BCP DRAFT HIST 101

Second Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 38 - Ancient Greece

Objectives

Locate Greece on a world map.

Locate and label Crete, the Aegean Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea on a map of Greece.

Suggested Books

Read Aloud

Geyen, Marty and Linda Varju. Field Trip: Ancient Greece. Cleveland, OH: Modern Curriculum Press, 1992.

Pluckrose, Henry. Ancient Greeks. New York: Gloucester Press, 1982.

Teacher Reference

Heslewood, Juliet. The History of Western Sculpture: A Young Person's Guide. Austin, TX: Steck-Vaughn, 1996.

Pages 4-9 contain nice photographs of Greek sculpture and temples.

Powell, Anton. Ancient Greece. New York: Facts on File, Inc., 1989.

Contains beautiful photographs of ancient Greek art and architecture.

Materials

Classroom-size world map

An overhead transparency of the map of Greece

1 per student

Map of Greece (attached)

Procedure

Tell the children that as they continue their study of world history they are going to move from the continent of Asia to the continent of Europe, specifically the country of Greece. Ask individual children to come up to the world map and point out the continent of Europe and locate the country of Greece. Explain to the children that history is really a collection of stories that tell about the past. The stories about ancient Greece are a wonderful part of this collection because there are fascinating people and interesting things that happened there.

Explain to the children that over two thousand years ago, even before the time that we just studied in China's history, there were interesting things happening in an area that we now know as Greece. Beautiful works of art and architecture were being created (show pictures of art, such as a sculpture or a statue, and architecture, such as the Parthenon or the Acropolis, to the children from reference books or magazines). Also, the ancient Greeks were the first to develop a government that was ruled by the people, much like the government we have today. Say: A government that is ruled by the people is called a democracy. Explain that the word democracy comes from the Greek language--demos which means ordinary people and kratos which means power. Tell the children that in a part of Greece called Athens a division of the government called the Assembly passed the laws. Every citizen of Athens was in the Assembly, but explain that only men from Athens who were 18 years of age or older were considered citizens. Say: Not everyone was allowed to vote, women and slaves could not vote.

Give each child a map of ancient Greece. Display the map on an overhead projector. Say: BCP DRAFT HIST 102

Second Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 38 - Ancient Greece

Greece is a country that is made up of a mainland, as well as, many islands. Ask: Can someone describe what an island is? Explain that an island is a piece of land that is surrounded by water.

Say: The bodies of water that border Greece are the Mediterranean Sea and the Aegean Sea (write the names on the board). Point out the mainland or the piece of land attached to the continent of Greece, its islands, and the Mediterranean and Aegean seas on the map. Have the children label the two seas on their individual maps. Next, tell the children that one of the larger islands of Greece is called Crete. Point to Crete on the map and help the children find and label the island on their individual maps. Ask: In which sea is the island of Crete? (the Mediterranean)

The map of Greece will be used for the next history lesson. Collect the maps of Greece and save.

BCP DRAFT HIST 104

Second Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 39 - Athens and Sparta

Objectives

Locate Athens and Sparta on a map of Greece.

Discuss the differences between life in Athens and life in Sparta during ancient Greek times.

Suggested Books

Teacher Resource

You may wish to read aloud excerpts about Athens and Sparta from the following books:

Ganeri, Anita. Focus On: Ancient Greeks. New York: Gloucester Press, 1993. (pp. 10-11)

Pearson, Anne. What Do We Know About The Greeks? New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1992. (pp. 42-43)

Powell, Anton. Ancient Greece: Cultural Atlas for Young People. New York: Facts On File, 1989. (pp. 22-25)

Materials

An overhead transparency of the map of Greece

Individual maps of Greece from Lesson 38

Procedure

Review with the children that Greece is a country that is made up of a mainland and many islands. Have the children point to the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea on their individual maps as you demonstrate on the overhead transparency of Greece. Next, tell the children that in the same way that we have cities and towns in the United States, in ancient Greece different areas in which people lived and worked were called city-states.

