BCP DRAFT SCI 80

First Grade - Science - Lesson 41 -What Animals Eat

Objectives

Organize animals according to what they eat.

Compare the teeth of plant eaters and meat eaters.

Materials

Pictures of a tiger and a cow

A pair of sunglasses

Three signs that read: Eat Only Meat Diner, Green Leaf Cafe, and Meat and Salad Place

A slip of paper for each child with the name of an animal on it (sheets attached)

Pictures of animal teeth for a transparency

Background Information

One way to classify animals is according to their diets. Meat eaters are called carnivores; plant eaters are called herbivores; animals that eat both plants and animals are called omnivores. Humans are, of course, omnivorous. When trying to determine a mammal's diet, a good clue is the shape of its teeth. Carnivores usually have large, sharp canine teeth for stabbing and tearing as in tigers, lions, dogs (and Tyrannosaurus rex). Herbivores have flat molars or cheek teeth for grinding up plant material and a few incisors (front teeth) on upper and lower jaws for snipping it. Examples of herbivores are elephants, cows, deer and kangaroos. Omnivores have a combination of sharp canines and flat molars. Besides humans, other omnivores include bears, baboons and raccoons. The name insectivore is used for animals that eat exclusively insects (anteaters, bush babies)

Suggested Books

Goor, Ron and Nancy. Heads. New York: Atheneum, 1988. Contains a section called Mouths with an array of photos of animals with their mouths wide open.

Gross, Ruth. Questions and Answers About What Animals Eat. New York: Scholastic, 1995.

Lauber, Patricia. What Big Teeth You Have. New York: Harpercrest, 1992. Lauber explains how to tell an animal's diet from its teeth.

Munsterberg, Peggy. Beastly Banquet: Tasty Treats for Animal Appetites. New York: Dial, 1997. Funny poems about animal menus.

Steig, William. Doctor DeSoto. New York: Farrar Straus, 1982. This Newbery Honor book tells the story of a mouse dentist who must treat a fox with a toothache.

Steig, William. Doctor DeSoto Goes To Africa. Farrar Straus, 1986. In this sequel, Doctor DeSoto is asked to visit Africa to treat an elephant patient.

Parker, Steve. Mammal (Eyewitness series). New York: Knopf, 1989. Very good illustrations of mammal skulls.

Parker, Steve. Skeleton (Eyewitness series). New York: Knopf, 1988. A fascinating book with illustrations to show the differences between the skulls and teeth of various families of animals.

Teacher Resources

Naturescope: Amazing Mammals. Washington, D.C.: National Wildlife Federation, 1986.

BCP DRAFT SCI 81

First Grade - Science - Lesson 41 -What Animals Eat

Procedure

Tape the three signs on the board in three different places. Remind the children that last time they learned about food chains and how food chains start with plants. Animals get their energy either from eating plants or from eating other animals. Show the children the picture of the tiger (attached) and ask: Does this animal eat plants or other animals? (animals) Tell the children the tiger is a meat eater. Write meat eater on the board and ask the children to help you make a list of some other animals that eat only meat. Some animals on the list might be lion, wolf, dog, seal, killer whale, eagle. Show the children the picture of the cow (attached). Ask: Does a cow eat plants or animals? (plants-grass) Tell the children that a cow is a plant eater. Write plant eater on the board and ask the children to help you to add to this list as well. Some animals that might be on the plant eater list: elephant, horse, deer, kangaroo, squirrel, moose, giraffe. Show the children a picture of a person. Ask: Are people plant eaters or animals eaters? (They eat both plants and animals.) Tell the children that there are other animals that eat both plants and animals. Write plant and animal eater on the board. Ask the children if they can think of any animals that eat both plants and animals. (Bears eat fish and berries. Raccoons eat frogs and fruit. Moles make tunnels underground and eat earthworms and the underground parts of plants.)

Put on the sunglasses and tell the children that, now that you have your making-pretend glasses on, you can see that the children are really animals. You can see that some of them have long fur. Some of them have sharp teeth. Some of them even have whiskers. Go around the room and peer at the children through your making-pretend glasses and tell them that you will let them know what animals they have become. Give each child a slip of paper with his or her animal name written on it.

Point to the Meat Only Diner sign. Tell the children that everyone knows tigers have to hunt for food. They don't shop in the grocery store. But if tigers did go to restaurants, this is the restaurant they would pick. Read the sign to the children. Ask the children who are meat-eating animals to come up and stand by the Meat Only Diner sign. Interview the children that come forward; have them say what animal they are and what they eat. Write Menu under the sign and list what the meat eaters eat. Have those children return to their seats. Read aloud the sign for the Green Leaf Cafe and ask: What kind of animals would eat dinner at this restaurant? (plant eaters) Ask all the plant-eating animals in the class to come stand by the sign. Interview the children in the same way and list their food choices under the Cafe's menu. Do the same for the Meat and Salad Place. Ask the animals that eat both plants and animals to come forward and stand here. Interview the children and list the menu for this restaurant. When the children return to their seats, review the menus in the three restaurants. Take off the glasses and express relief that now the children are back to normal.

Tell the children that one way to tell what an animal eats is by looking at its teeth. Show the children the transparency of animal jaws. Point out the jaws of the meat-eating animal, a tiger. Show the children how pointy the teeth are. Ask: Which are the biggest teeth in a meat-eater's mouth? Have a child come up and point to them. Tell the children that meat eaters have big sharp teeth like these for stabbing and tearing meat. Show the children pictures of the plant-eater's jaw, a horse's. Show the children the front teeth for snipping grass or twigs and the flat

cheek teeth for grinding up leaves. Ask: Has anyone ever seen a cow chewing grass? Show the BCP DRAFT SCI 82

First Grade - Science - Lesson 41 -What Animals Eat

children how a cow's two jaws move up and down and side to side so the flat cheek teeth can grind up the grass. Show the children the plant- and meat-eater's skull (a bear's). Show the children the combination of sharp canine teeth and flat molars. Tell the children this animal has teeth to handle catching fish and chewing up berries.

Tell the children that there are animal dentists. There are veterinarians, animal doctors who study how to take care of animal teeth. Suppose a tiger in the zoo got a toothache. Who would you call? (an animal dentist) If you have a copy of Dr. DeSoto, tell the children you are going to read them a story about a different kind of animal dentist. This dentist is an animal himself. Read Doctor DeSoto by William Steig to the children.

Possible Homework

Look in the mirror at your own teeth. Do you have sharp, pointed teeth for meat eating? Do you have flat cheek teeth for grinding up fruits and vegetables?

BCP DRAFT SCI 87

First Grade - Science - Lesson 42 - Rachel Carson

Objectives

Recognize the significance of Rachel Carson and her book Silent Spring.

Explain how poisons such as DDT travel through a food chain.

Suggested Books

Accorsi, William. Rachel Carson. New York: Holiday House, 1993. ISBN: 0823409945

Green, Carol and Steven Dobson. Rachel Carson: Friend of Nature (Rookie Biography series). Chicago: Childrens Press, 1993. ISBN: 0516442295

Ransom, Candice. Listening to Crickets: A Story About Rachel Carson. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda, 1993. ISBN: 087614279 A story that emphasizes Rachel Carson's persistence and commitment.

Sabin, Francene. Rachel Carson: Friend of the Earth (Easy Biography series). Mahwah, NJ: Troll, 1992.

