BCP DRAFT HIST 8



Baltimore Curriculum Project Draft Lessons

Introductory Notes

These lessons generally follow the grade-by-grade topics in the Core Knowledge Sequence, but they have been developed independent of the Core Knowledge Foundation. While the Core Knowledge Foundation encourages the development and sharing of lessons based on the Core Knowledge Sequence, it does not endorse any one set of lesson plans as the best or only way that the knowledge in the Sequence should be taught.

You may feel free to download and distribute these lessons, but please note that they are currently in DRAFT form. At this time the draft lessons on this web site do NOT have accompanying graphics, such as maps or cut-out patterns. Graphics will be added to this site later.

In participating BCP schools, these lessons are used in conjunction with the Direct Instruction skills programs in reading, language, and math. If you use or adapt these lessons, keep in mind that they are meant to address content and the application of skills. You will need to use other materials to ensure that children master skills in reading, language, and math.

First Grade - American Civilization - Lesson 4

Objectives

Become familiar with Mayan culture.

Color and create a model of a Mayan structure (a stellae).

Materials

Mayan stellae worksheet, crayons, tape

Teacher Resources

Baquedano, Elizabeth. Aztecs, Inca & Maya. New York: Knopf, 1993.

McKissack, Patricia C. The Maya: A New True Book. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1985.

Suggested Books

Lattimore, Deborah Nourse. Why There Is No Arguing In Heaven. New York: Harper & Row, 1989.

Wisniewski, David. Rain Player. New York: Clarion, 1991.

Background Information

The Mayan civilization was located in the area of what is now Central America and Mexico (250-900 AD). The Maya were accomplished scientists. They were knowledgeable about astrology and developed a calendar that was amazingly accurate. It had 365 days with months consisting of twenty days each. The remaining five days were extra and considered unlucky days. The Mayans were very superstitious people and did not plan any activities on days that were considered unlucky days. There were also different calendars for agriculture and religion. Religion played a big part in the lives of the Maya through rituals and celebrations. The Maya believed in hundreds of gods whom they worshiped and who they believed protected the Mayan people.

The Maya were the first people in the Americas to have a written language. It consisted of picture symbols called "hieroglyphs" (also called glyphs). Hieroglyphs were put in books and carved on stones pillars called stellae to record historic events, instructions for planting crops, or how and when to perform ceremonies.

They created elaborate jewelry to wear and they wore tattoos as symbols of importance. Important people carried feather fans; the bigger the fan, the more important the person.

One of the best preserved buildings is a pyramid called El Castillo (the castle). It was a temple that was built at the top of 365 steps, one for each day of the year.

Procedure

Pick out facts to read to the children from the background information above or read selections from The Maya: A New True Book by Patricia McKissack to give them an introduction to the Mayan civilization. Then read to the children Why There is No Arguing in Heaven by Deborah Nourse Lattimore or another book to the children that shows Mayan-inspired art or gives insight into Mayan culture. Make sure to point out the style of art used in the illustrations.

Tell the children that the Maya recorded information on stone pillars called stellae. (There is a nice illustration of a Mayan stellae at the end of Why There is No Arguing in Heaven.) They BCP DRAFT HIST 9

First Grade - American Civilization - Lesson 4

would use instruments made out of stone and animal bones to engrave picture symbols or hieroglyphs into the pillars to record history, information about their religion, and instructions for farming. Have children make their own stellaes using the attached worksheet. Give each child a

worksheet version of a Mayan stellae. The worksheet is divided into three sections. Have the children color the two Mayan-inspired designs and pictures and then draw their own picture in the center. When they have finished, have the children fold the worksheet on the lines and then tape the ends of the worksheet to form a triangular column.

 

Optional Activity

Tell the children that the Maya only used three symbols in their number system. Zero was represented by sort of an oval-shaped shell design. Ones were shown by dots and fives were shown as straight lines. (Example shown below.) Write addition and subtraction problems using single digits on the board. Also, draw a key on the board for the children to use. Have the children work out the problems with you, using the key. You may also want to have the children work in pairs to make up simple math problems. They could then trade with another pair and work out the new problems with their partner.

BCP DRAFT HIST 10

First Grade - American Civilization - Lesson 5

Objectives

Become acquainted with the Aztec civilization.

