BCP DRAFT SCI 131

Second Grade - Science - Lesson 44 - Insects

Adapted from Naturescope: Incredible Insects, p 47-48.

Objectives

Recognize the interdependency of honeybees and flowering plants.

Describe some activities inside a beehive.

Invent a dance to communicate directions to a place.

Compare and describe the colors and tastes of different kinds of honey.

Materials

Jar of honey with honeycomb in it (called chunk honey, available at most grocery stores)

Picture of honeybee carrying pollen (see Suggested Books)

Three different types of honey (examples: orange blossom, clover, buckwheat, tupelo, wildflower)

A plastic spoon for each child in the class

Suggested Books

Amery, Heather. Discover Hidden Worlds: Bugs. New York: Western Publishing, 1994. Magnified photos of bees' tongues, stingers and even lice that live on bees.

Booth, Jerry. Big Bugs: Getting to Know Little Creatures Up Close. New York: Harcourt, 1994. This over-sized book contains some very large illustrations of bee hive activity, an excellent full-page drawing of a worker bee clearly showing its telescoping tongue and pollen shopping bags, as well as a profile of an 11-year-old beekeeper.

Cole, Joanna. Magic School Bus Inside a Bee Hive. New York: Scholastic, 1996.

Fowler, Allan. Busy, Buzzy Bees (Rookie Read-About Science series). Chicago: Childrens Press, 1995.

Gibbons, Gail. The Honeymakers. New York: Morrow, 1997.

Graham, Ada and Frank. Busy Bugs. New York: Dodd, 1983. The section on honeybees includes close-up drawings of a worker bee's telescoping tongue for sucking nectar and its pollen combs.

Hogan, Paula. The Life Cycle of the Honeybee. Milwaukee: Raintree Books, 1979. Simple text and outstanding illustrations. A Reading Rainbow book.

Johnson, Sylvia. Roses Red, Violets Blue: Why Flowers Have Colors. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1991.

Lecht, Jane. Honeybees. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic, 1973. Contains great photographs and a simple explanation of the bee dance.

Micucci, Charles. The Life and Times of the Honeybee. New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1995. Excellent illustrations and sections on beekeeping, different kinds of honey, bee anatomy, a honeybee's calendar and uses of beeswax and honey.

Polacco, Patricia. The Bee Tree. New York: Philomel, 1993. A grandfather shows his grandaughter the sweet rewards of tracking down a bee tree and proves that "adventure, knowledge wisdom...these things do not come easily...Just like we ran after the bees to find their tree, so you must also chase these things through the pages of a book."

Sonenklar, Carol. Bug Boy. New York: Henry Holt. 1997. This book for older children makes a good read-aloud story with to-be-continued appeal. A self-professed fifth-grade bug expert receives a gift of an Amazing Bug-A-View that enables him to turn himself into different insect forms. Each chapter highlights his funny adventures.

Starosta, Paul. The Bee, Friend of the Flowers. New York: Charlesbridge, 1992. Color photographs taken inside the hive are impressive.

BCP DRAFT SCI 132

Second Grade - Science - Lesson 44 - Insects

Suzuki, David. Looking At Insects. New York: John Wiley, 1986. Includes chapter on honeybees and a careful explanation of the bee dance plus activities.

Watts, Barrie. Honeybee. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett, 1989.

Teacher Resources

Braus, Judy. The Many Jobs of Buzz the Bee. Ranger Rick Magazine, May 1990.

Hall, Katy and Lisa Eisenberg. Buggy Riddles (Puffin Easy-to-Read series). New York: Puffin, 1993.

Irvin, Tommy. "Making Honey." Ranger Rick Magazine, August, 1996, p. 42.

Nature Scope: Incredible Insects. Washington, D.C.: National Wildlife Federation, 1984.

Background Information

Most honeybees are domesticated, living in manmade hives tended by beekeepers. There are four million hives in the U.S. producing 90,000 tons of honey every year. Fruit growers and farmers often rent hives from beekeepers to put in their orchards or clover fields. Honeybees pollinate the flowers and assure that fruit and seeds will grow. Plants and bees depend upon each other. Honeybees require nectar and pollen from flowers for food while plants need bees to carry pollen to other flowers in order to reproduce. Without bees we would not have apples, peaches, cherries, plums, oranges, lemons and many other fruits and vegetables.

Inside the hive is a honeycomb, a structure of six-sided wax cells where pollen and honey are stored and eggs hatch and develop. As many as 100,000 bees may occupy one hive. Most of the bees are female workers. There is one queen who lays up to 1,500 eggs a day and a hundred or so male drones.

A honeybee goes through a complete metamorphosis. Its lifecycle begins with the queen bee laying an egg in one of the cells. The egg hatches in three days and the larva is fed a substance called royal jelly, a mixture of pollen and bee saliva made by the workers. The larva grows and molts several times, then enters the pupa stage and spins a cocoon around itself. When the adult bee emerges, it is fed again for a few days until it takes on its duties. Jobs for worker bees include feeding the queen royal jelly, feeding the larvae, making wax and building the honeycomb, storing honey and pollen, guarding and defending the hive from intruders, keeping the hive warm or cool by fanning it with their wings and collecting pollen and nectar from flowers. Drones have only one job: to mate with the queen.