Schlank, Carol and Barbara Metzger. A Clean Sea: The Rachel Carson Story. Culver City, CA: Cascade Pass, 1995. ISBN: 1880599163 The American Association for the Advancement of Science in their publication called Science Books and Films said, "This is an excellent book that introduces the very young to one of our finest 20th century naturalists who was also a pioneer advocate for cleaning up the environment." Very engaging illustrations.

Teacher Resources

Ravage, Barbara. Rachel Carson: Protecting Our Environment. Austin, TX: Steck-Vaughn, 1997. This indepth look at Carson's life and the history of the environmental movement contains several photos of Carson as a child and of planes spraying DDT.

Steidl, Kim. Environmental Portraits: People Making A Difference for the Environment. Carthage, IL: Good Apple, 1993.

Wadsworth, Ginger. Rachel Carson: Voice for the Earth. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1992. ISBN: 0822549077 also available with an audio cassette ISBN: 1883332214

Procedure

Remind the children that last time they learned about animal teeth and about plant-eating and meat-eating animals. Because all animals eat, including people, we are all part of food chains. Tell the children that today they are going to learn about a person who discovered something strange happening in food chains, something dangerous to animals and to people. She wrote a book about what she discovered called Silent Spring. The writer's name was Rachel Carson.

Read one of the suggested books about Rachel Carson to the class or read the following description of her life:

 

Rachel Carson always wanted to be a writer. As an 8-year-old she wrote and illustrated a book about animals and gave it to her father as a present. Two years later, when she was ten years old, Rachel wrote a story and was thrilled when it was published in a magazine for children. But there was something Rachel loved as much as writing. She loved to explore the woods, stream and meadows near her home. On a warm spring afternoon she might see a mother BCP DRAFT SCI 88

First Grade - Science - Lesson 42 - Rachel Carson

spider carrying her egg case on her back, or a pair of red-headed woodpeckers defending their nest from starlings, or wade ankle deep in the stream to find crayfish.

When Rachel grew up and went to college, she studied animals, especially sea life. She studied very hard and earned her masters degree in biology even though, at that time, many people thought girls shouldn't study science. Rachel got a job working for the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries. Her job was to write pamphlets to help people understand how plants, tiny sea creatures, fish, even huge whales all depend on each other for life in the sea. At night, when she was finished with her work, she went home and wrote books about the ocean. One called The Sea Around Us and another called The Edge of the Sea became very popular and made Rachel Carson a famous writer.

Rachel wanted to write another book about the sea but she saw something so alarming that she had to write about it. She saw what was happening when a poison called DDT was sprayed over marshes, fields and neighborhoods to kill mosquitoes. The poison did kill the mosquitoes and every other insect it touched. It also poisoned the birds and other creatures that ate the insects. It also poisoned the animals that ate the animals that ate insects. DDT was poisoning the food chain and it was only a matter of time before humans were poisoned, too. Rachel called her book Silent Spring because she feared the birds we hear singing in springtime would be wiped out by DDT.

The chemical companies that made DDT and other insect killers were angry with Rachel Carson and her book. They tried to make her look like a silly worrier. They spent lots of money on advertisements telling people that DDT was safe. But the facts would not go away. People read Rachel Carson's book and began to understand that plants, animals and people belong to the web of life. For our own sakes, we must do our best to protect the environment, not poison it.

Rachel Carson died before she could see the effects of her work. Thanks to her book, it is now against the law to use DDT in the United States. Today people of all ages carry on Rachel Carson's fight to keep our environment healthy.

 

Ask: How did the DDT get into our environment? (People sprayed it to get rid of mosquitoes.) Remind the children about a food chain they looked at that started with grass, then the cow that ate the grass, then the boy who drank the milk from the cow. Ask: What if there was DDT on the grass the cow ate? Where would the DDT go? (into the cow) And what if the boy drank the milk from the cow who ate the poisoned grass? Where would the DDT go then? (into the boy) Tell the children this is how the poison travels through the food chain.

Ask: What did Rachel Carson do when she saw that DDT was killing birds and other animals in the food chain? (She wrote a book to tell people about it.) Ask: Did writing a book about the problem change things? (Yes, people learned about the danger of DDT in the food chain.) Tell the children that writing can be a powerful tool. When you write about a problem, you can let people know about it. When people know about a problem, they will try to do something about it. Rachel Carson proved that.

BCP DRAFT SCI 89

First Grade - Science - Lesson 43 - Pollution

Objectives

Describe what happens to garbage in Baltimore.

Identify some items that are recyclable.

Brainstorm ways to use less paper and save trees.

Materials

A plastic trash bag containing various kinds of trash: six-pack ring, plastic bottles, fast food paper packaging, egg carton, meat tray, glass jars, cereal box, newspaper, soup can, some junk mail

A paper bag and a blue plastic bag

A box of junk mail

Scissors, paste and and a previously used, business-size envelope for each child (Tape the envelopes shut.)

A sample envelope puppet (see attached sheet for directions)

Suggested Books

Brown, Laurie Krasny and Marc Brown. Dinosaurs to the Rescue! Boston: Little Brown, 1992. ISBN:0-316-11087-6 Dinosaurs show how to recycle, reuse and conserve energy to take care of the environment. Includes tips on how to conserve water and some recycling projects.

Earthworks Group, 50 Simple Things Kids Can Do to Recycle. San Francisco, CA: Earthworks, 1994.

Fowler, Allan. Recycle That! Chicago: Childrens Press, 1995. ISBN: 051646331

Fowler, Allan. Too Much Trash. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1996. ISBN: 0516460420

Gibbons, Gail. Recycle! A Handbook for Kids. Boston: Little Brown, 1992. ISBN: 0316309710 Explains how products are recycled and how recyling reduces waste and pollution.

Halsey, Megan. Three Pandas Planting. New York: Bradbury, 1994. A counting book with a recycling theme.

Lauber, Patricia. Be A Friend to Trees. New York: HarperCollins, 1994. Explains why we need trees and how they keep air clean. Also outlines how we can save trees from being cut down by recycling.

Showers, Paul. Where Does the Garbage Go? (A Let's Read-And -Find-Out Science book). New York: HarperCollins, 1994. 0064451143 "Each person in the U.S. creates about four pounds of trash a day. Almost half the trash we throw away could be recycled." This book is a real eyeopener. Simple illustrations show how paper, glass and plastic are recycled.

Van Allsburg, Chris. Just A Dream. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1990. ISBN: 0395533082 Walter, a litter bug, has an ecological nightmare. Stunning illustrations.

Wilkes, Angela. My First Green Book. New York: Knopf, 1991. Easy experiments to illustrate the effects of environmental pollution.

Teacher Resources

Carlson, Laurie. EcoArt. Charlotte, VT: Williamson Publishing, 1993. ISBN: 0913589683 Great BCP DRAFT SCI 90

First Grade - Science - Lesson 43 - Pollution

project ideas in the section Treasures from Trash. Envelope puppets are on page 141.

Procedure

Remind the children that last time they learned about Rachel Carson and how DDT got into the food chain. Ask: Why did people spray DDT? (to kill mosquitoes and other insects) Tell the children that DDT polluted the environment. Tell them that there are other things that pollute the environment. Empty the trash bag on a table and show the children the contents. Have a child come up and identify the objects. Tell the children that what we throw away can also pollute the environment. Remind the children that they learned how plastic bags and six-pack rings can hurt animals in the ocean. Ask: What do you think happens to the garbage we put in the trash cans? After the sanitation workers pick it up and throw it in a truck, where do you think the garbage goes? (Accept all answers.)