Explain that the people who lived in the same city-state spoke the same way and believed in many of the same things; the people in each city-state were very proud of the place they lived. Tell the children that people from one city-state would sometimes fight against people from other city-states to protect the place they lived.

Tell the children that two of the most important city-states during ancient Greek times were Athens and Sparta (which was also called Laconia). Show the children the location of the two cities (represented as dots) on the overhead and have the children label the dots on their individual maps. (Athens is above Sparta) Convey the following information to the children:

1. The city-states of ancient Greece shared the same language, the same religion and were the same in other ways. However, two of the greatest cities, Athens and Sparta, were very different from one another and the people who lived in these two places did not get along.

2. Athenians valued the beautiful buildings and sculpture, science, and democracy.

3. Spartans worked only to become the best soldiers. Physical strength and fighting ability were the most valued qualities in the young people of Sparta. From an early age, young boys prepared to be warriors. Spartan women did not become soldiers, but they were expected to keep physically fit by training in a variety of sports. Today, if we refer to someone or something as Spartan we are saying that person or thing is extremely simple or plain because the Spartans led BCP DRAFT HIST 105

Second Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 39 - Athens and Sparta

such severe lives. The Spartans were said to have owned very few clothes and eaten simple foods.

4. Because Sparta was dedicated to having the best army, boys were only allowed to live with their parents until they were seven years old at which time they were sent off to be trained as soldiers with other boys.

5. Because most of the Spartan men were in the army, slaves from other areas that were taken over by Sparta farmed their land.

7. In Athens, families lived together. Girls stayed in the home and were taught household skills and boys sometimes went to school during the day.

8. The two cities were also different in the way women were treated. In Athens women were not allowed to vote or own property, whereas in Sparta, women were viewed as equal to men.

Have the children review how Athens and Sparta were different from one another. As the children list the differences between Sparta and Athens, record the differences on the blackboard or on a piece of chart paper. Next, ask the children to discuss and then write about which place they would have rather lived and why.

Additional information

You may wish to discuss the following information with the children, which tells of the legend that explains how Athens got its name and the importance of olives in Greece. (This legend is included in the literature section.)

Read the following paragraph to the children:

According to legend, Athens was named after the goddess of war and wisdom, Athene. She beat the sea god, Poseidon, in a contest to see whose name the city would take. Each had to offer something to the city. Athene's gift of an olive tree, providing fruit and oil, was considered more valuable than Poseidon's promise of rich sea trade and so she won.(1)

Tell the children that olives were an important part of life in ancient Greece and still are today. The climate in Greece is hot and dry, which is the environment in which olives grow best. Say: Olives were crushed to make olive oil. That oil was used for a variety of different purposes. The Greeks used olive oil instead of soap to clean themselves. They would rub the olive oil over their bodies and scrape the dirt and the oil off. Olive oil was used for cooking and was even burned in clay lamps to produce light in homes. The Greeks also traded olive oil with other countries for other things they needed like fabric, beef, or grains.

BCP DRAFT HIST 106

Second Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 40 - Persian Wars

Objective

Become familiar with the events and outcome of the Persian Wars.

Suggested Books

Teacher Reference

Clare, John D. Living History: Ancient Greece. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1994.

Pages 20-23 tell about the battles at Marathon, Thermopylae, and Salamis.

Poulton, Michael. Life in the Time of Pericles and the Ancient Greeks. Austin, TX: Steck- Vaughn, 1993.

Pages 6-24 give detailed information about the Persian Wars.

Powell, Anton. The Greek World. New York: Warwick Press, 1987.

Pages 48-49 tell about the Persian War.