Flowers have evolved colors and shapes to attract bees and to ensure that the bees take some pollen with them. Blue, purple and yellow flowers are especially attractive to bees while red flowers are less so. When a honeybee locates a good source of nectar, she flies back to the hive and communicates with the other workers in a special way. She performs a honeybee dance that tells the other bees the direction and distance to the food source. The scent of the nectar she brings back tells them what kind of flowers they will be looking for.

Honeybees use their telescoping tongues to spoon up the nectar. They collect pollen in special places on their back legs that act as "shopping bags." When they get back to the hive, workers spit up the nectar and it is stored in wax cells where, through reaction to the enzymes in the bees' spit and evaporation, it becomes honey. It takes 80,000 trips from flower to hive to make one jar of honey. Wax for building the hive comes from young bees who hang in the hive and produce small wax plates from glands in their abdomens. We use beeswax to make candles, crayons, lipstick and gum.

The buzzing sound a bee makes is the rapid movement of its wings. A bee moves its BCP DRAFT SCI 133

Second Grade - Science - Lesson 44 - Insects

 

wings in a figure-eight motion 250 times per second. By changing the shape of the figure eight,

the bee can change direction, move up, down, back, forward or hover over a flower.

When beekeepers remove honeycombs from the hive, they wear special protective suits and hats and use bee smoke to calm the bees. As the bees sense the smoke, they all begin eating the honey in the hive and become quiet. While not normally aggressive, honeybees will sting with their barbed stingers if threatened. A honeybee can only sting once and then dies.

Procedure

Remind the children that last time they learned about ants--insects that live and work together as a team. Tell them that there are other kinds of insects that live and work together in communities and that you are thinking of a particular one. This particular insect has a fuzzy body. Write fuzzy on the board. It has stripes. Write stripes on the board. It makes a buzzing sound when it flies. Write buzz on the board. It visits flowers and makes something sweet to eat. Write flowers on the board. Ask the children to call out the name of the insect. Tell the children that today they will be learning about honeybees and what goes on in a honeybee hive.

Show the children the jar of honey with the honeycomb in it and ask them if they know what it is. Explain that the thing inside the jar with the honey is called a honeycomb. Walk around the classroom so the children can get a good look at it and ask them to describe what it looks like. Draw on the board several six-sided cells connected as they are in a honeycomb. Tell the children that the honeycomb is something bees build together with beeswax inside a beehive. Each opening is like a room. Have the children count together the walls of a honeycomb room. Tell them that the bees use some of the six-walled rooms to store nectar and pollen they collect from flowers. In the other rooms the queen bee lays her eggs--one egg in each room. There is only one queen bee for each hive but she can lay 1,500 eggs in one day. She needs to lay so many eggs because the hive needs many worker bees.

Show the children pictures of the inside of a beehive in the suggested books. Tell them that like ants, worker bees have jobs to do and are always busy. Jobs for worker bees include feeding the queen and the larvae, making wax and building the honeycomb, guarding and defending the hive from intruders, keeping the hive warm or cool by fanning it with their wings and collecting pollen and nectar from flowers. Besides workers and a queen there are also a hundred or so bees called drones who don't work but mate with the queen.

Tell the children that most honeybees live in hives made by people--white, wooden boxes that are taken care of by beekeepers. Beekeepers rent the hives to farmers to put in their fields and orchards. Ask: Why would farmers want beehives in their fields or near their fruit trees? Remind the children that they learned how pollen must travel from stamen (the male part of a flower) to pistil (the female part of a flower) in order for seeds to develop or fruit to grow. Ask: How do bees help spread pollen? (When a bee visits a flower, pollen sticks to its fuzzy body and brushes off when it visits the next flower.) From the Suggested Books, show the children a picture of a honeybee carrying pollen in its "shopping bags." Tell the children that honeybees collect pollen in bunches on their back legs. They use the pollen for food. Tell the children that honeybees and many plants depend upon each other. Honeybees need nectar and pollen from flowers for food. Many plants need bees to carry pollen to other flowers in order to make fruit and seeds for more plants. If there were no bees, there would be no apples, peaches, cherries, plums, oranges, lemons and many other fruits and vegetables. Bees and fruit trees need each other.

Ask: How do you think bees change flower nectar into honey? (Accept all answers.) Tell BCP DRAFT SCI 134

Second Grade - Science - Lesson 44 - Insects

the children that honeybees have tongues like telescopes. They reach down into flowers and

spoon up flower nectar. Then they take it back to the hive. They spit drops of the nectar into the honeycomb rooms and seal them up with wax. In a little while, the nectar turns into sweet honey. It takes 80,000 bee trips from flower to hive to make one jar of honey.

Tell the children you have a bee joke: Why do bees hum? Because they don't know the words. Tell the children that the loud buzzing bees make is the sound of their wings flapping. A bee can flap its wings very quickly. In the time it takes to say "chimpanzee" a bee flaps its wings 250 times. Tell the children that a bee moves its wings in a figure eight. Draw a figure eight on the board. By changing the shape of the figure eight a bee can fly up, down, back, forward or hover over a flower. Bees are excellent flyers.