Tell the children that in some places trucks carry the garbage to a big, big hole in the ground called a landfill. The trucks dump the garbage into the hole. Every day trucks roll in with more and more garbage to dump in the landfill. When the hole is full, earthmovers push dirt over it to bury the garbage. Then sometimes a playground is built on top. But there is always more garbage to get rid of, so another big, big hole is dug to make a new landfill. Ask: Do you think that is a good way to get rid of garbage? Why or why not? (Accept all answers.) Tell the children that in other places garbage is loaded on big flat boats called barges. Tug boats pull the barges out into the ocean and dump the garbage into the water. Ask: Do you think this is a good way to get rid of garbage? (Accept all answers.) Tell the children that in Baltimore, garbage from garbage cans goes to a big furnace and is burned. Just as when anything burns, burning garbage makes smoke and ashes. The ashes have to go to a landfill to be buried. Ask: Do you think this is a good way to get rid of garbage? (Accept all answers.)

Tell the children that the trouble with garbage is that there is always more and more of it. People use things and throw things away. Everyday many, many cereal boxes and potato chip bags and egg cartons and meat trays and jars and bottles all get thrown away. Ask: How many of you have heard the word recycle? What does recycle mean? (use something again) In Baltimore, we recycle glass bottles and jars, plastic containers, metal cans and paper. Trucks come and pick up blue bags full of bottles and cans and paper bags full of paper and squashed cardboard boxes. They are taken to recycling plants. The glass bottles are melted down and made into new bottles. Cans are melted down to make new cans. Waste paper is chopped up and made into new paper. Plastic is chopped up, melted and used to make new plastic things.

Tell the children that there are things on the table from the trash bag that can be recycled. Ask children one-by-one to come up, choose an object that can be recycled and tell the class what it is. Have them put the objects in the appropriate recycling container-- a blue plastic bag or paper bag--for recycling.

Show the children the paper bag and tell them that to make new paper or cardboard, trees need to be cut down. This is because new paper is made from wood. The more new paper we make, the more forests need to be cut down. By recycling paper, making new paper from old paper, we can save trees. Another way to save trees is to use less paper, not waste it. Brainstorm with the children some ways we could use less paper. (Take a shopping bag to the store to carry home what we buy. Use dishes and glasses instead of paper plates and cups. Use the backs of BCP DRAFT SCI 91

First Grade - Science - Lesson 43 - Pollution

papers to draw pictures or make shopping lists instead of taking a new sheet. Reuse boxes and gift bags. Don't use a lot of paper towels to dry our hands. Use boxes to make toys.)

Show the children an envelope from the junk mail box and tell them that today they are going to recycle old envelopes by turning them into puppets. They will be able to save trees and have fun at the same time. Demonstrate how to fold and cut an evelope to make a hand puppet. Show them a puppet that you have made. Suggest that the children cut up the other junk mail to make eyes, ears, noses and tongues to paste on their puppets. Perhaps they can make dog and cat puppets, or people puppets, or monsters, or ocean creatures or characters from stories such as the "Three Little Pigs." Give each child an envelope, assorted junk mail, scissors and a quantity of paste. When the children are finished making their puppets, suggest that some volunteers come up and put on a puppet show with their puppets. You can steer the story line by suggesting the "Three Little Pigs" or some other well-known story.

Suggested Homework

Recycle a cereal box or other cardboard box by making it into something--a truck, a house, a game, etc.

BCP DRAFT SCI 93

First Grade - Science - Lesson 44 - Habitat Destruction

Objectives

Recognize that environmental change can cause habitat destruction.

Explain how people can destroy and create habitats.

Recognize that people are not the only force that can cause habitat creation or destruction.

Create a small habitat and observe any creatures that move in.

Materials

Pictures of toads from suggested books

Pictures of beavers and beaver ponds from suggested books

Window box or large planter, soil, trowel, newspaper

Watering can

A market pack of flowering annuals (available at gardening centers) suggestions: snap dragons, scarlet sage, petunias

Suggested Books

Aardema, Verna. Bringing the Rain to Kapiti Plain. New York: Dial, 1981. Drought affects a plain in Kenya, driving the animals away until a boy finds a magic feather that brings rain.

Baker, Jeannie. Window. New York: Greenwillow, 1991. ISBN: 0688089186 Shows the changes in a neighborhood from rural to urban looking through a window.

Burton, Virginia Lee. The Little House. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1974 (originally 1944). ISBN: 0395181569 This Caldecott medal winner tells the story of a house in the country that is gradually engulfed by the city.

Cherry, Lynne. A River Ran Wild. New York: Harcourt, 1992. ISBN: 0152005420 The history of a New England river from Native American discovery to twentieth century pollution and clean up. An Outstanding Science Trade Book for Children.

Clarke, Barry. Amazing Frogs and Toads (Eyewitness Junior). New York: Knopf, 1991. ISBN: 0679906886

Cooney, Barbara. Miss Rumphius. New York: Puffin, 1982. After a full life of travel, Miss Rumphius returns to her seaside home and follows her father's advice to make the world a more beautiful place. She spreads lupine seeds wherever she goes and after several years, lupine flowers bloom everywhere on the hills and fields around her town.

Fleming, Denise. Where Once There Was a Wood. New York: Henry Holt, 1996. ISBN: 0805037616 Beautiful illustrations and simple text describe a forest, meadow and stream, home to wildlife before the land becomes a housing complex. The last section includes suggestions for how to make yards more hospitable to wildlife.

Jaspersohn, William. How the Forest Grew. New York: Greenwillow, 1989. ISBN: 068880232X Follows the growth of a forest from cleared farmland two hundred years ago.

Kalas, Sybille. Beaver Family Book. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1987. ISBN: 0887080502

Rounds, Glen. Beaver, How He Works. New York: Holiday House, 1976. ISBN: 0823402878

Parker, Nancy Wilson. Frogs, Toads, Lizards and Salamanders. New York: Greenwillow, 1990. ISBN: 0688086810 Great illustration of toad.

Peet, Bill. Farewell to Shady Glade. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1966. ISBN: 0395189756 When humans invade their habitat, animals must look for a new home.

BCP DRAFT SCI 94

First Grade - Science - Lesson 44 - Habitat Destruction

Ryder, Joanne. The Snail's Spell. New York: Viking, 1988. ISBN: 014050891 (pb) A boy dreams that he has shrunk to the size of a snail and explores the garden. Beautiful illustrations by Lynne Cherry.

Tresselt, Alvin. Beaver Pond. New York: Morrow, 1970. ISBN: 0688411231 Examines habitat beavers created and creatures that live there.

Turner, Ann. Heron Street. New York: Harper, 1989. Tells the story of a marsh over time and how human development reshaped the environment so that the animals that once lived there had to leave.

Vogel, Carole and Kathryn Goldner. The Great Yellowstone Fire. Boston: Little Brown, 1990. Shows the devastation of a forest fire and the longer term effects.

Wiesner, David. Hurricane. New York: Clarion, 1990. ISBN: 0395543827 Two brothers ride out a hurricane safe inside. The next morning they discover an uprooted tree. Demonstrates the force for environmental change a storm can be.