Become familiar with the way the Aztecs used pictures to represent a written language.

Develop a story using pictures to represent the story.

Materials

Glyph worksheet

For Optional Activity: paper plates, triangles cut from construction or tissue paper, glue, crayons

Teacher Resources

Baquedano, Elizabeth. Aztecs, Inca & Maya. New York: Knopf, 1993.

Hicks, Peter. The Aztecs. New York: Thomson Learning, 1993.

McKissack, Patricia. The Aztec: A New True Book. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1985.

Nicholson, Robert and Claire Watts. Journey into Civilization: The Aztecs. New York: Chelsea Juniors, 1994.

Wood, Tim. See Through History: The Aztecs. New York: Penguin, 1994.

Suggested Books

Kirtland, G. B. One Day in Aztec Mexico. San Diego: HBJ, 1992.

Lattimore, Deborah Nourse. The Flame of Peace. New York: Harper & Row, 1987.

Ober, Hal. How Music Came to the World. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1994.

Palacios, Argentina. The Hummingbird King. A Guatemalan Legend. New York: Troll, 1993.

Background Information

The Aztecs were the last tribe to take control of the Valley of Mexico (1200-1500 AD). They came upon an island in Lake Texcoco and established their city of Tenochtitlan there in 1325, which became the center of the Aztec empire. According to Aztec legend, a god told them to go in search of a place to build a city. They would know this place when they saw an eagle eating a snake while sitting on a cactus. They supposedly saw this sight on an island in Lake Texcoco and that is where Tenochtitlan was built. Mexico City now stands on the former sight of Tenochtitlan and the Aztec inspired symbol of an eagle perched on a cactus holding a snake in its mouth is on the flag of Mexico.

The Aztecs were warlike people and created their empire by conquering surrounding tribes. They captured people from other tribes and enslaved them. The Aztecs were mainly sun worshipers and they conducted ceremonies to keep the sun god happy.

They created a calendar and studied the stars to predict changes and events. The Aztec people had a 360 day calendar. Like the Mayan calendar it had 18 months with twenty days in each month. The five extra days were called "empty days." During those five days all work stopped, no fires were made, and the people fasted. At the end of those days a new fire was lit, the calendar began again, and everyday life began again.

Like the Egyptians, the Aztecs used pictures to represent words and communicate/record information. For instance, a drawing of a foot meant travel. The Aztecs recorded their history,

religion, daily life, and they also wrote poetry

BCP DRAFT HIST 11

First Grade - American Civilization - Lesson 5

Note to the Teacher

We do not suggest discussing the Aztec practice of human sacrifice at the first grade level. It may be profoundly disturbing to some children or enthralling to others--neither of which is a desired effect.

Procedure

Read one of the stories listed below or give the children an overview of the Aztecs from the background information above or from selections from the book Aztec Indians: A New True Book by Patricia McKissack.

Tell the children that the Aztecs painted large pictures on the wall and ceilings of their buildings called murals. Many of the murals included special pictures from which you can get information. These special pictures are called glyphs. The Aztec glyphs helped keep a record of stories of animals or of events in Aztec history. Draw Aztec symbols on the board in a row to

represent a story. Draw more than one row so that you can interpret and "read" the first story to the children, and then have volunteers from the class try to tell a story following the glyphs from the other rows with your help. Then write a sentence on the board and have the children either come up to the board to draw symbols that could represent the words or have the children describe the symbols so that you could draw them in on the board. Next have the children work independently on the glyph worksheets. Have them match the pictures with the words they represent. The last row on the worksheet is left blank so that each child can then draw in their

own pictures to tell a story. Ask for volunteers to tell a story using the pictures and words from the first two rows. Then ask for volunteers to show the pictures they drew to the class while explaining the story that their pictures represent.

Optional Activity

The most important Aztec god was Huitzilopochtli, the god of sun and war. Today the sun is still an important theme in Mexican and Central American art and crafts. Have the children make their own sun-shaped craft project. Give each child a paper plate and about a dozen triangles or other shapes cut out of construction or tissue paper. Have the children color and decorate the faces of their suns and then paste the shapes around the outside edge of the paper plate to make the sun's rays. You may want to put a hole at the top of the sun and hang the finished projects in your room. (See the examples below.)