Ask the children to imagine they are bees. Say: Suppose you are a honeybee out looking for food. You are buzzing around a park and suddenly you find a big patch of dandelions full of nectar. You suck up as much nectar as you can and get ready to head back to the hive. But first you look up and see how the sun lines up with the dandelion patch and the direction of the hive. Then you zoom back to the hive, excited to tell the other workers about the dandelion patch and all that food. But how are you going to tell them where the dandelion patch is? How can you tell them where to go? Remember you are a bee and can't talk. (Accept all answers.) Tell the children that honeybees give directions by dancing. The way the bee moves during its honeybee dance tells the other bees the direction and distance to the food. The smell of the dandelion nectar the dancing bee brings back tells the other worker bees what kind of flowers they will be looking for.

Tell the children that together the class is going to invent a dance that will answer the question: How do you get to the cafeteria (auditorium, library, play yard or any other location in the school). Ask the children to help you make a list of directions in English to the specified destination (examples: go out the door, walk down the hall, pass three doors, turn left, turn right, go up the steps, etc.) . Then ask the children to stand. Call on children and have them come up one at a time and offer gestures, steps or arm movements to correspond to each direction. Try them out and write them on the board next to the direction. As each movement is added, practice the dance with the children until it is complete. Encourage the children to accompany the finished dance with bee buzzing. When the bee dance performance is complete, have the bees give themselves a round of applause and sit down.

Tell the children that now they will try some taste testing. Show the children the jars of various honeys and read the names from the labels. Tell them that honey collected from hives in orange tree orchards is called orange blossom honey. Honey from hives near fields of clover is called clover honey. Wildflower honey is from hives of bees that collected nectar from field flowers. Ask the children to compare the colors of the honeys and write the observations on the board. Distribute plastic spoons to the children and give each child a small taste of one kind of honey. Identify the kind of honey and ask for descriptions of the flavor. Write them on the board. Do the same with the other types of honey. Ask: Does this honey taste different from the other? How? Write down the differences. Ask: Which honey was your favorite? Take a class survey on favorite kind of honey and record the results on the board.

Ask: Who has been stung by a bee? Have the child (children) tell the circumstances of the sting. Tell the children that a worker honeybee stings only when it senses that it or the hive is in danger. It uses a pointed stinger shaped like an arrow at the end of its abdomen. A honeybee can only sting once and then dies. Ask: How do you think beekeepers collect the extra honey from beehives without getting stung? (Accept all answers.) Tell the children that beekeepers wear BCP DRAFT SCI 135

Second Grade - Science - Lesson 44 - Insects

special protective suits and hats when they remove honeycombs. They also use something called

a bee smoker--a can with burning leaves. The smoke calms the bees. When the bees sense smoke, they begin eating the honey and become quiet. The beekeeper leaves enough honey for the bees to eat during the winter and only takes the extra. The beeswax is used to make candles, crayons, lipstick and chewing gum.

Suggested Speakers

Maryland Beekeepers Association, contact Jerry Fisher at 682-3251. A beekeeper might show the suit and equipment beekeepers use, talk about the construction of hives, and explain how the honey is extracted from the honeycombs using centrifugal force. He or she may also have pictures of the traditional bee beard often demonstrated at their annual honey festival.

Contact the University of Maryland Cooperative Extension Service at 396-1753 and ask for an agent to come and give a bee talk. Baltimore County's Cooperative Extension Service can be reached at 800-342-2507.

Additional Activity

Objective

Create a picture of bee activity inspired by listening to Flight of the Bumblebee.

Materials

Tape player and audio tape of Flight of the Bumblebee by Rimsky-Korsakov

Paper and crayons for each child

Teacher Resource

Rimsky-Korsakov, Nickolai. Flight of the Bumblebee. See suggested audio tape recording in November's Music Lesson 6 performed by YoYo Ma and Bobby McFerrin.

Procedure

Tell the children that they are going to hear a piece of music called Flight of the Bumblebee. Ask them to see if the music reminds them of the activity of bees--flying, collecting nectar, doing a bee dance, working in the hive. Ask them to create a picture of what they imagine when they hear the music. Remind them that beeswax is often used to make crayons so they may be creating their pictures with something from the hive.

BCP DRAFT SCI 136

Second Grade - Science - Lesson 45 - Insects

Objectives

Describe the lifecycle of the silkworm.

Sequence the steps in the making of silk.

Review location of China and Japan on the map.

Materials

Silk scarf or sample piece of silk cloth

Pictures of silkworms and/or silk moths from Suggested Books

World map

Mulberry leaves (optional)

Ball of yarn

Silkworm life cycle pictures (attached)

Suggested Books

Hong, Lily Toy. The Empress and the Silkworm. New York: Albert Whitman, 1995. A Chinese Empress makes an important discovery when a silkworm cocoon falls into her cup of tea. This charming book tells the story of how silk making was born and of how a woman's vision and efforts came to be respected.

Johnson, Sylvia. Silkworms. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1989. Contains good photos of silkworms and their life cycle.

Teacher Resources

Berenbaum, May. Bugs in the System: Insects and Their Impact on Human Affairs. New York: Addison-Wesley, 1996. Includes a very entertaining chapter on silkworms and the story of Emperor Justinian's plan to smuggle the secret of silk to Constantinople. There are black and white photos of silk moths and silkworms on page 134.

"Butterflies!" Copycat. Racine, WI: Copycat Press, May/June 1996.

Jourdan, Eveline. Butterflies and Moths Around the World. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1981. Contains a detailed description of sericulture (silkworm raising) and a very good color photo of silkworm caterpillars on page 71.

