BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 81

First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Westward Expansion - Overview

The March lessons for History and Geography center around what happened after the American Revolution. These four lessons explain how America quickly grew following the conclusion of the war. The students will learn about Daniel Boone and the Wilderness Road, the Louisiana Purchase and the exploration of Lewis and Clark. The geographies of these events are presented in a map titled The United States of America in 1803. This map will be developed in each lesson.

America's westward growth will be studied again in grade two and in greater depth and detail in grade five. First grade teachers should limit the study of the Westward Expansion to the lessons presented here.

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First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 33

Objectives

Review the conclusion of The American Revolution.

Locate the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River.

Define the term pioneer.

Materials

A classroom size U.S. map

The map The United States of America in 1803 (attached)

Crayons

Procedure

Say: We have concluded our studies about the American Revolution. Now let's see what happened next to our country.

Ask: Do you remember why the colonists fought the American Revolution? (to gain independence from English rule)

Ask: Did America win its freedom? Who was elected as the first United States president? (George Washington)

Say: The years following the American Revolution brought many changes to the United States. The leaders of the new American nation wrote an important document that set up the rules and laws for our country. It is called The Constitution of the United States.

Ask: Do you think it was important to write down the rules and laws of our county? Why? (Allow children to respond.)

Say: Now the United States has settled the issue of rules and laws. George Washington has been the president for two terms. Ask: Do you remember how many years that would make George Washington the president? (Guide children to recall one term is four years.)

Say: Remember how America started with thirteen colonies? After Washington was president for the second time, there were nearly five million Americans living in the United States. America was growing--growing fast!

Draw attention to the map. Locate the Appalachian mountains. Say: During colonial times, these mountains stood like a wall keeping the colonists close to the Atlantic Ocean. These mountains are called the Appalachians. Ask: Why do you think they kept the colonists close to the ocean? (Allow children to speculate. Ask: How would you cross a mountain? Would there be any dangers? What would you do to prepare for a trip across the mountains? Guide the children to conclude that modern transportation was not available to the colonists. Crossing the mountains would be very dangerous and difficult for the colonists.)

Say: After the American Revolution, however, people called pioneers began to follow American Indian trails through these mountains.

Say: Pioneers are people who lead the way into a land unknown to them. Ask: Would you like to be a pioneer? What might be some of the dangers of being a pioneer?

Say: These pioneers were the first people who were not American Indians to travel and live west of the Appalachians. (Point to Kentucky and Tennessee on the map.) They found forests and soil suitable for farming. The pioneers knew this area would be good for hunting and growing crops.

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Point to the Mississippi River. Say: As the pioneers headed farther west they found the

Mississippi River. The Mississippi River is the longest river in the United States. The lands west of the Mississippi were a great mystery. No American colonists had ever traveled to this region of the United States.

Say: It would take some brave pioneers to explore the unknown lands of the Appalachian Mountains and the land west of the Mississippi River. We will learn about one of those brave pioneers in our next lesson.

Distribute the map The United States of America in 1803. You may wish to make an overhead transparency of the map to use as a guide for the children.

Instruct the children to locate the Appalachian Mountains. They should color the mountains green. Instruct the children to locate the Mississippi River. They should trace over the dotted line with a blue crayon. They may also color the Great Lakes blue. Direct the children to lightly shade the area labeled United States of America 1803 (The area from the coastline to the Mississippi River). The areas shaded with a slash line indicate territories that were not owned by the United States. Instruct the students to leave these areas white. Compare the map of 1803 to the current United States map. The other areas of the map will be developed in future lessons. Therefore, do not send the maps home.

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First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 34

Objectives

Review the term pioneer.

Identify Daniel Boone and the Wilderness Road.

Materials

A classroom size U.S. map

The United States of America in 1803 map

A red crayon

One of the titles suggested below to read aloud

Suggested Titles

Greene, Carol. Daniel Boone: Man of the Forest. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1990.

This "Rookie Biography" is written in simple language and large print. It can be read aloud.

Stevenson, Augusta. Daniel Boone: Young Hunter and Tracker. New York: Macmillan, 1986.