Materials

Classroom size world map

Procedure

Review with the children what they learned about the way people lived in Athens and Sparta during ancient Greek times. Tell the children that although the two cities were very different from one another, Sparta and Athens did work together when both cities were threatened with attack by a ruler from another land called Persia. Show the children on the world map that Persia was located where Turkey, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, and Afghanistan are located today. Ask: Which is a larger area, where Persia was or where ancient Greece was? Explain that the Persians had become jealous and nervous that the Greeks were taking over too much of the land surrounding Greece, so the King of Persia decided to take his army to fight the Greeks. In the first battle of Marathon, the Persian army fought against the Athenians.

Read the following passage to the children. (Explain that when you read the word she it is referring to a country.):

Besides Athens and Sparta, there were other city-states in what is now Greece. Greece had so many mountains, the city-states were cut off from one another. They didn't form one country, they fought a lot among themselves. This lack of unity gave Persia the idea she could conquer Greece easily. She had already conquered Greek settlements in many places.

So when the Persians attacked Greece they did not send all the ships and soldiers they had to fight--a big mistake! Still, there were many more Persians in these battles than were Greeks. But the Athenians were able to defeat the Persians in a great victory near Athens at Marathon in 490 B.C. The anxious Athenians at home learned the result when a runner came all the way from Marathon to Athens, a distance of over twenty miles, to tell them they had won. The runner had not stopped once. After he delivered his message, he collapsed and died for his city. Have you ever

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Second Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 40 - Persian Wars

heard of a marathon race? Now you know where it got its name.(2)

 

Discuss with the children what the message said that the runner was carrying. Write the children's ideas on the blackboard. At the end of the lesson you may wish to have the children write a message to the people of Athens reporting the outcome of the battle at Marathon.

Tell the children that ten years after the Greeks won at Marathon the Persians decided to

attack again. Explain that this time the Spartans and Athenians worked together. The Greeks had built more ships, so that they would have enough ships to defend themselves against the Persian navy in the case of another battle. Have the children look at a map of Greece. Say: Looking at the geography of Greece, why do you think it was important for the Greeks to have a strong navy? (Because much of Greece is bordered by water.)

Say: During this second Persian attack the Greeks decided to fight in narrow places where the Persians could be blocked from entering Greek territory. Explain that the Spartans tried blocking the Persians at a narrow path at Thermopylae. The Spartans were instead trapped and killed by the Persians. The Persians tried another water attack, but this time the Persians were tricked or fooled, the Athenians waited nearby in a narrow water passage with their new fleet of ships. The Persians were sent a message that said the Athenians did not have enough ships and that the Persians could win easily. The Greeks were finally able to defeat the Persians, the wars were over, and the Greeks were safe from the Persians.

BCP DRAFT HIST 108

Second Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 41 - Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle

Objectives

Become familiar with the great philosophers--Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.

Test Archimedes' principle by conducting a water displacement experiment.

Suggested Books

Read Aloud

Allen, Pamela. Mr. Archimedes' Bath. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard, 1980.

Teacher Resource

Clare, John D. Living History: Ancient Greece. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1994.

You may wish to read to the children from pages 34-35 which talk about knowledge and philosophy.

Materials

Per group of four

A balance scale

Water

A small block of wood

Two cans or plastic containers (one small, one large--Make sure there is enough room when you place the small can in the larger one to remove the small can easily.)

Weights (you may want to use coins, rocks, blocks, etc.)

Procedure

Tell the children that the ancient Greeks believed in many gods and goddesses who they thought controlled what happened in the world. The people believed that the gods and goddesses were like humans in that they had feelings, but they were also very powerful and were thought to live forever. There were some people in ancient Greece who questioned whether or not these gods really existed. They thought about ways to make sense of the things that happened in the world around them. These "thinkers" were called philosophers.

Tell the children that the three most important Greek philosophers were Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Write the names of the philosophers on the board and as you explain the sequence of who was the teacher for whom you can draw arrows to show the relationship (see example below). Explain that Socrates questioned everything in the world around him that most other Greeks were not curious about and had taken for granted. Say: Socrates was also a teacher. He was famous for leading his students to the truth by asking them questions and allowing his students to answer in their own way. Explain that Socrates became very unpopular with many Greeks because people were uncomfortable with some of the questions that Socrates asked. He was forced to drink poison and kill himself because it was said that he had insulted the gods and had taught the wrong ideas to the young.