BCP DRAFT HIST 12

First Grade - American Civilization - Lesson 6

Objectives

Become familiar with the culture of the Inca.

Complete a craft project.

Locate North and South America on a world map.

Materials

Classroom size world map

Picture of Inca-inspired black cat, cat's body worksheet, crayons

Teacher Resources

Baquedano, Elizabeth. Aztecs, Inca & Maya. New York: Knopf, 1993.

McKissack, Patricia. The Inca: New True Book. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1985.

Suggested Books

Cobb, Vicky. This Place is High: The Andes Mountains. New York: Walker, 1989.

Palacios, Argentina. The Llama's Secret: A Peruvian Legend. New York: Troll, 1993.

Background Information

The Inca Empire covered a large area in South America and began to develop around the same time as the Aztec Empire. The Inca believed that their kings were half-god and half-human. The Inca Empire was the largest empire at this time, covering about 3,000 miles along the west coast of South America. The empire was connected by roads that were built by the Inca.

The Inca were expert stonemasons and built many impressive public buildings. They were able to cut and place the stones that made up the buildings so close together that many of their buildings are still standing today. One of their major stone monuments was Machu Picchu (the city in the clouds).

Although the Inca did not have a written language, they developed a method of counting and keeping records. The process was called quipu and it consisted of tying knots in strings to keep track of numbers. They used this method to record the number of llama in a herd, collect taxes, and keep a census (diagram below).















Procedure

Tell the children that the Inca Indians lived in South America at about the same time the Aztec Indians were living in the southern part of North America in a country now called Mexico. Have children come up to the world map and locate North and South America. You should then point out Mexico as the area where the Aztecs lived and Peru as the area where the Inca lived.

BCP DRAFT HIST 13

First Grade - American Civilization - Lesson 6

Show the children the attached Inca-inspired black cat. Tell the children that the black cat design is taken from a South American piece of cloth that was created by the Inca in the 1500s. The Inca were expert spinners and weavers and they produced many creative designs. The colorful yarn they used was spun by hand from cotton, which came from cotton plants, and wool,

which came from alpacas and llamas, which are two animals that can be found in South America.

Ask the children to tell you how the cat looks. Ask: Does the cat look friendly? scary? happy? angry? Point out to the children that the cat is shown arching its back. Ask: Can someone tell me why a cat arches its back? Give each child a copy of the worksheet showing the body of a black cat and ask them to draw their own cat's head and scary face. You may also want to have the children name their cat. Since Halloween is this month, the scary cats would make nice Halloween decorations for your classroom.

A perfect follow-up read aloud is The Llama's Secret by Argentina Palacios. Tell the children that in addition to the llamas being appreciated for the wool which covers their bodies, the Inca respected the llamas because they were considered very important.



BCP DRAFT HIST 14

First Grade - American Civilization - Lesson 7

Objectives

Recall facts about Christopher Columbus's journey.

Identify the route to the New World planned by Columbus and compare it to his actual route.

Materials

Classroom size world map

Globe

Procedure

Ask the children if anyone knows any facts about the famous navigator, Christopher Columbus. If so, let them brainstorm briefly and write any relevant facts under "Know" on a

K-W-L chart. Ask: What do you want to know about Christopher Columbus? Record responses under "Want to Know" on the chart.

Sing the following song about Christopher Columbus with the class.

 

"Over the Ocean Blue"

(adapted in a Core Knowledge lesson by Pamela Barksdale and Karen Anderson; original song from Holiday Piggyback Songs, 1988.)

Columbus sailed over the ocean,

Columbus sailed over the sea.

Columbus discovered America,

But Columbus didn't see me!

Nina, Pinta,

The Santa Maria, too.

They all sailed

Over the ocean blue.

Columbus was looking for India,

But Columbus missed it, you see.

Columbus discovered America,

But Columbus didn't see me!

Nina, Pinta,

The Santa Maria, too.

They all sailed

Over the ocean blue.