Yolen, Jane. Letting Swift Water Go. New York: Little Brown, 1992. When a new dam is built, a girl must leave her home in the valley before it is flooded to make a reservoir. She comes to grips with the changes to her life on a return trip to the reservoir as her father points out where old landmarks once stood.

Procedure

Remind the children that they have learned about animals' habitats. Ask: What is an animal's habitat? (its neighborhood, where it lives) Remind the children that deserts, meadows, oceans, forests, ponds, backyards and neighborhood parks are all habitats. Certain animals need certain habitats. Ask: Would a whale be able to live in the forest? (No, the forest is not its habitat. It lives in the ocean.) Ask: Would an earthworm be able to live in a pond? (No, a pond is not its habitat. It lives underground.) Ask: If you take away an animal's habitat, what happens to the animal? (It cannot find what it needs to live and it will die.)

Read the children the following story:

 

Here is a story of some toads that lived in a neighborhood near a pond. Toads like to live by themselves, so each toad had found itself a home in a garden where it could eat bugs all day and keep cool and damp under the green leaves of the tall flowers. In the fall, when the weather got chilly, the toads burrowed down in the mud and slept until spring. When the snows had finally melted and spring sunshine had warmed the soil, the toads woke up and came out of the mud. Spring is the time when toads meet at the ponds where they were born. They meet to mate and lay eggs in the water. These toads had hatched from eggs in the nearby pond so that is where they headed. They hopped across lawns, over sidewalks, under bushes until finally they came to where they knew the pond should be. But there was no pond. There was just a big parking lot. The toads hopped around and were very confused. They didn't know that while they were sleeping in the mud, bulldozers had come and filled in their pond. Trucks and workers had covered the land with asphalt. There was no place for the toads to meet and lay their eggs. They looked for other places to lay their eggs, but there weren't any. The toads went back to their gardens. No new toads were born. When the toads became old and died, there weren't any toads to take their places. Before long, there were no toads in the neighborhood at all to eat bugs in the gardens.

BCP DRAFT SCI 95

First Grade - Science - Lesson 44 - Habitat Destruction

Ask: What in the toads' habitat had changed? (pond was gone) What had happened to the pond? (It was covered by a parking lot.)

Tell the children that people can have a big effect on habitats. They can cause changes to a habitat so that animals cannot live there anymore. Remind the children that they learned about animals that live in forests. Ask: What do you think happens when the trees are cut down and houses are built. What happens to the animals that lived in the forest? (They must find another forest to live in or die.) Ask: What happens when we clear more and more land to build more and more houses? (There is less and less forest for animals to live in.)

Tell the children that environments are always changing. Some of the changes are fast, like the pond disappearing, and some are slower. Ask the children to imagine that there was an old house. Some workers came and knocked the house down. They took away the big pile of bricks and wood and left bare earth where the house had been. Then some people in the neighborhood came with shovels and rakes. They dug holes and planted trees. They put up little fences and put seeds in the ground to grow flowers and vegetables. When the flowers bloomed, bees came looking for flower nectar. Birds built nests in the branches of the growing trees. Earthworms tunneled through the soil in the gardens. All these animals found habitats where once there was an old house. The environment had changed and now there was a place for the animals to live. People can destroy or create habitats for animals.

Ask: Are people the only ones that can create or destroy habitat? (no) Tell the children that changes in the environment aren't always caused by people. Hurricanes can knock down trees and flood streams. If there is a drought and it doesn't rain, ponds can dry up, meadows can turn brown and die. Ask: What else might change an environment? (earthquakes, volcano eruptions, landslides, forest fires) Tell the children that a family of beavers can change an environment and its habitats. If beavers gnaw down trees and build a dam across a stream to block its flow, the stream will spread out. It will flood the land to make a lake or large pond. Show the children pictures of beavers and a beaver pond from suggested books on beavers. Tell the children that when beavers create a pond, stream animals move out or die and animals that need a pond habitat move in. Trees that are flooded die. Woodpeckers come and build nests in holes they make in the dead trees. Reeds grow on the edges of the pond. Frogs swim in the still water among the reeds. Water snakes come to eat the frogs. Beavers destroyed a stream habitat but they created a pond habitat.

Ask the children if they would like to help you create a window box habitat for the school yard to attract bees, butterflies, beetles and other insects. Spread the newspaper and have the children take turns adding soil to the window box or planter. Arrange and plant the flowering annuals. Have the children help you take the window box outside in a sunny spot or a sunny area of the classroom. Choose a child to water it with the watering can. For the next few weeks, have children take turns watering it regularly and observing any bugs that move in or visit.

BCP DRAFT SCI 96

First Grade - Science - Lesson 45 - Rain Forests

Objectives

Recognize that rain forests provide habitat for two-thirds of the plants and animals on Earth.

List some animals that live in the rain forest.

Create a packing list for an expedition to a rain forest.

Predict what happens to animals when rain forests are cleared.

Materials

World map

An umbrella

Pictures of the rain forest from suggested books.

Suggested Books

Baker, Jeannie. Where the Forest Meets the Sea. New York: Scholastic, 1987. ISBN: 0590428810 A boy visits the Australian rain forest with his father. The illustrations, collages of paint, paper, clay and found materials, are magical.

Cherry, Lynne. The Great Kapok Tree. New York: Harcourt, 1990. ISBN: 015200520X A man who is chopping down a kapok tree in the rain forest decides to take a nap. In his dreams, the animals that depend upon the tree visit him to convince him to let the tree live.

Cowcher, Helen. Rain Forest. New York: Farrar Straus, 1988. ISBN: 0374361673

Dorros, Arthur. Rain Forest Secrets. New York: Scholastic, 1990. ISBN: 0590433687

Fowler, Allan. Save the Rain Forests (Rookie Read-About Science Book). Chicago: Children's Press, 1996. ISBN: 0516200291 Very simple text and close-up photos of orchids, lianas, birds, tree frogs, butterflies and other residents of the rain forest.

Gibbons, Gail. Nature's Green Umbrella: Tropical Rain Forests. New York: Morrow, 1997. ISBN: 0688123546 Illustrations show the wealth of species in various rain forests throughout the world and clearly show what happens when the rain forest is cleared.

Meeks, Arone. Enora and the Black Crane: An Aboriginal Story. New York: Scholastic, 1991. ISBN: 0590463756 In this fable, a boy's walk through the rain forest is beautifully illustrated.

Ryder, Joanne. Jaguar in the Rainforest (A Just For A Day book). New York: Morrow, 1996. ISBN: 0688129919 A jaguar's eye view of the rainforest.

Weir, Bob. Panther Dream: A Story of the African Rain Forest. Boston: Little Brown, 1990. Book and audio cassette tell the story of a boy who goes into the rain forest looking for food for his village. He meets a panther who teaches him about the unique nature of the rain forest.

Yolen, Jane. Welcome to the Green House. New York: Putnam, 1993. ISBN: 0698114450 An evocative trip to the rainforest--"This is a loud house, a bright house, a day house, a night house." Illustrations encourage exploration into each scene to look for animals and insects.