Background Information

A silkworm is not really a worm but the caterpillar stage of the silk moth. Silkworms used in silk production feed exclusively on the leaves of mulberry trees. Rarely found in the wild, silkworms can be called domesticated insects, just as honeybees are.

The discovery of how to weave cloth from the threads of the caterpillar's cocoon was made in China 5,000 years ago. Legend has it that the Empress Si-ling-chi was not only the first to wind or reel silk to make thread, but she also developed the means of raising silkworms. She was later deified for the invention and was given the name "Goddess of Silkworms." The royal family of China carefully guarded the secret of silk making for centuries. Silk from China became a precious commodity. The trade route from Eastern China to the Mediterranean Sea became known as the Silk Road for its most important trade item. Ideas as well as goods traveled between east and west along the Silk Road. Eventually the secret of how to make silk got out. BCP DRAFT SCI 137

Second Grade - Science - Lesson 45 - Insects

Silk making was brought to the West when Roman Emperor Justinian hired two spies to go to China. The spies smuggled out some silkworm eggs in hollow bamboo tubes along with some small mulberry trees and brought them back to Constantinople, present-day Instanbul in Turkey.

Silk making today resembles the ancient process except machines are used for reeling and weaving. Silkworm eggs hatch in ten days and a small, dark caterpillar emerges. These larvae are fed cut up mulberry leaves. The caterpillar grows and molts four times until it is a big, fat, white caterpillar and is about one month old. Then, out of a hole in its lower lip, the silkworm shoots a stream of liquid that hardens into a strand of silk as it hits the air. The caterpillar moves its head around in figure eights and wraps the strand around and around itself. For four days the caterpillar shoots out silk and spins its yellowish cocoon. When the cocoon is finished, the silk workers steam the cocoons to kill the pupa. If they didn't, the pupa might bite its way out of the cocoon and break the silk strand. The cocoons are then softened in hot water. Reeling machines unwind the strand from the cocoon. A silkworm's cocoon is made of one strand of silk as long as a half a mile long. Strands are then twisted together into threads. Machines weave them into beautiful silk cloth, famous for its strength, texture and light weight. It takes thousands of cocoons to make one bolt of silk.

China is the largest silk producer in the world. Japan is second. Parachutes and hot air balloons were first made with silk because of its special properties. In addition to suits, blouses, scarves and dresses, wedding gowns all over the world are often made of silk--from kimonos in Japan to saris in India. The wedding gown for Diana, the former Princess of Wales, was made from 165 yards of silk.

Procedure

Show the children the silk scarf. Walk around the room and let the children touch it. Ask: What does the scarf feel like? (soft, smooth, light, cool, like a cloud) Write their descriptions on the board. Tell the children that the scarf is made of silk and an amazing fact: silk comes from an insect--the silkworm. Silkworms are not really worms. They are the caterpillar stage of a silk moth. Show the children a picture of a silk moth and/or silkworms in one of the suggested books. Tell the children that silkworms are very picky eaters. They will eat only one kind of food. They will eat only the leaves of mulberry trees. If you have some, show the children mulberry leaves. Tell the children that silkworms are not found in forests or fields anymore. They are found on silkworm farms. Ask: If you were a silkworm farmer raising silkworms, what kind of trees would you want to grow? (mulberry trees)

Remind the children that last time they learned about beekeepers who tend hives and harvest the extra honey. Tell them that silkworm farmers harvest silk. Ask: How do you think silk is made from silkworms? (Accept all answers.)

Tell the children that the story of silk begins in China. Have a child come up to the world map and point to China. Tell the children that a long, long time ago, 5,000 years ago, an empress of China discovered the secret of getting silk from silkworms. Read aloud The Empress and the Silkworm.

If the book is not available, tell the children: Empress Si-ling-chi discovered that if she soaked a silkworm's cocoon in hot water, she could unwind it. Show the children the ball of yarn and ask them to pretend it is a silkworm cocoon. Demonstrate unwinding or unraveling the

BCP DRAFT SCI 138

Second Grade - Science - Lesson 45 - Insects

cocoon. Tell the children that the cocoon was made of one very long silk strand. The Empress thought, "What a good idea to use this strong thread to weave cloth." She had the ladies of the royal court help her unwind many cocoons and twist the strands into threads. Then they wove the threads into soft, beautiful silk cloth. The Empress also watched the silkworm's life cycle and figured out how to raise silkworms. She was the first silkworm farmer. The discovery of silk making was so important for China that later people honored the Empress by calling her the "Goddess of Silkworms."

After reading or telling the story of the empress, tell the children that the secret of how to make silk was carefully guarded by the royal family of China for thousands of years. Silk was considered very precious, a treasure. The rulers of other countries wanted silk robes, too. They traded their gold and jewels for Chinese silk cloth. A road was built from Eastern China to the Mediterranean Sea. Show the children these two areas on the world map. This road was called the Silk Road because people traveled on it to trade for silk with the Chinese. Eventually, the secret of silk got out. A Roman Emperor named Justinian found out about silkworms. He hired two spies to go to China. The spies smuggled out some silkworm eggs in hollow bamboo tubes along with some small mulberry trees and brought them back to Justinian in his city of Constantinople. If you have dried bamboo sticks, show the children that they are hollow. Show them Constantinople on the map--the present-day city of Instanbul in Turkey. The Romans blabbed about the secret of silk to everyone and it wasn't a secret anymore. Today there are lots of silkworm farmers, especially in China, Japan and India. Point to these countries on the map or have a student come up and locate them.

