Mrs.") Draw attention to how one letter changed "Mr." to "Mrs." and señor to señora. Allow children to use the word señora in place of "Mrs." to name people within the classroom and school building.

Write "Miss" on the board. Allow a child to read the word. Ask: What does the word "Miss" mean (referring to an unmarried woman) Say: Señorita (see NYOR ee tah) is the Spanish word for "Miss." (Write señorita on the board next to "Miss.") Draw attention to the similarity of the three Spanish words. Allow the children to use the word señorita in place of "Miss" to name people within the classroom and school building. Encourage the children to use these three Spanish words during the day.

Say: In Mexico holidays are very special. People all over Mexico enjoy fiestas (fee ESS tah). (Allow the children to say fiesta a few times.) Say: A fiesta is a celebration. It can be a birthday celebration, a tribute to a local hero, a religious celebration, or an important day in Mexico's history. There are special foods to eat and lots of music and dancing.

Ask: What are some of the special holidays celebrated in America? (Allow discussion. Ask how the special days are celebrated [ July 4--fireworks, picnics])

Say: Children in Mexico love fiestas because they get the chance to break a piñata (pee NYAH tah). A piñata can be made of paper or it may be a clay pot. (Show a picture of a piñata from one of the books listed above.) It is very colorfully decorated and comes in all shapes and sizes. A blindfolded child swings a stick at the piñata in an attempt to break it open. If the child does not split the piñata, the turn passes to another child. Once the piñata breaks open, candies and little gifts shower down on the children, who scramble for them. (Allow the children to say piñata a few times.)

Say: A special fiesta in Mexico is called Cinco de Mayo, (SEEN koh da MY oh) which means "fifth of May" in Spanish. This fiesta is celebrated on the 5th of May every year. It was on this date that the Mexican army defeated French invaders. The victory was an exciting one because the Mexican troops defeated the French in only four hours, even though there were more French fighters than Mexican. Cinco de Mayo celebrates that victory.

Ask: Have you ever heard of a siesta? (see ES tah) A siesta is a short nap or resting time, usually taken in the afternoon. Many people in Mexico enjoy an afternoon siesta. (Allow the children to say siesta a few times.)

Conclude by reviewing the Spanish words introduced in this lesson.

 

Suggested Follow-Up Activity

Assist the children in making individual piñatas. Show pictures of piñatas from the books listed above. Note that piñatas come in all shapes and sizes but are often in the shape of animals.

1. Distribute one lunch-size paper bag to each student.

2. Give each child a handful or two of wrapped candies.

3. Instruct the children to put the candies in the paper bag.

4. Staple the paper bag closed for each child.

BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 129

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 45

5. Allow the children to select pieces of construction paper to create an animal head. Direct the children to glue the construction paper animal head onto the paper bag. Children may wish to add construction paper legs or tail to their piñata.

6. Distribute a few handfuls of tissue paper squares to each child. Direct the children to glue overlapping squares of tissue paper to the paper bag.

7. Attach the yarn to the top of each piñata.

BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 130

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 46

Objectives

Review Spanish words introduced in Lesson 45.

Count from one to ten in Spanish.

Materials

Coloring paper (attached)

Crayons

Suggested Title

Haskins, Jim. Count Your Way Through Mexico. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda, 1989.

Using the numbers from one to ten, this book explores ten features of Mexican history and culture.

Procedure

Review gracias, señor, señora, señorita, fiesta, piñata, siesta. Try to use the words in sentences to help children recall the meanings.

Review the Spanish brought their language to Mexico. The words they have been learning are from the Spanish language.

Teach the children to count to ten by having them repeat the Spanish word after you pronounce it. You may wish to make a chart similar to the one below. Point to each row as you say the words.

1. one uno (OO noh) 6. six seis (sayss)

2. two dos (dohs) 7. seven siete (see EH the)

3. three tres (trehs) 8. eight ocho (OH choh)

4. four cuatro (KWAH troh) 9. nine nueve (noo EH beh)

5. five cinco (SEEN koh) 10. ten diez (dee EHS)

Provide opportunity for the children to use the numbers in the classroom. Allow them to count objects (jelly beans, paper clips, etc.) using the Spanish words.

Read the book listed above.

 

Suggested Follow-Up Activity

You may wish to teach your students some Spanish color words. Provide the children with an opportunity to practice these words by allowing them to complete the attached coloring paper.

amarillo (ah mah REE yoh) yellow

anaranjado (ah nah rahn HAH doh) orange

rojo (RROH hoh [roll the "r"]) red

verde (BEHR deh) green

azul (ah SOOL) blue

cafe (kah FEH) brown

See the Music Lesson on Spanish songs as a follow-up to this lesson.





BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 131

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 46

Name_____________________________

Color in Spanish

Read the Spanish color words. Color the picture.

rojo = red

azul = blue

amarillo = yellow

anaranjado = orange

verde = green

cafe = brown

BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 132

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 47

Objectives

Identify influences and presence of Mexican culture in the United States.

Discover some of the foods of Mexico (maize, tortillas).

Materials

A classroom United States and world map

Ingredients and supplies for making quesadillas (optional) (12 store-bought tortillas, cheese, a griddle, spatula)

One of the books listed below to read aloud

Suggested Titles

Read Aloud

Bunting, Eve. A Day's Work. New York: Clarion, 1994.

A young Mexican American boy tries to help his Spanish-speaking grandfather find work. This is a wonderful story about family relationships, work ethic, and honesty.

Bunting, Eve. Going Home. New York: HarperCollins, 1996.

This is a moving story about a Mexican family who come to America to work as farm laborers so that their children will have opportunities. Beautiful illustrations.

Teacher Resource

Illsley, Linda. A Taste of Mexico. New York: Thompson Learning, 1995.

Through a study of the foods of Mexico, the country's culture and geography are explored. This is an excellent teacher resource.

Shalent, Phyllis. Look What We've Brought You From Mexico. Messner, 1992.

This collection of crafts, games, recipes, stories, and other cultural activities demonstrates the many contributions Mexico and Mexican Americans have made to the United States.

Procedure

Say: We have learned that the people of Mexico fought against the Spanish soldiers for control of their country. (Review--September 16, Independence Day.) Say: After the Spanish government left Mexico, the people of Mexico again had to fight for their land. The government of the United States of America wanted part of the land the Mexican people claimed as theirs.

Point to the Rio Grande River. Ask: Who remembers the name of this river? Say: The United States government considered the Rio Grande River the boundary line between the two countries. (Locate the area of Texas, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, California and parts of New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming.) Say: The people of Mexico considered all of this land as part of Mexico. Fighting took place. Soon this area became part of the United States. The Rio Grande River became the official boundary that separates the United States and Mexico.

Teacher Note: The Mexican War is studied at grades three and five.

Say: Trouble continued in the country of Mexico. Many groups fought against one another. Many Mexican families came across the Rio Grande hoping to find peace in the United States. Many came only to work in the summers, but some came to stay. Many of those who stayed became citizens of the United States. Children who were born north of the Mexican BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 133

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 47

border in America were citizens of the United States.

Say: When Mexicans first came to the United States, they lived where they found other Mexican families. Ask: Why do you think this was so? (they spoke the same language, had same customs, could help each other, etc.)

Say: Today, many Mexican families still cross the river hoping to find a place to live and to find work. Mexican Americans work and live all over the United States. Some are teachers, doctors, lawyers, newspaper editors, artists, writers, and actors. Others work in stores or in factories. Many Mexicans come to work on farms and ranches. Across America, the first neighborhoods of Mexican families grew and grew. Today, there are large areas of Mexican Americans living in cities such as El Paso, Chicago, Denver, and Los Angeles. (Point out these cities on the map.) In these neighborhoods you can find grocery stores that sell the same things found in grocery stores in Mexico. There are baskets of dried chili peppers and beans, fresh tortillas (tor TEE ya), pottery bowls and toys, and piñatas. Radios play Spanish music and TVs broadcast Spanish shows. Music and books written in Spanish can be purchased. Fiestas are held in these neighborhoods in honor of the Mexican Independence Day and Cinco de Mayo as well as other Mexican national holidays. Children go to schools. Many speak English, but some do not. They are taught English and soon they are able to speak both Spanish and English.

Say: The Mexican people have given many things to the United States. Early Mexicans discovered trails across the Southwest--trails that later became highways. They helped to build the railroad lines. They cleared land to make pastures, fields and gardens. The quick growth of farms and factories all over the Southwest was made possible by their work. To the English language they added many new words: ranch, rodeo, coyote, tornado, and chocolate. They introduced the United States to their special music and dance. They shared their beautiful crafts and bold, colorful art. Today, some Mexican Americans are in the United States government where they work for the good of all people.

Say: We also enjoy many of the foods of Mexico in the United States. Ask: Have you ever eaten Mexican food? (Allow children to talk about foods they have eaten that are Mexican in origin.)