This biography is part of the "Childhood of Famous Americans" series. The simple text makes it suitable for reading aloud.

Wilkie, Katharine. Daniel Boone: Taming the Wilds. New York: Chelsea House, 1991.

Part of the "Discovery Biographies" series, this book presents the story of Daniel Boone and the Wilderness Road in simple text. This book is appropriate to use as a read-aloud.

Procedure

Ask: Who remembers what a pioneer is? (Pioneers are people who lead the way into a land unknown to them.)

Say: Today we are going to learn about a famous pioneer. His name was Daniel Boone.

Daniel Boone led settlers through the Appalachian Mountains to unsettled lands on the other side.

Ask: What do you think some of the dangers might be in crossing the mountains? (Allow children to speculate.)

Read one of the titles suggested above. If you do not have access to a read-aloud book about Daniel Boone, the following information should be shared with the students.

Daniel Boone came from a family of pioneers. When Daniel was a boy, America still belonged to England. The American Revolution had not been fought. Daniel, his mother and father, and eleven brothers and sisters lived in Pennsylvania. (Locate Pennsylvania on the map.)

When Daniel was a teenager, his family left Pennsylvania because they thought it had become too crowded. Daniel Boone and his family traveled by covered wagon to North Carolina. (Locate North Carolina on the map. Note the distance between the two states.)

The place Daniel's father chose to settle his family was good for hunting. Daniel hunted in the woods. He often brought home deer and bear. He became a very good hunter.

Daniel Boone grew up in North Carolina. He married a dark-haired girl named Rebecca. Daniel and Rebecca had several children. As soon as his sons were old enough, Daniel taught them how to hunt. In the spring and summer Daniel would farm. In the fall he hunted, and in the winter he trapped small animals. He made many long trips into the forest. He enjoyed exploring

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so much that once he even went as far south as Florida. (Locate Florida on the map.)

A few years later Daniel Boone decided to pack up his family. He wanted to move his wife and children to new land. They would have to travel through the Appalachian Mountains to get to this new land called Kentucky. (Locate Kentucky and the Appalachians on the map.)

Daniel Boone led a group of five families across the mountains toward Kentucky. But on the way they were attacked by a tribe of American Indians. The American Indians wanted to keep their hunting ground for themselves. They felt too many white men were coming into their area. Six pioneers were killed. One of them was Daniel's son James. The pioneers decided to turn back. Daniel and his family were sad because of James' death. They went to a place where they felt safe, but they did not go all the way back to North Carolina.

A few years later a friend of Daniel's decided to try and buy parts of Kentucky from a friendly American Indian tribe living there. The Indians traded the lands of Kentucky to Daniel's friend for some guns, some red cloth, some beads and pins, and little mirrors.

Daniel's friend then asked Daniel and thirty other men to cut a road through the wilderness to the Kentucky River. Daniel Boone led the way, using his ax to mark trees to show the route. The other men followed, cutting down the marked trees and bushes to make a trail.

The men did not stop until they reached the Kentucky River. Here they began to build a fort. They named the little settlement Boonesborough in honor of Daniel Boone.

Daniel Boone went back to get his family. Some of the children had grown up and married while Daniel was away. Daniel, his wife Rebecca and their thirteen-year-old daughter Jemima, traveled the path Daniel and his men had carved out. Jemima and Rebecca were the first white women to stand on the bank of the Kentucky River.

Later, this narrow trail became known as the Wilderness Road. It would be traveled by settlers with their horses, wagons and cattle. The trip was long and hard through the Appalachian Mountains. The Wilderness Road was little more than a rough, stump-filled trail. Within five years however, the Wilderness Road became jammed with settlers. Within ten years enough people were living in Kentucky to make it the first state west of the Appalachians.

Daniel Boone is remembered as "the pathfinder," the man who led the pioneers into the western wilderness.

 

Following the book you read or the information you shared, distribute the maps started in Lesson 33. Review the location of the Appalachian Mountains. Assist the children in identifying North Carolina and Kentucky. Be sure the children note the Appalachians separate the two states. Instruct the children to draw over the dotted line showing the Wilderness Road with a red crayon. Save the maps for future lessons.