Tell the children that one student of Socrates was a man named Plato. Plato also went on to become a philosopher and teacher. Have the children look at the board and ask: Who do you think Plato taught? One of his students was a man named Aristotle. In addition to becoming a philosopher and a teacher, Aristotle was also a scientist.

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Second Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 41 - Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle

Ask: Has anyone ever looked for information in an encyclopedia? Say: Aristotle was very interested in science and he collected a lot of information about plants and animals. He decided to write it all down and that information became the first encyclopedia.

Tell the children that in ancient Greece there were many other great thinkers who were interested in the areas of math and science. Say: One famous Greek scientist was named Archimedes. Explain that one day while he was taking a bath, Archimedes noticed that as he got in and out of the bathtub, the level of the water in the tub got higher as he got in and lower when he got out. He realized that his own weight was what pushed the water up. When he realized

what was happening he yelled, "Eureka!" which means "I've got it" in Greek. Tell the children that they are going to experiment with this idea that Archimedes discovered.

If possible, you may wish to read Mr. Archimedes' Bath by Pamela Allen to the children.

Next, have the children experiment with Archimedes' principle. Divide the children into groups of four. Have each group follow these directions (adapted from Field Trip: Ancient Greece. Modern Curriculum Press, 1992.):

1. Put the block of wood into the large can or container and place it on the balance scale.

2. Add weights to the other side of the scale to balance the container with the wood inside.

3. Count and record the number of weights you added to the opposite side of the scale.

4. Take the can and wood off the scale.

5. Remove the wood and place the small can inside the large can.

6. Fill the small can to the top with water, making sure not to let the water overflow into the larger can.

7. Gently place the block on top of the water, allowing the water to flow over into the larger can.

8. Remove the wood from the can. Then carefully remove the small can from the large can.

9. Place the large can with water inside on the scale opposite the weights.

Have each group report on the following questions. Ask: Does the large can with water inside balance the weights that are already on the scale? If you had to add more weights, how many? If you had to remove weights, how many? Ask: Why do you think you got the result you did? Explain to the children that the weight of the water that overflowed equals the weight of the wood because the wood pushes its weight in water out of the container. Tell the children that when they ask and answer questions, the way they just have, they are using the Socratic method just like Socrates used with his students.

BCP DRAFT HIST 110

Second Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 42 - Alexander the Great

Objective

Become familiar with the historic figure, Alexander the Great.

Suggested Books

Read Aloud

Lasker, Joe. The Great Alexander the Great. New York: Viking, 1983.

Teacher Resource

Harris, Nathaniel. Alexander the Great and the Greeks. New York: Bookwright Press, 1986.

Procedure

(Note: This will be the first of two lessons on Alexander the Great.) Write the names Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle on the board. Ask the children to tell you who was the teacher of whom. Tell the children that the great thinker Aristotle also had many students, but one that has an important place in history is Alexander the Great. Add Alexander the Great to the list under Aristotle.

Alexander's father wanted Alexander to have the best teacher so he hired Aristotle to instruct his son. After being a student of Aristotle, Alexander went on to become a great soldier and ruler in Greece. If possible, read The Great Alexander the Great by Joe Lasker to the children or you may wish to read the following description of Alexander aloud.

 

A boy named Alexander was born in a land called Macedonia, in the northern part of ancient Greece. When Alexander was 20, a terrible thing happened; his father was murdered. Alexander's father, Philip, had been King of Macedonia, so after his father's death Alexander became king.

Alexander's father had taken over many of the Greek city-states, but this wasn't enough for Alexander. Alexander planned to conquer the huge Persian Empire to the east.