Tell the children that to raise healthy silkworms, farmers must know a lot about the life cycle of the silk moth and the different stages it goes through in its metamorphosis. Ask: Do you remember what metamorphosis means? (a change in form)

Ask a child to come up to the front of the class to play the part of a silkworm farmer. Tell the children that Farmer (child's name) has a lot of silk moths in containers at his farm. Have another child come up and hold the picture of the silk moth. In the fall, when the females lay their eggs, Farmer (child's name) collects the eggs and keeps them in a cool place. Have a child come up and hold the picture of eggs. In the springtime, when the mulberry trees are getting leaves, Farmer (child's name) gradually warms up the eggs. They hatch in about ten days and out pop small, dark caterpillars. Have another child come forward and hold up the caterpillar picture. Farmer (child's name) feeds them chopped up mulberry leaves. The caterpillars eat and eat. They grow and molt four times until they are big, fat, white caterpillars. This takes about a month. Have another child come forward and hold up the picture of the large larvae. Say: Then, out of a hole in its lower lip, each caterpillar shoots a stream of liquid. The liquid hardens into a strand of silk as it hits the air. The caterpillar moves its head around in figure eights and wraps the strand around and around itself. For days the caterpillar shoots out silk and spins its yellowish cocoon. Have another child come up and hold up the cocoon or pupa picture. Say: When the cocoon is finished, Farmer (child's name) puts some of the cocoons aside and steams the rest of them to kill the silkworm pupae inside. If the farmer didn't kill them, they would bite through the cocoon and break the silk strand. Ask: What do you think Farmer (child's name) does with the cocoons that were put aside? (lets them change into moths)

Farmer (child's name) then softens the cocoons in hot water. He/she uses a machine to BCP DRAFT SCI 139

Second Grade - Science - Lesson 45 - Insects

unwind the strand of silk from the cocoon just like unwinding a ball of yarn. A silkworm's

cocoon is made of one strand of silk. The strand can be a half a mile long, longer than 50 school buses parked end to end. With machines, Farmer (child's name) twists the strands from the cocoons together to make thicker threads and winds them on spools. Then he/she sells the silk thread to a silk weaver.

Have a child come up and be a Silk Weaver. Tell the children that Silk Weaver (child's name) has a factory. At the factory, workers use machines to weave the thread into silk cloth. Silk Weaver (child's name) then sells the cloth to people who sew suits, blouses, scarves, kimonos, flags and wedding gowns. Also it is sold to people who make silk parachutes and hot air balloons. Imagine jumping out of a plane with a silk parachute. You'd have to thank many, many insects for the silk that lets you float to the ground!

Draw a large circle on the board. Have the children holding the pictures mix up and stand in a different order. Ask Farmer (child's name) and Silk Weaver (child's name) to arrange the pictures and tape them on the circle to show the life cycle of the silk moth.

Suggested Homework

Find out if anything at home is made of silk. Check the tags on the items to see in what country they were made.

Additional Activity

Objective

Recognize a local silk moth.

Materials

Color picture of Cecropia moth from Suggested Books

Cecropia coloring sheet (attached)

Suggested Books

Booth, Jerry. Big Bugs: Getting to Know Little Creatures Up Close. New York: Harcourt, 1994. Contains very good color picture of Cecropia moth and its cocoon on page 23.

Mitchell, Robert and Herbert Zim. Butterflies and Moths (A Golden Guide). Racine, WI: Western Publishing, 1962. Widely available field guide has color illustration of Cecropia on page 96 and illustrations of Asian silk moths on page 105.

Selsam, Millicent. Backyard Insects. New York: Four Winds, 1981. On page 32-33 there is a color two-page spread of Cecropia.

Procedure

Tell the children that there are moths in Maryland that are called Giant Silk Moths because of the silk strand cocoons they make. Their cocoons are not the best ones for silk making so silkworm farmers don't use them. These moths are very large, as big as your hand and very beautiful. One of the prettiest is Cecropia. Show the children a color picture of Cecropia. Tell them that Cecropia will sometimes fly around porch lights at night or land on screen doors. Cecropias do all their eating during their caterpillar stage. When they come out of their cocoons they cannot eat. They have no mouthparts. They fly around at night and look for mates but when their bodies run out of energy, they die. Distribute the Cecropia picture to color.

BCP DRAFT SCI 146

Second Grade - Science - Lesson 46 - Insects

Adapted from Naturescope: Incredible Insects, page 45.

Objectives

List what people like and don't like about insects.

Describe how locusts and termites are destructive.

Materials

Pictures of termites from suggested books

Suggested Books

Booth, Jerry. Big Bugs: Getting to Know Little Creatures Up Close. New York: Harcourt, 1994. Great illustration of the inside of a termite mound.

Dallinger, Jane. Grasshoppers. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1981. On page 45 is a photo of a swarm of grasshoppers or locusts descending on an African village.

Souza, D.M. Insects Around the House. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda, 1991. Contains an extremely informative chapter on termites with color photos of winged, worker and soldier termites.

Souza, D.M. Insects in the Garden. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda, 1991. Includes an in-depth chapter on grasshoppers.