Teacher Resources

Fredericks, Anthony. Exploring the Rainforest: Science Activities for Kids. New York: Fulcrum, 1996. ISBN: 1555913040

BCP DRAFT SCI 97

First Grade - Science - Lesson 45 - Rain Forests

George, Jean Craighead. One Day in the Tropical Rainforest. New York: Crowell, 1990. A classic book from one of the premier nature writers for children.

Silver, Donald. Why Save the Rain Forest? New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993. ISBN: 0671866095 Text for older children is a good introduction to rain forests and how their destruction can affect our lives.

Children's Rainforest, P.O. Box 936, Lewiston, ME 04240. This group started by children is raising money to buy pieces of the rainforest. You can write to them for information about their project.

Perspectives in Environmental Education: Tropical Rain Forests. Nature's Course. Washington, D.C.: Center for Children's Environmental Literature, Nov./Dec. 1993. In addition to their publication Nature's Course, the Center also sponsors teacher training workshops and a camp called Camp Dave near Camp David that provides city children with outdoor education experiences. CCEL, P.O. Box 5995, Washington, D.C., (202) 966-6110.

Rainforest Action Network, 450 Sansome, Suite 700, San Francisco, CA 94111. Write to them for more information on rain forests and Adopt-An-Acre preservation projects for children.

Procedure

Ask the children to close their eyes and look with their imaginations. Ask them to imagine a jungle. Ask them what their jungles look like, sound like, smell like. Are there animals there? What kinds of animals? What do the trees look like? Are they tall? Are there snakes and beautiful butterflies and tree frogs? Have the children open their eyes. Tell them another name for jungle is tropical rain forest. Write rain forest on the board. There are rain forests in different places on Earth. Show the children on the world map areas of rain forest in Australia, Central Africa, Indonesia, Central and South America. Remind them that they studied Mexico where there are rain forests. (Maps showing these rainforests are in suggested books.)

Open the umbrella. Tell the children that one thing they may have guessed about a rain forest is that it rains a lot, almost every day. The plants soak up the rain and grow big, green and lush. Some rain forests on mountainsides are always in a mist of water. People call these misty jungles cloud forests. Mountain gorillas live in cloud forests in Africa.

Tell the children that there are more kinds of plants and animals living in rain forests than any other places in the world. Draw a circle and divide it into thirds. Color in two thirds. Tell the children that two thirds of all the plants and animals in the world live in rain forests, even though rain forests don't take up much space on Earth. Many of these plants and animals live nowhere else. In fact, scientists think most of the plants and animals in the rain forest have not even been discovered yet. That is because in the rain forest there are lots of hiding places.

Show the children a picture of a rain forest from one of the suggested books. Ask the children to imagine plants and animals living in layers. In the rain forest there are creatures that live at the bottom layer on the forest floor, overhead among the vines in the middle part of the trees and some who live high up in the tops of the trees called the canopy. In the bottom, shadowy layer, you might find leaf cutting ants, jaguars, wild pigs, deer, and armadillos. In the middle layer, you might see boa constrictors wrapped around vines, iguanas and other lizards, bright-colored parrots or toucans or one of the loudest animals in the world--a howler monkey. BCP DRAFT SCI 98

First Grade - Science - Lesson 45 - Rain Forests

High in the sunlit canopy, you might see spider monkeys, beautiful flowers called orchids, glittery hummingbirds, bats, tree frogs, a very slow-moving creature called a sloth or a giant

harpy eagle. The rain forest has habitats for them all.

Read Welcome to the Green House by Jane Yolen, Jaguar in the Rain Forest by Joanne Ryder or The Great Kapok Tree by Lynne Cherry to the children and ask them to see how many rain forest animals they can remember from the story or the illustrations when you are finished. Make a list of them on the board.

Tell the children that a lot of food and medicine plants grow in the rain forest. There is a little flower called the periwinkle that scientists found out can help cure cancer. There are other medicine plants, too, and many more to discover. Ask: Would you like to be a scientist and explore the rain forest for medicine plants or animals that have never been seen before?

Ask the children to pretend they are going on an expedition to the rain forest. What will they need to pack? Ask the children to help make a list of what they would take on the trip. Ask: What will the weather be like? (rainy, warm) Will you take a boat to travel on the river? Don't forget any equipment you might need (binoculars, microscope).

When the children are finished making their packing list, ask: Wouldn't you think that with so many animals, trees, flowers, birds, insects and medicine plants in the rain forests and so many more to be discovered that people would want to take care of the rain forests? Tell the children that the trouble is, people are cutting down the rain forests. They are cutting down all the old trees and selling the wood. They are clearing the land for farms. They are cutting down so many trees that if they don't stop, by the time the children are grown ups there will be no rain forests left. Ask: What do you think would happen to the animals that lost their rain forest habitats? (They would have no place to live and they would die.) What would happen to the medicine plants? (They would lose their habitats, too, and wouldn't grow.)

Tell the children that many people all over the world are working to make sure there will be rain forests when they are grown ups. One nine-year-old boy in Sweden (show them Sweden on the world map) decided with his friends to raise money to buy rain forest land so the trees could not be cut down. They raised enough to buy 15 acres of rain forest in Costa Rica and called it The Children's Rain Forest. (Show the children Costa Rica on the world map.) It was not a big piece of land. But then other children around the world started to help. They had projects at their schools and raised money to buy rain forest land, too. They added their pieces of land and little-by-little the Children's Rain Forest grew bigger. Today children are raising money and buying rain forest land, not just in Costa Rica but in other places as well. They want to save the rain forests and save all the animals and plants that live there.

Possible Field Trip

Rainforest exhibit at the National Aquarium at Baltimore.

Additional Activity

Objective

Write a letter to a Maryland senator urging him or her to help save the rain forest.

Teacher Resource

Address for Senator Barbara Mikulski is 253 World Trade Center, Baltimore, MD 21201 and for Senator Paul Sarbanes is 100 South Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21201.

BCP DRAFT SCI 99

First Grade - Science - Lesson 45 - Rain Forests

Procedure

Remind the children that Rachel Carson wrote about the problem of DDT poisoning the environment and people did something about it. Tell the children that they can let their law- makers know how they feel about saving the rain forest by writing to them. They can tell a Senator about the problem and how they think it might be solved. Write on the board: Dear Senator, so the children will know how to begin. Letters can be sent in one envelope. Be sure to include the school's address. When the Senator(s) respond, be sure to read the response to the children so they know they were heard.

BCP DRAFT SCI 100

First Grade - Science - Lesson 46 - Dinosaurs and Extinct Animals

Objectives

Explain what the term extinct means.

Compare the teeth and predict the diets of two dinosaurs.

Describe aspects of a dinosaur by looking at its footprints.

Materials

Pictures of dinosaurs from suggested books

Picture of dinosaur footprints for a transparency

Paper and crayons for each child

Suggested Books

Aliki. Dinosaur Bones (Let's Read And Find Out series). Originally called Digging Up Dinosaurs, New York: Trophy, 1988. A very popular book describing the work paleontologists do.

Barton, Byron. Bones, Bones, Dinosaur Bones. New York: Crowell, 1990. ISBN: 0690048270 Dinosaur detectives find, transport and assemble a dinosaur skeleton.

Davis, Susan. The Dinosaur Who Lived in My Backyard. New York: Puffin, 1990. ISBN: 0140507361 (pb) A boy imagines what it would be like to have a dinosaur.