Suggested Follow-Up Activity

Take the children outside or to a large playing area and teach them the game "Follow Me."

Directions for "Follow Me"

Arrange the children in a large circle, each standing with one foot on a marker (squares of cardboard; individual mats; or beanbags). Assign one student to be "Daniel Boone." The student selected as Daniel Boone moves around the circle, pointing at or tapping different players and

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asking them to follow him/her along the Wilderness Road. Each player chosen falls in line behind Daniel Boone. Daniel Boone then takes the group on a pretend trip along the Wilderness Road (the child may move in and out of the circle of standing children; around the inside of the circle; around the outside of the circle; anywhere in the designated play area.) Daniel Boone may hop, skip, trot, gallop, etc., and the children following must do likewise. The teacher signals with a whistle, bell or call "Home." All the players on the trip must run back to the circle to any of the vacant markers. The first child back to the circle at a designated marker is the next Daniel Boone and the play continues.

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First Grade - American Civilization/Geography - Lesson 35

Objectives

Review Thomas Jefferson's contributions to America.

Identify Thomas Jefferson as America's third president.

Gain an understanding of the significance of the Louisiana Purchase.

Locate the area known as the Louisiana Purchase.

Materials

A classroom size U.S. and world map

The United States of America in 1803 map

A yellow crayon

Suggested Title

Monjo, F.N. Grand Papa and Ellen Aroon. New York: Dell, 1990.

Based on primary sources, this story, told through Jefferson's nine-year-old granddaughter, gives a child's perspective to Jefferson's presidency. This book is appropriate to read aloud.

Procedure

Say: Today we are going to learn more about one of the famous men we met during our lessons on the American Revolution. We are going to find out more about Thomas Jefferson.

Ask: What are some of the things you remember about this famous American? (Allow children to recall information previously presented through books read aloud and Hist/Geog Lesson 25. Children should recall Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence.)

Say: We know that George Washington was America's first president. Washington was elected to two terms. A man named John Adams was America's second president. Americans elected Thomas Jefferson as the third president of the United States.

Ask: Why do you think the people of America wanted Thomas Jefferson as their president? (Allow children to discuss the virtues of Thomas Jefferson.)

Say: Thomas Jefferson was a good president. He wanted all Americans to feel that the new city of Washington, D.C. belonged to them. He opened the doors of the White House each morning to visitors.

Show the map The United States of America in 1803. Point out the area owned by the United States. Remind the children that Daniel Boone led settlers into Kentucky making it the newest state. Say: This is the area owned by the United States at the time Thomas Jefferson was elected president.

Locate New Orleans on the classroom map. Say: This is the city of New Orleans. This city was not part of the United States. Look carefully at its location. Point to the Mississippi River. Ask: What river is this that runs through New Orleans?

Point to Louisiana. Say: France owned this part of North America. (Locate France on the world map. Draw attention to the distance from France to Louisiana. Allow children to discuss how difficult it would be for France to control the area of Louisiana.)

Say: Jefferson was worried that France controlled this area of North America. Ask: Can you tell by looking at the map what might have worried Jefferson? (Draw attention to the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico; allow children to speculate.)

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Say: Jefferson feared that France might close New Orleans to Americans. Farmers sent their crops down the Mississippi River to be sold. If France decided to close this important city, American farmers would not have a place to sell their crops.

Ask: If you were Thomas Jefferson, what would you do about this situation? (Allow children to respond.)

Say: Jefferson sent his friend James Monroe to France with an offer to buy the city of New Orleans. To his surprise, Monroe returned with an agreement to buy not only New Orleans but all of Louisiana from France. Jefferson could hardly believe the news. The area of Louisiana at that time was nearly the same size as all of the United States of that time! Thomas Jefferson purchased Louisiana from France and doubled the size of the United States.