Wilder, Laura Ingalls. On the Banks of Plum Creek. New York: Harper, 1937. Chapter 25: The Glittering Cloud, pages 193-200 contains a vivid description of a swarm of grasshoppers descending on a farm.

Teacher Resources

Churchman, Deborah. "The Secret World of Termites." Ranger Rick Magazine, January 1993.

Nature Scope: Incredible Insects. Washington, D.C.: National Wildlife Federation, 1984.

Stein, Sara. The Evolution Book. New York: Workman, 1986. This award-winning book for middle schoolers has a fascinating discussion on page 117 about the tiny ecosystem inside a termite's gut and its effects on our environment.

Background Information

Termites and grasshoppers have the ability to cause considerable destruction. Termites eat through wood in our homes and, if unchecked, can cause structures to collapse. On the other hand, termites also break down woody material in rotted stumps and logs and recycle elements into the soil, releasing nutrients so they can be used by growing plants. Grasshoppers, called migratory locusts when they congregate in large numbers, eat all the vegetation in their path including valuable crops. Grasshoppers are also eaten by many animals (including humans!) and are an important food source for birds and other wildlife. Understanding the role potentially harmful insects play in keeping the environment healthy, one cannot tell children that one type of insect is harmful or bad and another type is helpful or good. Looking at relationships between plants, creatures and humans allows a truer understanding of the environment than merely tagging a species as helpful or harmful. The concept of interdependence of plants and creatures is an important one for children to grasp. As Jerry Booth says in his book Big Bugs, "Every species plays a role in holding together the web of life on which you, and all other humans, depend."

Termites resemble soft-bodied white ants except they lack the skinny "waistline" ants BCP DRAFT SCI 147

Second Grade - Science - Lesson 46 - Insects

have between thorax and abdomen. Most termites are blind but have keen senses of smell, taste

and touch. Termites eat wood, but they cannot digest it. Inside the insect's gut is a tiny ecosystem of microorganisms (as many as a billion individuals in a single termite). These microscopic animals (bacteria and protozoa) break down the wood, produce gases, make and eat waste. When termites hatch, they do not have these organisms in their guts. Without them, a termite will starve. The only place to get these microorganisms is from another termite. That is probably why termites became social insects, living together in highly-structured communities as ants and bees do. They need each other in order to pass on the micro-community from one generation to the next. Termite communities have a queen and a king as well as workers and soldiers. The queen is much larger than any of the other termites.

Subterranean termites make tunnels in damp soil and need wood to be in contact with soil in order to get access to it. Because they reach the foundation of a house through unseen tunnels, homeowners often don't discover their presence until there is extensive damage. To prevent termites from chewing on porches, steps and foundations, it is important to build houses so that wooden structures do not make contact with the ground. Woodpiles and scrap lumber should be kept away from the house. People who discover termites in their foundations hire exterminators to inject the soil around the foundation with a powerful pesticide.

Some species of termites that live in the tropics build extraordinary nests. By mixing grains of dirt with termite spit, the termites construct huge mounds or towers as much as thirty feet high with many tunnels and rooms occupied by millions of insects.

Grasshoppers are solitary insects, that is, they do not live in communities as termites or bees do. But occasionally, when climate conditions are right, a very large population of grasshoppers can emerge at the same time. For some reason scientists do not understand, these grasshoppers develop differently. They begin congregating and migrating together in swarms. When the swarms are especially large, the insects can cut a great swath of destruction, eating crops, shrubbery, cloth, rope--any plant material they find in their path. These changed grasshoppers are often called migratory locusts. Migratory locusts have been especially destructive in Africa and the Middle East. During the last century there were plagues of locusts in the U.S. One swarm was reported to have been 23 miles wide and 70 miles long. When chemical pesticides were used in this century, they reduced the amount of crop damage from grasshoppers but they poisoned humans as well. Farmers stopped using the chemicals as extensively and by the 1970s grasshopper damage was on the rise. Today, new farming techniques are being tried to safely limit grasshopper populations. Farmers are plowing fields in the fall to expose buried grasshopper eggs so animals can eat them.

 

Procedure

Remind the children that previously they learned about some things insects make. Ask: What do insects make that people harvest and use? (honey, beeswax, silk) Ask: How many of you like the taste of honey?

Brainstorm with the children and make a list on the board: What we like about insects. Some of the things on the list might be: They make honey and silk. They are fun to watch. Insects pollinate plants so there will be seeds and fruit (apples, peaches, plums, etc.). Birds, fish and other animals eat them so they are important to the food chain. Butterflies are beautiful. BCP DRAFT SCI 148

Second Grade - Science - Lesson 46 - Insects

Crickets songs are nice to listen to. Insects eat dead things so they get recycled back into the soil. Lightning bugs are fun to catch and watch. Insects are fun to draw. They build interesting homes.

Tell the children that there are some things insects do that people do not like. Remind the children that they learned about grasshoppers and their chewing mouthparts or mandibles. Ask: What do grasshoppers eat? (plants, leaves) Do farmers like grasshoppers eating up their crops? (no) Tell the children that fortunately there are many, many creatures that eat grasshoppers and depend on them as a food source. Ask: Can anyone name some grasshopper eaters? (birds, praying mantises, frogs, raccoons, lizards, mice, spiders, snakes) Ask: What would happen if there weren't as many grasshopper eaters in one area as usual? (There would be more grasshoppers.)