Dixon, Dougal. Be A Dinosaur Detective. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1988. Explains how to look at dinosaur clues plus how to make dinosaur models and dinosaur activities.

Dodson, Peter. Alphabet of Dinosaurs. New York: Scholastic, 1995. ISBN: 0590464868

Grambling, Lois. Can I Have A Stegosaurus, Mom? Please? Can I? New York: Bridgewater, 1995. ISBN: 0816733864 A boy lists the reason why he should have a dinosaur pet. Charming illustrations.

Horner, John. and D. Lessem. Digging Up Tyrannosaurus Rex. New York: Crown, 1995. ISBN: 0517883368 (pb) This NSTA Outstanding Science Book explains how a complete T-rex is discovered and excavated.

Joyce, William. Dinosaur Bob and His Adventures with the Family Lazardo. New York: Harpercrest, 1995. ISBN: 0060210753 A family traveling in Africa discover a friendly dinosaur and bring him home.

Mullins, Patricia. Dinosaur Encore. New York: HarperCollins, 1993. What would dinosaurs be like if they were alive today?

Mullins, Patricia. V for Vanishing: An Alphabet of Endangered Animals. New York: HarperCollins, 1993. ISBN:0060235578 Beautiful paper collage illustrations and names of endangered species around the world with an indication of their habitats.

Rohmann, Eric. Time Flies. New York: Crown, 1994. Without words, this picture book tells the story of a bird who flies through a museum window and back to the time of the dinosaurs.

Wilkes, Angela. The Big Book of Dinosaurs: A First Book for Young Children. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1994. ISBN: 1564587185 Photographs of dinosaur models and questions to ask when comparing dinosaurs.





BCP DRAFT SCI 101

First Grade - Science - Lesson 46 - Dinosaurs and Extinct Animals

Teacher Resources

Dixon, Dougal and Barry Cox, R. J. G. Savage, Brian Gardiner. The MacMillan Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. New York: Macmillan, 1988. Contains wonderful color pictures of every sort of dinosaur with detailed information on each.

Storrs, Glenn. Tyrannosaurus. New York: Kingfisher,1994. In addition to excellent illustrations of tyrannosaurus and its remarkable teeth, this book also has a dinosaur timeline, information on dinosaur families and illustrations of what tyrannosaurus' environment may have looked like.

To join The Dinosaur Club and receive a regular newsletter for children from the Dinosaur Society, a non-profit organization that promotes dinosaur research, write Dinosaur Society, P.O. Box 87069, South Dartmouth, MA 02748. They also publish a list of recommended dinosaur books for children.

Background Information

Dinosaurs were land animals and did not fly or swim. Pterodactyls were flying reptiles, not dinosaurs. Dinosaurs lived during the Mesozoic Era. They first appeared approximately 215 million years ago and dominated the Earth for 140 million years, a very successful group of animals. (Human ancestors appeared a mere four million years ago.) Tyrannosaurus rex was the largest meat-eating dinosaur and lived during the Late Cretaceous Period, toward the end of the dinosaurs' "reign." Its name means tyrant lizard. Triceratops, or three-horned face, cropped plants with its turtle-like beak. It, too, lived during the Late Cretaceous. The mystery of what caused the dinosaurs to become extinct has no definite answer. There are several theories. The most popular one at the moment is the asteroid theory. It has been proposed that a large asteroid struck the Earth, its impact causing earthquakes and tidal waves. Pulverized earth from the impact was thrown up into the atmosphere and formed a dense cloud which spread out and blocked out the light of the sun for three to six months. Many plants and plankton died as well as the animals that fed on them. After the dust settled, water vapor remained in the air, causing a greenhouse effect that overheated the Earth. Scientists call this period the Great Dying because so many species of plants and animals disappear from the fossil record--dinosaurs were not the only animals to disappear at the end of the Cretaceous.

Procedure

Remind the children that they have been studying changes to habitats--the neighborhoods where animals and plants live. People can change animals' habitats by cutting down rain forest or building parking lots or planting gardens. Weather can change habitats, too. Hurricanes can knock down trees; too little rain can cause plants to die. Volcanoes and earthquakes can change habitats by covering them with lava and ashes or knocking down forests. Ask: What happens when an animal's habitat is destroyed? (It must find a new habitat or die.)

Write the word extinct on the board and have the children say it with you. Tell the children that when a particular kind of animal or plant has no more habitat and the very last one in the world dies, that animal or plant is called extinct. There are no more of them in the world and there never will be again. It is extinct. Tell the children that another word people use to

BCP DRAFT SCI 102

First Grade - Science - Lesson 46 - Dinosaurs and Extinct Animals

describe animals and plants is endangered. That means a plant or animal is in danger of becoming extinct, so we call it endangered.

Ask: Are dinosaurs endangered or extinct? (extinct) Tell the children that the last dinosaur died 65 million years ago, long before there were any people on Earth. Ask: What do you think happened that caused the dinosaurs to become extinct? (Accept all answers.) Ask: Do you think dinosaurs had habitats, too? Suppose the environment changed and their habitats were destroyed. Do you think that is why they became extinct? No one really knows for sure.

Tell the children that since dinosaurs lived such a long time ago, the only thing we have left of them are fossils--bones and teeth and footprints that have turned to stone. We can't go to the zoo to see live dinosaurs. We have to be detectives. We have to look at the clues we have. Remind the children that they know something about animal teeth. Ask: What kind of teeth do meat-eating animals have? (sharp pointed teeth for stabbing and tearing) Show the children a picture of Tyrannosaurus rex from suggested books. Tell them its name and that it means tyrant lizard or bully lizard. Ask: By looking at its teeth, was Tyrannosaurus rex a meat eater or a plant eater? (meat eater) Tell the children that Tyrannosaurus rex was the largest meat-eating dinosaur that scientists know about. One of its sharp teeth was bigger than a person's hand. It ate other dinosaurs. Show the children a picture of Triceratops from one of the suggested books. Tell the children the word triceratops means three-horned face. Ask the children to look at its mouth. Ask: Does this dinosaur's mouth look like a turtle's beak? From the fossil skeletons, scientists know this dinosaur had flat cheek teeth with ridges in them. What do you think this dinosaur ate? (plants) Show the children pictures of other types of dinosaurs in the suggested books and tell them that some kinds of dinosaurs were as big as a tall building and other kinds were as small as chickens. Some walked on two legs, others on four legs. Some dinosaurs laid eggs and took care of their babies in nests.

Show the children the transparency of dinosaur footprints. Ask: Suppose as dinosaur detectives you found dinosaur footprints and they looked like this. What do they tell you about the dinosaur that made them? Did this dinosaur walk on two legs? Four legs? (two legs) Did its tail drag on the ground? (No, there isn't any mark where the tail was dragging.) How many toes did this dinosaur have? (three) Do you think this dinosaur was hopping, running or walking? (running or walking, if it were hopping, the footprints would be right next to each other) Tell the children that they are very smart dinosaur detectives.

Have the children draw a picture of the dinosaur that made the footprints. Suggest that they also create a habitat for the dinosaur--did it live in a forest, a swamp, a desert? What kind of plants were there in its environment? Were there tall trees or little bushes? Were there lakes or streams? Ask them to give the dinosaur a name.