Two years after his father's death, Alexander and his soldiers invaded the Persian Empire. Alexander led his soldiers into one battle after another until he reached his goal. He conquered the Persian Empire in less than ten years.

Alexander didn't rule his kingdom for very long--he died at the age of 32. Some believe that he was poisoned.

Give each child a map of ancient Greece and Persia. Tell the children that Alexander's empire covered all the land between Egypt and India. Show the children this area on a world map. Discuss with the children the qualities Alexander must have had in order to conquer the amount of land that he did.

BCP DRAFT HIST 111

Second Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 43 - Alexander the Great

Objectives

Recall facts regarding Alexander the Great.

Identify Bucephalus as Alexander's horse.

Trace Alexander's path through the Persian Empire.

Suggested Books

Read Aloud

Lasker, Joe. The Great Alexander the Great. New York: Viking, 1983.

Teacher Resource

Harris, Nathaniel. Alexander the Great and the Greeks. New York: Bookwright Press, 1986.

Materials

1 per student

Map of Alexander's empire (attached)

Procedure

Have the children recall important facts about Alexander the Great. For example: Who was Alexander? (A Macedonian king who conquered Persia.) At what age did he become king? (20) Tell the children that Alexander the Great had a horse was named Bucephalus (byou SEF uh lus). If possible reread pages 3-8 and page 27 from The Great Alexander the Great by Joe Lasker or read the following paragraph.

 

Alexander the Great had a black stallion named Bucephalus. Bucephalus was Alexander's favorite horse and Alexander was the only person who was able to ride Bucephalus. When Alexander was a young boy, he watched as his father's horse trainers tried to ride Bucephalus. The horse trainer was unable to calm the wild horse until Alexander noticed that Bucephalus was afraid of its own shadow. Alexander was able to ride Bucephalus by turning the horse so it could not see its own shadow. Bucephalus became Alexander's horse from then on.

Ask: Why do you think Alexander's horse was so important to him in battle? Explain that horses were important because the army traveled long distances and it was less tiring to ride a horse than to walk. Also, the soldiers could see farther ahead from a horse's back than they could standing on the ground.

Say: Soldiers fought very differently in the time of ancient Greece as compared to today. Explain to the children that soldiers walked on foot or rode horses as they traveled on land and they rode in boats if they traveled over the water. Say: There were no planes, trains, or cars during this time. Explain that guns had not been invented either. The soldiers fought with bows and arrows, spears, and swords. Tell the children that the soldiers carried shields made of metal to hold in front of their bodies to protect themselves. The soldiers also wore helmets that almost covered their entire face and metal plates that covered their chest and back for protection.

Give each child a map of Alexander's empire. Have the children trace the route that Alexander the Great and his troops took through Persia. Tell the children that wherever

BCP DRAFT HIST 112

Second Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 43 - Alexander the Great

Alexander went, he founded or started Greek cities, therefore spreading Greek language, art, and way of life to far away places. Explain that some of these cities he named after himself calling them Alexandria. Tell the children to look for the cities named Alexandria on their maps and explain that there map does not show all the cities that were named this way. Ask: How many cities named Alexandria are shown on the map. Say: One of these cities is still called Alexandria and that is Alexandria, Egypt. Tell the children that Alexander also loved Bucephalus so much that when Bucephalus died, he named a city after it as well.





BCP DRAFT HIST 114

Second Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 44 - The Olympic Games

Objective

Identify the beginnings of the Olympic Games.

Suggested Books

Read Aloud

Hennessy, B.G. Olympics! New York: Viking, 1996.

After a brief description of the history behind the Olympics, this book goes on to tell about the modern events, both the Summer and Winter Olympic Games.

Teacher Reference

Descamps-Lequime, Sophie and Denise Vernerey. Peoples of the Past: The Ancient Greeks. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1992.

Pages 46-51 give information about the events in the ancient Olympic Games.

Poulton, Michael. Life in the Time of Pericles and the Ancient Greeks. Austin, TX: Steck- Vaughn, 1993.