Tell the children that when a lot of grasshoppers are hatched all at once and crowded together, something happens that scientists haven't been able to explain. The grasshoppers gather together in big groups. They travel together, hopping and crawling and finally flying. More and more grasshoppers join them until there is a huge swarm. There are so many grasshoppers that they can eat all the leaves on all the plants in their way. People call these swarming grasshoppers locusts. Sometimes in places such as Africa and the Middle East locusts destroy farmers' crops so that people have nothing to eat. There have been locust swarms in the U.S., too. In the 1800s people reported seeing locust swarms that darkened the sky.

If you have a copy of On the Banks of Plum Creek, tell the children you are going to read them part of a story written by a girl who lived during the 1800s. This girl, Laura Ingalls Wilder, was living on the prairie with her family when a swarm of locusts came down on their farm. Read aloud from Chapter 25 of On the Banks of Plum Creek.

Tell the children that sometimes insects can be very destructive. Almost a hundred years ago scientists started to develop chemicals to kill insects. Farmers sprayed the chemicals on their fields to poison grasshoppers and other leaf munchers. Ask: Do you think that was a good idea? What could go wrong? (Poison could get into animals and people.) Today farmers are using other ways to fight grasshoppers. They plow their fields in the fall after the grasshoppers have laid their eggs in the soil. This turns them up so that insects and animals that eat grasshopper eggs can easily find them and eat them. Knowing about grasshopper life cycles and the food chain helps farmers save their crops.

Brainstorm with the children another list: What we don't like about insects. Some of the things on the list might be: They eat plants and crops. They can bite or sting. Some spread germs. They get in our food. Some get in our houses and eat wooden beams.

Tell the children that you are thinking of a very interesting insect that belongs on both of the lists. We like this insect because it eats dead trees and recycles them back into the soil. We don't like it because it also eats the wood in our houses. Ask: Do you know the name of this insect? (termite)

Show the children a picture of termites from one of the suggested books. Tell the children that termites live together in groups called colonies. Ask: What other insects live together in groups or colonies? (ants, bees) Tell the children that termite colonies have a queen and a king. There are fighting soldier termites with big mandibles that protect the nest from ant invaders and worker termites to collect food and build more rooms in the nest. Together the termites make tunnels in the soil. Where wet soil touches wood, termites get in. They eat tunnels through the wood. Tell the children that when termites get into the beams of a house they can do a lot of

BCP DRAFT SCI 149

Second Grade - Science - Lesson 46 - Insects

damage. Given enough time, termites can eat so many tunnels in a building's wooden beams that the beams become too weak to hold up weight and the building collapses.

Ask: If termites get in where wood touches wet soil, how can we keep termites from getting into houses? (Build houses, porches and steps so wood parts don't touch the ground. Keep scrap lumber and woodpiles away from the house.)

Remind the children that in the web of life there are many connections. Animals, plants and humans depend upon each other. In the termite colony, king, queen, workers and soldiers depend upon each other to survive. But none of the termites could survive if it weren't for another group of animals--animals so tiny they can only be seen with a powerful microscope. These tiny animals live in the stomach or gut of a termite. They work together to help the termite digest wood. If it weren't for these very tiny animals working together in its stomach, the termite would starve. So inside their bellies, termites carry around a whole community of recyclers.

Possible Field Trips

A walk in a forested park to look for termites. Have the children note the number of fallen trees, stumps and logs where termites could be tunneling. Carefully lift a log and look for tunnels. Look for other wood recyclers (beetles and larva, ants).

Insect Zoo, Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.

BCP DRAFT SCI 150

Second Grade - Science - Lesson 47 - Insects

Objectives

Describe habits of fleas, houseflies and mosquitoes that make them disease carriers.

Recognize the mosquito's value in a food web.

Create a poster of a favorite insect for a Bug Tree bulletin board.

Materials

Pictures of fleas, houseflies and mosquitoes from Suggested Books

Poster sheet (attached) and crayons for each child

Bulletin board prepared with a drawing or cutout of a large branching tree

Suggested Books

Aardema, Verna. Why Mosquitoes Buzz in Peoples' Ears: A West African Tale. New York: Dial, 1984. In this Caldecott medal winner, Mosquito tells a story that causes disaster.

Booth, Jerry. Big Bugs. New York: Harcourt, 1994. Contains great drawing of a housefly, a huge fly head mask and directions for making a fly farm.

Coldrey, Jennifer. Mosquito (Stop Watch series) Englewood Cliffs: Silver Burdett, 1997. The mosquito's life cycle in photos.

Cole, Joanna. Fleas. New York: Morrow, 1973.

Gershator, Phillis. Zzzing Zzzing: A Yoruba Tale. New York: Orchard, 1997. A folktale about what happens when Ear, Leg and Arm refuse to marry Mosquito.

Heiderose, A. The Housefly (Nature Watch series). Minneapolis: Carolrhoda, 1990.

Hoke, Helen. Fleas, A First Book. New York: Franklin Watts, 1974.

Lionni, Leo. A Flea Story: I Want to Stay Here! I Want to Go There!. New York: Knopf, 1995. Two fleas argue about whether to travel and look for a new home or stay put.

Patent, Dorothy Hinshaw. Mosquitoes. New York: Holiday House, 1986. Excellent closeup photos of eggs, larvae and mosquito mouthparts. Text begins, "Itch, itch, scratch."