BCP DRAFT SCI 104

First Grade - Science - Lesson 46 - Dinosaurs and Extinct Animals

Suggested Books for Unit

 

Read Alouds

Allen, Judy. Tiger. New York: Candlewick, 1992. A hunter changes his mind about shooting a tiger after observing him for a while. The illustrations of the tiger are stunning.

Aardema, Verna. Bringing the Rain to Kapiti Plain. New York: Dial, 1981. Drought affects a plain in Kenya, driving the animals away until a boy finds a magic feather that brings rain.

Baker, Jeannie. Where the Forest Meets the Sea. New York: Scholastic, 1987. ISBN: 0590428810 A boy visits the Australian rain forest with his father. The illustrations, collages of paint, paper, clay and found materials, are magical.

Baker, Jeannie. Window. New York: Greenwillow, 1991. ISBN: 0688089186 Shows the changes in a neighborhood from rural to urban looking through a window.

Brown, Laurie Krasny and Marc Brown. Dinosaurs to the Rescue! Boston: Little Brown, 1992. ISBN:0-316-11087-6 Dinosaurs show how to recycle, reuse and conserve energy to take care of the environment. Includes tips on how to conserve water and some recycling projects.

Burton, Virginia Lee. The Little House. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1974 (originally 1944). ISBN: 0395181569 This Caldecott medal winner tells the story of a house in the country that is gradually engulfed by the city.

Cherry, Lynne. A River Ran Wild. New York: Harcourt, 1992. ISBN: 0152005420 The history of a New England river from Native American discovery to twentieth-century pollution and clean up. An Outstanding Science Trade Book for Children.

*Cherry, Lynne. The Great Kapok Tree. New York: Harcourt, 1990. ISBN: 015200520X A man who is chopping down a kapok tree in the rain forest decides to take a nap. In his dreams, the animals that depend upon the tree visit him to convince him to let the tree live. Cooney, Barbara. Miss Rumphius. New York: Puffin, 1982. After a full life of travel, Miss Rumphius returns to her seaside home and follows her father's advice to make the world a more beautiful place. She spreads lupine seeds wherever she goes and after several years, lupine flowers bloom everywhere on the hills and fields around her town.

Davis, Susan. The Dinosaur Who Lived in My Backyard. New York: Puffin, 1990. ISBN: 0140507361 (pb) A boy imagines what it would be like to have a dinosaur.

Fleming, Denise. Where Once There Was a Wood. New York: Henry Holt, 1996. ISBN: 0805037616 Beautiful illustrations and simple text describe a forest, meadow and stream, home to wildlife before the land becomes a housing complex. The last section includes suggestions for how to make yards more hospitable to wildlife.

Grambling, Lois. Can I Have A Stegosaurus, Mom? Please? Can I? New York: Bridgewater, 1995. ISBN: 0816733864 A boy lists the reason why he should have a dinosaur pet. Charming illustrations.

Halsey, Megan. Three Pandas Planting. New York: Bradbury, 1994. A counting book with a recycling theme.

Joyce, William. Dinosaur Bob and His Adventures with the Family Lazardo. New York: Harpercrest, 1995. ISBN: 0060210753 A family traveling in Africa discover a friendly dinosaur and bring him home.

BCP DRAFT SCI 105

First Grade - Science - Lesson 46 - Dinosaurs and Extinct Animals

Meeks, Arone. Enora and the Black Crane: An Aboriginal Story. New York: Scholastic, 1991. ISBN: 0590463756 In this fable, a boy's walk through the rain forest is beautifully illustrated.

Peet, Bill. Farewell to Shady Glade. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1966. ISBN: 0395189756 When humans invade their habitat, animals must look for a new home.

Rohmann, Eric. Time Flies. New York: Crown, 1994. Without words, this picture book tells the story of a bird who flies through a museum window and back to the time of the dinosaurs.

*Ryder, Joanne. Jaguar in the Rainforest (A Just For A Day book). New York: Morrow, 1996. ISBN: 0688129919 A jaguar's eye view of the rainforest.

Ryder, Joanne. The Snail's Spell. New York: Viking, 1988. ISBN: 014050891 (pb) A boy dreams that he has shrunk to the size of a snail and explores the garden. Beautiful illustrations by Lynne Cherry.

Showers, Paul. Where Does the Garbage Go? (A Let's Read-And -Find-Out Science book). New York: HarperCollins, 1994. 0064451143 "Each person in the U.S. creates about four pounds of trash a day. Almost half the trash we throw away could be recycled." This book is a real eyeopener. Simple illustrations show how paper, glass and plastic are recycled.

*Steig, William. Doctor DeSoto. New York: Farrar Straus, 1982. This Newbery Honor book tells the story of a mouse dentist who must treat a fox with a toothache.

Steig, William. Doctor DeSoto Goes To Africa. New York: Farrar Straus, 1986. In this sequel, Doctor DeSoto is asked to visit Africa to treat an elephant patient.

Turner, Ann. Heron Street. New York: Harper, 1989. Tells the story of a marsh over time and how human development reshaped the environment so that the animals that once lived there had to leave.

Van Allsburg, Chris. Just A Dream. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1990. ISBN: 0395533082 Walter, a litter bug, has an ecological nightmare. Stunning illustrations.

Weir, Bob. Panther Dream: A Story of the African Rain Forest. Boston: Little Brown, 1990. Book and audio cassette tell the story of a boy who goes into the rain forest looking for food for his village. He meets a panther who teaches him about the unique nature of the rain forest.

*Yolen, Jane. Welcome to the Green House. New York: Putnam, 1993. ISBN: 0698114450 An evocative trip to the rainforest--"This is a loud house, a bright house, a day house, a night house." Illustrations encourage exploration into each scene to look for animals and insects.

Yolen, Jane. Letting Swift Water Go. New York: Little Brown, 1992. When a new dam is built, a girl must leave her home in the valley before it is flooded to make a reservoir. She comes to grips with the changes to her life on a return trip to the reservoir as her father points out where old landmarks once stood.

Reference

Accorsi, William. Rachel Carson. New York: Holiday House, 1993. ISBN: 0823409945

Aliki. Dinosaur Bones (Let's Read And Find Out series). Originally called Digging Up Dinosaurs, New York: Trophy, 1988. A very popular book describing the work paleontologists do.



BCP DRAFT SCI 106

First Grade - Science - Lesson 46 - Dinosaurs and Extinct Animals

Barton, Byron. Bones, Bones, Dinosaur Bones. New York: Crowell, 1990. ISBN: 0690048270 Dinosaur detectives find, transport and assemble a dinosaur skeleton.

Clarke, Barry. Amazing Frogs and Toads (Eyewitness Junior). New York: Knopf, 1991. ISBN: 0679906886

Cowcher, Helen. Rain Forest. New York: Farrar Straus, 1988. ISBN: 0374361673

Dixon, Dougal. Be A Dinosaur Detective. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1988. Explains how to look at dinosaur clues plus how to make dinosaur models and dinosaur activities.

Dodson, Peter. Alphabet of Dinosaurs. New York: Scholastic, 1995. ISBN: 0590464868

Dorros, Arthur. Rain Forest Secrets. New York: Scholastic, 1990. ISBN: 0590433687

Earthworks Group, 50 Simple Things Kids Can Do to Recycle. Earthworks, 1994.