(Review Lesson 43--The culture of Mexico today is a blend of both Indian and Spanish cultures.) Ask: Have you ever eaten a taco? Say: When you eat a taco you are eating a combination of both Spanish and Indian cultures. The taco's corn shell, beans, chilies, tomatoes, and avocados are foods native to Mexico and the onions, beef, black olives, and cheese are foods native to Spain.

Say: Many of the foods from Mexico are made from corn. This is because corn, or maize (mayz), has been an important crop in Mexico for thousands of years. The Indians were the first corn farmers. Corn is used dried or fresh. Dried corn will keep for a long time without spoiling. Corn is a part of almost every Mexican meal. It is in main courses, soups, desserts and even drinks! But the main use of corn is to make tortillas (tor TEE ya). Tortillas are flat pancake-like bread. They are baked on a hot pan. Tortillas can be eaten plain or filled with meat or vegetables. They are the basis for other Mexican foods such as burritos and quesadillas. Most Mexican food is made or served with hot, red chili peppers.

Conclude this lesson by reading one of the Eve Bunting books listed above.



BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 134

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 47

Optional Activity

Show a tortilla. Prepare simple quesadillas for the children to sample.

 

Quesadillas

12 tortillas (store-bought)

12 1-oz. portions of sharp cheddar cheese, grated

hot griddle, spatula

Heat a tortilla on the griddle for about five seconds. Flip the tortilla. Spread one portion of cheese on the tortilla; then carefully fold the tortilla in half. Heat until the cheese melts. Repeat this process with the remaining tortillas. You may wish to cut the tortilla in half to make 24 servings.

See Visual Arts Lesson on Diego Rivera as a follow-up activity.

BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 135

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 48

Objective

Discover some of the crafts of Mexico.

Materials

Select from the following craft suggestions. Materials vary depending upon craft.

Suggested Titles

Temko, Florence. Traditional Crafts from Mexico and Central America. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1996.

Provides instructions on how to make traditional Mexican and Central American crafts including tin ornaments, papel picado, Otomi paper figures, and a Tree of Life.

Terzian, Alexandra. The Kids' Multicultural Art Book: Art & Craft Experiences from Around the World. Charlotte, VT: Williamson, 1993.

Teacher Information

The Olmec Civilization (1500-600 B.C.) is the oldest in North America. It originated in the coastal lowlands of Mexico around the present-day city of Veracruz. Information about the Olmec is limited to their carvings, statues, and monuments. They wrote in hieroglyphics, but none have been translated. The Olmec are particularly noted as sculptors. Their carvings range from tiny jade figures to huge statues of human heads. This first advanced civilization in America influenced later groups, including the Maya.

Procedure

Review the lessons previously covered regarding Mexican traditions.

Say: There are many beautiful crafts that come from Mexico. Some of the first people in Mexico, the Olmec (OHL mek), carved huge figures from stone and sculpted smaller figures in clay. Pottery, basket making, and cloth weaving were developed by the Mayans. Tin ornaments, cut-paper, corn-husk crafts and beautiful candle holders called A Tree of Life are some of the crafts still made in Mexico today.

Choose a craft or two from the following suggestions to do with the class.

Corn-husk dolls (From Mailbox Magazine, Primary, April/May 1996)

Review--Corn, or maize, has been an important crop in Mexico for thousands of years.

Materials

One 6-inch and one 18-inch length of tan twisted paper (per student)

One foot length of yarn (any color) per student

Black marker or crayon

Scrap of brightly-colored fabric (3" x 6") per student (construction paper or wallpaper samples may be substituted)

Directions

1. Assist the students in untwisting the lengths of twisted paper.

2. Demonstrate how to bend the 18" strip in half lengthwise without creasing the paper.

3. The 6" strip will be placed between the bent strip, creating arms for the doll.

BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 136

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 48

4. Secure the arms in place by wrapping the yarn diagonally around the project, in a crisscross fashion (see illustration).

5. Draw on facial features with the marker or crayon.

6. Finish the doll by draping the fabric scrap around the doll's shoulders to resemble a rebozo or a serape.

Illustration

Tissue Paper Flowers

Beautiful colored paper flowers are used as decorations at Mexican festivals.