 

Tell the children that Columbus worked for his brother who was a mapmaker. As new lands were being discovered, sailors needed updated maps. Mapmakers worked on keeping maps of the world up to date, or current. As Columbus studied these maps, he started to believe that if he sailed west he would find a route to Asia. He believed that sailing west would be a shorter and safer route than sailing around Africa to India. Show the children an illustration from a picture BCP DRAFT HIST 15

First Grade - American Civilization - Lesson 7

book showing the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria. Write the words crew and supplies on the board and explain that in order for Columbus to sail across the Atlantic Ocean he needed both of these things to survive. Define both words for the class and give examples of supplies that Columbus would have needed such as food and water. Ask the children for other supplies that would have been needed for the trip. Tell the children that it took six years for Columbus to convince King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella that this voyage would be a success and that they should pay for ships, supplies, and a crew. In 1492, Columbus set sail with a crew of ninety men and boys on three ships. Ask: Can someone tell me the name of Columbus's three ships? (the Nina, the Pinta, the Santa Maria)

Trace on a world map the route Columbus believed he was taking to Asia (from Spain across the Atlantic to Asia). Then trace the route he actually took on his first voyage (from Spain to the Canary Islands to the Bahamas). Ask the children the name of the continent from which Columbus began his voyage and the name of the ocean across which Columbus sailed. Ask: Where did Columbus want to go? (India, India in Asia) Where did he really land in 1492? (the Bahamas--an island near North America) Why wasn't he able to reach the Indies--what was in his way? If no one can answer the question, show the children a globe and turn it to the side showing North and South America. Point out that if he sailed in a straight line from Europe he would run into North and South America. Remind them that at the time nobody in Europe knew that North and South America existed. Explain that the European explorers and mapmakers who lived before Columbus had not yet crossed the Atlantic.

Read one of the storybooks listed below to the children. Make sure they have a good idea what the three ships of Columbus looked like, why Columbus went to the Spanish king and queen for help, and how lengthy and difficult the voyage was. After the children have listened to the storybook, ask questions, such as: What are the names of Columbus's three ships? Who gave the ships to Columbus? Where did Columbus think he had landed? What did Columbus call the people on the island where he landed? Why? Complete the K-W-L chart from the beginning of the lesson by listing the facts that the children learned about Christopher Columbus.

Suggested Books

Adler, David A. A Picture Book of Christopher Columbus. New York: Holiday House, 1991.

Carpenter, Eric. Young Christopher Columbus. New York: Troll, 1992.

Gleiter, Jan and Kathleen Thompson. Christopher Columbus: First Biographies. Austin: Steck- Vaughn, 1995.

Krensky, Stephen. Christopher Columbus. New York: Random House, 1991.

Marzollo, Jean. In 1492. New York: Scholastic, 1991.

BCP DRAFT HIST 16

First Grade - American Civilization - Lesson 8

Objectives

Locate North America and Mexico on a world map.

Trace Cortes's route from Cuba to Mexico on a world map.

List the qualities of an explorer.

Suggested Books

Hakim, Joy. The First Americans: A History of Us. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Jacobs, William Jay. Cortes: Conqueror of Mexico. New York: Franklin Watts, 1994.

Ryan, Peter. Explorers and Mapmakers. New York: Lodestar Books, 1990.

 

Background Information

Born in 1485, Hernando Cortes was a Spanish adventurer, explorer, and warrior--one who embodied the title conquistador (Spanish for conqueror). In 1519 Cortes set out from Cuba with a small army in search of the Aztec Empire in Mexico. Once he and his soldiers were safely ashore, Cortes ordered the ships in which they had traveled be burned so that the soldiers would be forced to stay and fight for their survival. He then led them toward the great city of Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City), the capital city from which Montezuma ruled the Aztec Empire.

The Aztec Indians believed that one of their gods was light skinned. When Montezuma heard that a light-skinned group of men was coming, he believed that the Aztec god had returned to decide the fate of the Aztec people. Therefore, when Cortes and his army got to Tenochtitlan, Montezuma greeted them with respect, but the king was soon taken hostage. Although the Aztecs were fierce warriors, they proved to be no match for the well-armed Spanish soldiers. Cortes was able to stop all food and supplies from reaching the city, so by the time he marched into Tenochtitlan only one-fifth of the Aztecs were alive. The rest had died in battle, from starvation, or from disease. By 1521, the Aztec Empire had been destroyed. Montezuma, the Aztec ruler, was dead and Tenochtitlan lay in ruins. Cortes built Mexico City where Tenochtitlan once was, and the city became a stronghold from which Spanish expeditions moved either north to invade lands that are now the United States or south to claim additional land in Central and South America.