Fowler, Allan. Recycle That! Chicago: Childrens Press, 1995. ISBN: 051646331

Fowler, Allan. Too Much Trash. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1996. ISBN: 0516460420

Fowler, Allan. Save the Rain Forests (Rookie Read-About Science Book). Chicago: Children's Press, 1996. ISBN: 0516200291 Very simple text and close-up photos of orchids, lianas, birds, tree frogs, butterflies and other residents of the rain forest.

Gibbons, Gail. Nature's Green Umbrella: Tropical Rain Forests. New York: Morrow, 1997. ISBN: 0688123546 Illustrations show the wealth of species in various rain forests throughout the world and clearly show what happens when the rain forest is cleared. Gibbons, Gail. Recycle! A Handbook for Kids. Boston: Little Brown, 1992. ISBN: 0316309710 Explains how products are recycled and how recyling reduces waste and pollution.

Goor, Ron and Nancy. Heads. New York: Atheneum, 1988. Contains a section called Mouths with an array of photos of animals with their mouths wide open.

Green, Carol and Steven Dobson. Rachel Carson: Friend of Nature (Rookie Biography series). Chicago: Childrens Press, 1993. ISBN: 0516442295

Gross, Ruth. Questions and Answers About What Animals Eat. New York: Scholastic, 1995.

Horner, John. and D. Lessem. Digging Up Tyrannosaurus Rex. New York: Crown, 1995. ISBN: 0517883368 (pb) This NSTA Outstanding Science Book explains how a complete T-rex is discovered and excavated.

Jaspersohn, William. How the Forest Grew. New York: Greenwillow, 1989. ISBN: 068880232X Follows the growth of a forest from cleared farmland two hundred years ago.

Kalas, Sybille. Beaver Family Book. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1987. ISBN: 0887080502 Lauber, Patricia. Be A Friend to Trees. New York: HarperCollins, 1994. Explains why we need trees and how they keep air clean. Also outlines how we can save trees from being cut down be recycling.

Lauber, Patricia. What Big Teeth You Have. New York: Harpercrest, 1992. Lauber explains how to tell an animal's diet from its teeth.

Mullins, Patricia. Dinosaur Encore. New York: HarperCollins, 1993. What would dinosaurs be like if they were alive today?

Mullins, Patricia. V for Vanishing: An Alphabet of Endangered Animals. New York: HarperCollins, 1993. ISBN:0060235578 Beautiful paper collage illustrations and names of endangered species around the world with an indication of their habitats.

Parker, Nancy Wilson. Frogs, Toads, Lizards and Salamanders. New York: Greenwillow, 1990. ISBN: 0688086810 Great illustration of toad.





BCP DRAFT SCI 107

First Grade - Science - Lesson 46 - Dinosaurs and Extinct Animals

Parker, Steve. Mammal (Eyewitness series). New York: Knopf, 1989. Very good illustrations of mammal skulls.

Parker, Steve. Skeleton (Eyewitness series). New York: Knopf, 1988. A fascinating book with illustrations to show the differences between the skulls and teeth of various families of animals.

Ransom, Candice. Listening to Crickets: A Story About Rachel Carson. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda, 1993. ISBN: 087614279 A story that emphasizes Rachel Carson's persistence and commitment.

Rounds, Glen. Beaver, How He Works. New York: Holiday House, 1976. ISBN: 0823402878 Sabin, Francene. Rachel Carson: Friend of the Earth (Easy Biography series). Mahwah, NJ: Troll, 1992.

Schlank, Carol and Barbara Metzger. A Clean Sea: The Rachel Carson Story. Culver City, CA: Cascade Pass, 1995. ISBN: 1880599163 The American Association for the Advancement of Science in their publication called Science Books and Films said, "This is an excellent book that introduces the very young to one of our finest 20th century naturalists who was also a pioneer advocate for cleaning up the environment." Very engaging illustrations.

*Tresselt, Alvin. Beaver Pond. New York: Morrow, 1970. ISBN: 0688411231 Examines habitat beavers created and creatures that live there.

Vogel, Carole and Kathryn Goldner. The Great Yellowstone Fire. Boston: Little Brown, 1990. Shows the devastation of a forest fire and the longer term effects.

Wiesner, David. Hurricane. New York: Clarion, 1990. ISBN: 0395543827 Two brothers ride out a hurricane safe inside. The next morning they discover an uprooted tree. Demonstrates the force for environmental change a storm can be.

Wilkes, Angela. My First Green Book. New York: Knopf, 1991. Easy experiments to illustrate the effects of environmental pollution.

Wilkes, Angela. The Big Book of Dinosaurs: A First Book for Young Children. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1994. ISBN: 1564587185 Photographs of dinosaur models and questions to ask when comparing dinosaurs.

Teacher Resources

Carlson, Laurie. EcoArt. Charlotte, VT: Williamson Publishing, 1993. ISBN: 0913589683 Great project ideas in the section Treasures from Trash. Envelope puppets are on page 141.

Children's Rainforest, P.O. Box 936, Lewiston, ME 04240 This group started by children is raising money to buy pieces of the rainforest. You can write them for information about their project.

Dinosaur Society, P.O. Box 87069, South Dartmouth, MA 02748. They also publish a list of recommended dinosaur books for children.

Dixon, Dougal and Barry Cox, R. J. G. Savage, Brian Gardiner. The Macmillan Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. New York: Macmillan, 1988. Contains wonderful color pictures of every sort of dinosaur with detailed information on each.

Fredericks, Anthony. Exploring the Rainforest: Science Activities for Kids. New York: Fulcrum, 1996. ISBN: 1555913040





BCP DRAFT SCI 108

First Grade - Science - Lesson 46 - Dinosaurs and Extinct Animals

George, Jean Craighead. One Day in the Tropical Rainforest. New York: Crowell, 1990. A classic book from one of the premier nature writers for children.

Naturescope: Amazing Mammals. Washington, D.C.: National Wildlife Federation, 1986.

Perspectives in Environmental Education: Tropical Rain Forests. Nature's Course. Washington, D.C.: Center for Children's Environmental Literature, Nov./Dec. 1993. In addition to their publication Nature's Course, the Center also sponsors teacher training workshops and a camp called Camp Dave near Camp David that provides city children with outdoor education experiences. CCEL, P.O. Box 5995, Washington, D.C., (202) 966-6110.

Rainforest Action Network, 450 Sansome, Suite 700, San Francisco, CA 94111. Write them for more information on rain forests and Adopt-An-Acre preservation projects for children. Ravage, Barbara. Rachel Carson: Protecting Our Environment. Austin, TX: Steck-Vaughn, 1997. This indepth look at Carson's life and the history of the environmental movement contains several photos of Carson as a child and of planes spraying DDT.

Silver, Donald. Why Save the Rain Forest? New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993. ISBN: 0671866095 Text for older children is a good introduction to rain forests and how their destruction can affect our lives.

Steidl, Kim. Environmental Portraits: People Making A Difference for the Environment. Carthage, IL: Good Apple, 1993.

Storrs, Glenn. Tyrannosaurus. New York: Kingfisher, 1994. In addition to excellent illustrations of Tyrannosaurus and its remarkable teeth, this book also has a dinosaur timeline, information on dinosaur families and illustrations of what a tyrannosaur's environment may have looked like.

Wadsworth, Ginger. Rachel Carson: Voice for the Earth. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1992. ISBN: 0822549077 Also available with an audio cassette. ISBN: 1883332214



































*Required or strongly recommended for lesson