Materials

Pipe cleaners (two for each flower made)

Four, 6" x 9" pieces of bright colored tissue paper per flower

Directions

1. Stack the four pieces of tissue paper.

2. Starting at the narrow end, fan-fold the tissue paper in 1/2" folds.

3. Pinch the center or the folded tissue paper and tie with a pipe cleaner.

4. Pull up each layer of tissue paper to create the flower.

5. Tie the pipe cleaner onto another pipe cleaner for a stem.

6. Add tissue paper leaves if desired.



Papel Picado (From Traditional Crafts from Mexico and Central America by Florence Temko)

Papel picado (pah PELL pee KAH doh) is a folk craft developed in Mexico. The paper originally used was introduced to Mexico by the Spanish. Papel picado means "pierced paper."

Before festivals, families--especially children--make tissue paper banners.

Materials

Brightly colored pieces of tissue paper (15" x 10" is the size of Mexican paper)

Scissors

Directions

1. Fold a piece of tissue paper in half the short way.

2. Fold the tissue paper in half two more times.

3. Cut away sections from the folded edges. Do not cut all the way from one edge to the opposite edge. (This is similar to creating paper snowflakes.)

4. Carefully unfold the paper to reveal your design.

BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 137

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 48

5. You may wish to attach the finished projects to create one long banner.

Otomi Paper Figures (From Traditional Crafts from Mexico and Central America by Florence Temko)

The Mayans are believed to have developed the rough-textured paper known as amate (ah MAH tay) more than 1,000 years ago. The Otomi Indians are the only people who still make amate. The Otomi cut the paper into animal and human figures. The figures represent spirits that can bring good or bad luck. Medium-brown paper figures are prepared for sick people to fight illness. Light colors are used for love charms, or to ensure a large crop. Some Mexican artisans use amate paper as a surface for painting.

Materials

Brown paper bags or brown wrapping paper cut into 8" x 10" sections (one per student)

Scissors

Directions

1. Crumple the brown paper rectangle tightly into a ball.

2. Uncrumple and flatten the paper, smoothing it with your hand. It will still be crinkly. Repeat crumpling and smoothing two or three times.

3. Fold the paper in half. Imagining the fold as the figure's center, draw half a figure against the folded edge. (See illustration--you may wish to provide patterns for the children to trace.)

4. Cut on the outline, then open the paper flat.

5. Glue the paper figures to pieces of construction paper. Draw faces and clothing on the figures if desired.

Illustration

BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 138

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 49

Objectives

Listen to music from Mexico.

Participate in a traditional Mexican dance.

Materials

One of the recordings listed below

A collection of small containers (one per student)

Rice, seeds, popcorn kernels, macaroni (and other small items)

Lidless boxes (two or three)

Rubber bands

Sombrero (if available)

Claves (hardwood sticks) if available

Suggested Recordings

A Fiesta of Folk Songs From Spain and Latin America by Henrietta Yurchenco (Putnam, 1967).

Traditional songs complete with pronunciations and translations.

Fiesta! Mexico and Central America: A Global Awareness Program for Children in Grades 2-5.

by Barbara Linse and Dick Judd (Fearon Teacher Aids, 1993).

This book, with an audio cassette, presents seventeen singable children's songs in Spanish and English as well as instructions for activities designed to teach children about Mexico and Central American culture.

Latin American Children Game Songs by Henrietta Yurchenco (Folkway Records, 1968).

A collection of songs recorded in Mexico and Puerto Rico.

Mi Casa Es Su Casa: My House is Your House--A Latin American Musical Journey (Music For Little People, Lawndale, CA 1-800-727-2233).

Sing Children Sing: Songs of Mexico (Caedmon Records, 1980.)

Twelve songs performed by the Children's Choir of Mexico City.

Music Book

De Colores and Other Latin-American Folk Songs for Children selected, arranged, and translated by Jose-Luis Orozco (Dutton, 1994).

A collection of twenty-seven songs from all over Latin America with musical arrangements and wonderful illustrations.

Procedure

Assist the children in making simple musical instruments to use while listening to the music of Mexico. Provide small containers and a supply of rice, seeds, popcorn kernels or macaroni to make instruments similar to Mexican maracas. Students will fill a container with a selection of small objects and secure the lid. Tell the children to shake the container in rhythm to the songs they will be listening to. You may wish to make "guitars" for some of the children to play. Stretch six rubber bands around various sizes of lidless boxes. Instruct the children to pluck and strum the rubber bands to produce musical sounds.

Play some of the music listed above. Encourage children to respond to the music by singing along, moving expressively, and playing their instruments.

BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 139

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 49

Play a recording of "The Mexican Hat Dance." Show students how to dance to this music, which is the national dance of Mexico.