Procedure

Tell the children that the man who went in search of the Aztec Empire was named Hernando Cortes. Just as Columbus left Spain to travel to Asia, Cortes left the island of Cuba (show the children the location of Cuba on a world map) in search of the Aztec Empire. The Spanish explorers after Columbus were known as conquistadors, which means conqueror in Spanish. Cortes was a Spanish conquistador and he had heard stories about the wealth of the Aztecs. He wanted to claim land for Spain and riches for himself. Trace the route from Cuba to Mexico on a world map. Tell the children that this is the route that Cortes took by ship.

Either read a story to the children about Cortes (a good excerpt can be found in The First Americans by Joy Hakim from the A History of Us series, pp. 91-95) or choose information from the Background Information above to tell about Cortes's meeting with Montezuma, the Aztec ruler, and the subsequent fall of the Aztec Empire. Tell the children that the Aztecs were at a BCP DRAFT HIST 17

First Grade - American Civilization - Lesson 8

great disadvantage because--although they had many brave warriors--they did not have guns and Cortes did. Ask: Do you think that Cortes and his soldiers needed to destroy the Aztecs and their city the way they did? What do you think would have happened if Cortes and his soldiers hadn't used guns in fighting the Aztecs?

Tell the children that people from the continent of Europe explored faraway lands for hundreds of years. Some explorers were looking for riches. Some wanted to make a fresh start. Others were looking for freedom. Journeys to faraway places sometimes brought danger or even death. Explorers often had no idea what they might find when they reached their destination. Ask: What do you think it would take to be an explorer? Ask the children to brainstorm and think of qualities that would be important for an explorer to have. Make a web on the blackboard with the word explorer in the middle and list the qualities that the children think are important. Some words to start off with are courageous, intelligent, strong/healthy, curious.

BCP DRAFT HIST 18

First Grade - American Civilization - Lesson 9

Objectives

Compare the expeditions of Cortes and Pizarro.

Locate Spain, Mexico, North America and South America on a world map.

Suggested Books

Hakim, Joy. The First Americans: A History of Us. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. (pp. 98-99)

Materials

Classroom size world map

Background Information

After sailing to America and in the Caribbean, Pizarro settled in Panama for a time. While in Panama, he became interested in rumors of a rich empire in Peru, which is located on the west coast of South America. At the time Pizzaro invaded the Incan Empire in Peru, the Incan government was weak and civil wars had begun to break out. Pizarro and his army took the Incan ruler, Atahualpa, prisoner and promised the Inca that he would be let go if the people filled a huge room with gold. Atahualpa's followers did do this, but Pizarro and his men did not keep their promise and killed Atahualpa anyway. Pizarro and his men soon began fighting amongst themselves over the gold and silver and many ended up killing each other, Pizarro included.

Procedure

Tell the children the above background information, or read the pages listed above from The First Americans by Joy Hakim, or another story about Pizarro with which you are familiar.

Have the children compare Pizarro's trip to that of Cortes. Draw a Venn diagram on the blackboard and write Pizarro's name on one side and Cortes's name on the other. Ask the children the following questions and write the answers in the appropriate areas of the diagram. To which continent did Pizarro travel? (South America) Cortes? (North America) How did Pizarro get to those new lands? Cortes? (by ship) What group of people was Pizarro looking for? (the Inca) Cortes? (the Aztec) Why did Pizarro go in search of the Inca? Why did Cortes go in search of the Aztec? Add any questions that you may have and ask the children if they have anything to add to the diagram.

Tell the children that there were many changes that were brought about after the conquistadors found new lands, some good and some bad. For instance, Cortes and Pizarro brought horses with them, and neither the Aztecs nor the Inca had ever seen a horse before. The horses that stayed in North and South America made it easier to travel and carry things for those who lived there. On the other hand, the Spanish brought diseases with them that the native people in the new countries had never had before and therefore killed many of their people. Small pox is one disease brought to North America from Europe by Cortes that killed a very large number of the Aztecs.