Show the map The United States of America in 1803. Note the area west of the Mississippi River outlined in a heavy dark line. Say: This is the area Thomas Jefferson purchased from France. It is called The Louisiana Purchase. (Be sure the students note the size of the Louisiana Purchase and how it doubled the land owned by the United States.)

Ask: Have you ever heard someone say: "I got a bargain"? What did the person mean? (Allow children to respond.)

Say: They probably meant that they bought something for a lot less money than it was worth.

Say: Thomas Jefferson bought this large area of land from France for a very low price. Thomas Jefferson got a bargain!

Ask: What do you think Jefferson will do with all of that land? (Allow children to speculate. Guide them to recall that Daniel Boone led settlers to Kentucky, but settlers had not traveled over the Mississippi River. American Indians lived in this area and some American men who worked as trappers. The area known as the Louisiana Purchase was considered unknown lands by most people at that time.)

Distribute the map The United States of America in 1803. Instruct the children to color the area labeled The Louisiana Purchase yellow. Collect the maps and save for Lesson 36.

Suggested Follow-Up Activity

You may wish to read the book suggested above.

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Objectives

Identify Lewis and Clark.

Identify Sacagawea.

Locate the Rocky Mountains.

Materials

A classroom size U.S. map

The United States of America in 1803 map

A brown crayon

One of the titles suggested below to read aloud

Suggested Titles

de Kay, Ormonde. The Adventures of Lewis and Clark. New York: Random House, 1968.

Large print and simple text make this book a good choice for reading aloud.

Gleiter, Jan and Kathleen Thompson. Sacagawea. Milwaukee: Raintree, 1987.

This book provides a good deal of information about the Lewis and Clark expedition framed within a life story of Sacagawea. This is a good read-aloud choice.

Kroll, Steven. Lewis and Clark: Explorers of the American West.New York: Holiday House, 1994.

This beautifully illustrated book provides fascinating details about the Lewis and Clark expedition. The picture-book format makes it a good choice for reading aloud.

Seymour, Flora Warren. Sacagawea: American Pathfinder. New York: Macmillan, 1991.

This biography is part of the "Childhood of Famous Americans" series. It is appropriate for reading aloud.

Procedure

Say: We have learned that Thomas Jefferson bought a large section of land from France. Ask: Do you remember what that land purchase was called? (The Louisiana Purchase)

Ask: What do you think Thomas Jefferson will do with all that new land? (Review discussion from Lesson 35.)

Say: Jefferson was filled with questions about the new territory. His maps showed Louisiana as an empty space stretching from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains. (Locate the Rocky Mountains on the classroom map.) Jefferson knew nothing about this land except wild stories told by trappers. (Identify trappers as men who traveled in search of small animals that could be captured by traps. The trappers sold the fur they gathered from the animals they killed.)

Say: Jefferson decided to send some pioneers to explore this new land. Ask: What is a pioneer? (Pioneers are people who lead the way into a land unknown to them.) Ask: What famous pioneer have we already studied? (Daniel Boone) What new land did he explore? (Kentucky)

Say: Jefferson sent a group of men to travel and explore all the new land he had just purchased. He named two men to be the leaders of the group. They were Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Jefferson told Lewis and Clark to take notes about everything they saw. He told them to draw pictures of what the land looked like, the plants and animals they saw, even the

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American Indians they would meet.

Say: On a rainy May morning the group of men, led by Lewis and Clark, left the city of St. Louis in three boats. (Locate St. Louis on the classroom map. Point to the Missouri River where the expedition started.)

Say: The explorers had quite an adventure. Along the way they added to their group of travelers. One of the most important people they met was an American Indian woman named Sacagawea (sak-uh-juh-WEE-uh).

Read one of the books listed above. All of the titles listed above give factual information about the expedition including the role of Sacagawea. If you do not have access to a book about the Lewis and Clark expedition, the following information should be shared with the students.

Lewis and Clark made careful preparations for their journey. Fifty men were hired. Many of them spoke different American Indian languages. Lewis and Clark gathered large amounts of clothing, tools, medical supplies, guns and ammunition. They also collected food such as flour, cornmeal, and salt. They knew they would have to hunt for most of their food.