Directions for "The Mexican Hat Dance"

If you have access to a sombrero show it to the children. Review that a sombrero is a traditional hat. It is worn to keep the heat of the sun off of the head and out of the eyes. Place the sombrero on the floor and instruct the children to make a circle around it.

Teach the basic step prior to playing the music.

Basic Step

In one hopping movement, bring your right leg back as your left leg goes forward, with the left heel in and down, and the left toe up and out. Switch your feet, left and right, until you get the feel of it.

For the dance, you will do three of these steps, and then clap two times quickly in rhythm with the music. This basic step will be completed four times.

When the music changes, instruct children to spin in place. Spin first one way, then the other as the music changes.

The music will return to the original refrain. The basic heel-toe-clap step will be repeated four times more. On the last note of the song, raise your hands, and shout, "Ole!"

Mexican Hat Dance

We will dance all around the sombrero,

(begin basic step on the word "dance")

(heel/toe, heel/toe, heel/toe, clap, clap)

Tra la la la la la la la la la,

(heel/toe, heel/toe, heel/toe, clap, clap)

We will dance all around the sombrero,

(heel/toe, heel/toe, heel/toe, clap, clap)

Tra la la la la la la la la la

(heel/toe, heel/toe, heel/toe, clap, clap)

We will shake and shake our maracas,

(spin in place)

repeat of same rhythmic pattern for shaking of maracas,

(spin in place, opposite direction)

And we'll tap and tap on our claves,

(spin in place, opposite direction)

BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 140

First Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 49



repeat of same rhythmic pattern for tapping of claves.

(spin in place, opposite direction)





Return to Refrain:

We will dance all around the sombrero

(heel/toe, heel/toe, heel/toe, clap, clap)

Tra la la la la la la la la la

(heel/toe, heel/toe, heel/toe, clap, clap)

We will dance all around the sombrero

(heel/toe, heel/toe, heel/toe, clap, clap)

Tra la la la la la la la la la, Ole!

(heel/toe, heel/toe, heel/toe, clap, clap, raise hands at shout "Ole!")

You may wish to have the children play their maracas at the appropriate times in the music. Explain that claves are hardwood sticks. If claves are available, assign a few children to play them.

 

See Music Lessons on La Cucaracha and Chipanecas as follow up to this lesson.

BCP DRAFT WORLD CIV 142

First Grade - World Civilization - Mexico

Bibliography

Read Aloud Titles

*Aardema, Verna. Borreguita and the Coyote: A Tale from Ayutla, Mexico. New York: Knopf, 1991.

*Ancona, George. The Piñata Maker: El Piñatero. San Diego: Harcourt, 1994.

*Balet, Jan. The Fence: A Mexican Tale. New York: Delacorte, 1969.

*Behrens, June. Fiesta! Cinco De Mayo. Chicago: Children's Press, 1978.

*Bunting, Eve. A Day's Work. New York: Clarion, 1994.

*________. Going Home. New York: HarperCollins, 1996.

*dePaola, Tomie. The Lady of Guadalupe. New York: Holiday House, 1980.

*Emberley, Rebecca. My House/Mi Casa: A Book in Two Languages. Boston: Little, Brown, 1990.

*Garza, Carmen Lomas. Family Pictures. Chicago: Children's Press, 1990.

*Grossman, Patricia. Saturday Market. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard, 1994.

*Haskins, Jim. Count Your Way Through Mexico. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda, 1989.

*Jacobsen, Karen. Mexico. Chicago: Children's Press, 1982.

*Kouzel, Daisy. The Cuckoo's Reward/El Premio del Cuco. Garden City: Doubleday, 1977.

*Lye, Keith. Take a Trip to Mexico. New York: Franklin Watts, 1982.

*MacKinnon, Debbie. My World of Spanish Words. New York: Barron, 1995.

*Moran, Tom. A Family in Mexico. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1987.

Teacher Resource Titles

*Illsley, Linda. A Taste of Mexico. New York: Thompson Learning, 1995.

*Kalman, Bobbie. Mexico: The Land. New York: Crabtree, 1993.

*________. Mexico: The People. New York: Crabtree, 1993.

*________. Mexico: The Culture. New York: Crabtree, 1993.

*Mailbox Magazine. Primary April/May 1996.

*Shalent, Phyllis. Look What We've Brought You From Mexico. Messner, 1992.

*Temko, Florence. Traditional Crafts from Mexico and Central America. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1996.

*indicates annotation in a lesson