Pages 38-43 give detailed information about the Olympic Games.

Materials

Brown construction paper

Orange and red tissue paper

Scissors

Newspaper or butcher paper

Tape

Pattern (attached) - Using the pattern, cut half circles out of brown construction paper.

Procedure

Tell the children that every four years there is a sports competition in which teams from many different countries around the world compete. Ask: Does anyone know the name of this event? (The Olympics) Explain that the original Olympic Games started in ancient Greece in a town called Olympia. The ancient Greeks started these athletic contests as a week-long religious ceremony to honor the god Zeus. Tell the children that wars were called off temporarily so that people could travel safely to compete or watch the athletic competitions. Say: Greek men and boys from every city-state came to compete in the games. Explain that women were not allowed to compete in or even watch the Olympic Games.

Tell the children that the five most important events were called the pentathlon. Explain that this event combined running, jumping, two kinds of throwing (javelin and discus), and wrestling. Today the athletes are awarded medals, whereas in ancient Greece the winners were awarded a crown made of olive leaves called a laurel wreath. The winners were also thought of as great heroes in their cities.

Tell the children if they were to attend the Olympics during ancient Greece the following are events that they would see.

Day One

The first day began with the competitors taking an oath, which means to make a

BCP DRAFT HIST 115

Second Grade - World Civilization - Lesson 44 - The Olympic Games

promise. The athletes took an oath not to cheat in front of a statue of Zeus. Anyone caught cheating in a competition would have to pay a large fine. Next the boys' competed in various events. The rest of the day was a celebration, including a feast.

Day Two

The second day began with a parade of priests, judges, and competitors. Horse racing and chariot races were the first events of the day and the pentathlon took place in the afternoon. In the evening singers performed and there were victory parades to celebrate the winners of the day.

Day Three

In the morning there was a religious ceremony in honor of Zeus and in the afternoon there were footraces or running races. In the evening there was a feast.

Day Four

The events on the fourth day were boxing, wrestling, and the race in armor. During the race in armor, the runners had to wear their armor and carry their shields as a test of how good a soldier the runner was.

Day Five

The last day there was a parade of the winners to the Temple of Zeus where crowns made of olive leaves were placed on their heads.

 

The first modern Olympic games were held in 1896, about 100 years ago, in Athens, Greece. Say: Many of the traditions from ancient Greece are still part of the Olympics today. In the ancient Olympic Games, the relay runners passed a torch to each other instead of a baton or stick. At the end of the race, the winner lit a fire in honor of Zeus. At the present Olympic Games, the games begin with the lighting of the Olympic Flame by a torch that is lit in Greece and brought to wherever the Olympics are being held that year.

Have the children make Olympic torches. Give each child a brown construction paper cut-out and red and yellow tissue paper. Demonstrate for the children how to roll their brown construction paper into a cone shape. Have the children do so with their own paper and secure the paper by taping the edge down. Crumple newspaper or butcher paper and insert into the cone. Have the children cut flame shapes out of the orange and red tissue paper. Next, have them twist the ends of the tissue paper and tape the ends to the newspaper or butcher paper inside the cone.

You may wish to read Olympics! by B. G. Hennessy, which is a nice read aloud that tells about the modern-day Summer and Winter Olympics. Have the children discuss the differences between the ancient Olympic Games and the modern Olympic Games.

Additional Activity

Hold Olympic Games with your class. If possible, take the children outdoors or use a gym area, to hold a competition in field events such as wheelbarrow races, a beanbag toss, relay races, a three-legged race, egg and spoon races (substitute a ping-pong ball for an egg), a broad jump, a frisbee toss, etc. Have an awards ceremony at the end for the winners.



1. Ganeri, Anita. Focus On Ancient Greeks. (New York: Gloucester Press, 1993), 11.

2. E. D. Hirsch. What Your 2nd Grader Needs to Know. (New York: Dell, 1991), 107-108.