Lewis and Clark also bought goods to trade and to give to the American Indians they would meet along the way. These items included fish hooks, needles, beads, silk ribbons, and little mirrors. All these items were loaded onto one large boat and two small ones on the Missouri River near the town of St. Louis. (Locate St. Louis on the map.)

On a rainy May morning, Lewis and Clark and their group of explorers climbed into their boats and began their journey. The group moved slowly west along the Missouri River (Locate the Missouri River on the map.) It was a difficult trip. Rowing the boats caused blisters and the mosquitoes were constantly biting. There were always challenges: finding food; traveling through unknown areas without a map; collecting rare flowers and plants; and making peaceful contact with the American Indians they met along the way. But the men were rewarded with beautiful views of rolling grasslands and spring wildflowers.

The first winter, the group lived with an American Indian tribe called the Mandans who lived in the area we know today as North Dakota. (Locate North Dakota on the map.) At this camp, the explorers decided to hire a French-Canadian fur trapper as their guide. They also decided to have the trapper's wife, Sacagawea, and her newborn son accompany them. Sacagawea was from the American Indian tribe called the Shoshone. She had been kidnaped by other American Indians when she was eleven years old. Lewis and Clark believed that if they traveled with an American Indian woman and her baby, the American Indians whom they met would understand that the group was on a peaceful mission.

The next spring the explorers continued west along the Missouri River. This time they traveled in six canoes that they had made during the winter. By summer they reached the Rocky Mountains near what is present-day Montana. (Locate the Rocky Mountains and Montana on the map.) This land was Sacagawea's home land. One day a group of Shoshone Indians approached the group. Sacagawea danced with joy when she saw them. She had found her people! Her brother was now their chief. Sacagawea had not seen her brother for five years.

Lewis and Clark talked with Sacagawea's brother. They explained that the group of explorers needed to cross the Rocky Mountains before the winter snows started. The explorers would need horses in order to travel through the mountains. The groups talked and traded for several hours. Sacagawea's brother gave the group horses and showed Lewis and Clark the way

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through the Rocky Mountains.

From the Rocky Mountains, Lewis and Clark followed the Snake River and then the Columbia River. (Locate these two rivers on the map.) Finally the group saw the Pacific Ocean. "Great joy . . ." Clark wrote in his journal. "We are in view of the Ocean . . . this great Pacific Ocean." (Locate the Pacific Ocean.)

The following spring, the group started back home. In September 1806, after being away for two years, the group of explorers returned to St. Louis. Many people had given them up for dead. But only one man died along the way. Thomas Jefferson greeted Lewis and Clark with "unspeakable joy." He was even happier when he saw the plants, animals, and boxes of notes and maps they had brought back with them.



Following the reading of the book you selected or the information you shared, distribute the maps The United States of America in 1803. The route of Lewis and Clark's expedition west is marked with a dotted line from St. Louis to the Pacific Ocean. The route back east is not marked on this map. Instruct the students to trace over the route with an orange crayon. Instruct the children to color the Rocky Mountain area with a brown crayon. The map is now completed. You may wish to use them on a bulletin board display, or send them home.

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Bibliography

Suggested Read Aloud Titles

*de Kay, Ormonde. The Adventures of Lewis and Clark. New York: Random House, 1968.

*Gleiter, Jan and Kathleen Thompson. Sacagawea. Milwaukee: Raintree, 1987.

*Greene, Carol. Daniel Boone: Man of the Forest. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1990.

*Kroll, Steven. Lewis and Clark: Explorers of the American West. New York: Holiday House, 1994.

*Monjo, F.N. Grand Papa and Ellen Aroon. New York: Dell, 1990.

*Seymour, Flora Warren. Sacagawea: American Pathfinder. New York: Macmillan, 1991.

*Stevenson, Augusta. Daniel Boone: Young Hunter and Tracker. New York: Macmillan, 1986.

*Wilkie, Katharine. Daniel Boone: Taming the Wilds. New York: Chelsea House, 1991.

* indicates annotation in a lesson