Pellowski, Michael. No Fleas, Please. New York: Troll, 1989. Various animals try to rid themselves of a pesky flea.

Souza, D.M. What Bit Me? Minneapolis: Carolrhoda, 1991. Contains a very succinct explanation of why mosquitoes need blood, as well as, color photos of each stage in the insect's life cycle. Chapter on fleas celebrates their jumping abilities.

Souza, D.M. Insects Around the House. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda, 1991. The chapter on houseflies makes it abundantly clear how flies can carry germs: "Clinging to hairs on its body are bits of dirt, spoiled meat, and rotting vegetables that it picked up outside in the garbage can."

Watts, Barrie. Fly (Stop Watch series). Englewood Cliffs: Silver Burdett, 1997.

Wilkinson, Valerie. Flies Are Fascinating (Rookie Read Aloud Science series). Chicago: Childrens Press, 1994.

Teacher Resources

Causey, Don. Killer Insects. New York: Franklin Watts, 1979. Good accounts of how fleas spread the bubonic plague and mosquitoes spread yellow fever.

Churchman, Deborah. "Skeeters." Ranger Rick Magazine. National Wildlife Federation, July, 1993.

BCP DRAFT SCI 151

Second Grade - Science - Lesson 47 - Insects

Walton, Stewart and Sally. Bugs Paper Chains, A Complete Kit. New York: Morrow, 1997. Stencils, instructions and patterned paper for making paper chains of insect shapes. Stencils include ladybug, cricket, bee, butterfly and housefly among others.

Background Information

Insects such as mosquitoes, houseflies and fleas help spread diseases. Mosquitoes and fleas introduce bacteria and viruses into the bloodstreams of people by biting them. Mosquitoes are responsible for spreading yellow fever and malaria in tropical areas and encephalitis elsewhere. Fleas can carry bubonic plague, a disease responsible for the deaths of millions in Europe during the Middle Ages. Houseflies spread cholera, typhoid and diptheria by carrying germs on their bodies from feces to food.

To fight these diseases, people have drained swamps where mosquitoes breed, improved sanitary conditions and developed innoculations against the diseases. In the long term, a less successful approach has been to spray insecticides such as DDT which seep into soil and into water supplies, poisoning plants and animals in lakes and rivers. These poisons travel up the food chain and eventually affect human health. Many insects become resistant to insecticides over time so new and more powerful poisons have been developed that are even more harmful to the environment and human health. In response to this dilema, alternatives to chemical poisons are being explored. Biological controls--sterilization and promoting natural predators--are being used with some success. For controlling mosquitoes, for instance, introducing predators such as dragonflies, bats and birds (swallows and purple martins) can reduce mosquito populations. Because mosquitoes require stagnant water in which to lay their eggs, eliminating puddles in old tires, cans, roof gutters, bird baths etc. can also reduce populations.

Mosquitoes feed on flower nectar. Female mosquitoes bite people and animals because they require protein from blood to develop eggs. The mosquito can locate a meal by sensing the heat from a victim's body. The female mosquito's proboscis works like a needle to withdraw blood. The itching that results from a mosquito bite is an allergic reaction to a blood thinning agent in the insect's saliva. Once the mosquito's eggs have developed, she lays them in standing water. The larva that hatch out hang upside down from the surface of the water and are equipped with breathing tubes that they use like snorkels. Larvae are often called wigglers because of the motion of their bodies when disturbed. In the pupa stage, called tumblers because of their shape, mosquitoes breathe through tubes around their heads. When the adult emerges, it leaves the water and flies to nearby plants to rest before setting out after dark to feed on nectar.

Fleas feed exclusively on blood. They can jump 200 times the length of their bodies (equal to a human jumping more than 750 feet). A special trigger hinge in their back legs makes these high jumps possible. A flea catapults itself through the air until tiny bristles on its body catch onto a victim's fur. Their thin bodies make it easy to slide through a hairy jungle.

The housefly has been called the most dangerous insect on Earth because of its habits and ability to spread disease. Flies have sticky pads on their feet that allow them to walk on the ceiling and walls. They visit garbage cans, feces and rotting matter to feed and to lay their eggs. Housefly larva called maggots look like white worms. If housefly larvae stayed in the larva state feeding on rotting material, we would thank them for being good recyclers. Unfortunately, as adults they have wings and fly into our homes, landing on our plates and walking on our toothbrushes.

BCP DRAFT SCI 152

Second Grade - Science - Lesson 47 - Insects

Procedure

Ask the children to name the insects they learned about last time and describe the kind of damage they can do (termites eat wood and can damage houses, locusts or swarming grasshoppers can eat up crops). Tell them that today they are going to learn about some of the world's most dangerous insects. Tell the children you will call the insects that belong to this dangerous group Bad News Bugs. Ask: What dangerous insects do you think are in Bad News Bugs? Do you think killer bees are in this dangerous group? A swarm of fire ants? Do you think Bad News Bugs live in the desert, the jungle?

Show the children a picture of a housefly from one of the suggested books and ask the children to identify it. Tell them this insect, the housefly, is a Bad News Bug, one of the most dangerous insects in the world. It is dangerous because it brings germs with it from wherever it has been. Ask the children where they have seen houseflies before (around food, around garbage cans, around dog poop). Ask the children what happens when they come in the house without wiping their muddy shoes on the mat (the floor gets tracked with mud). Tell the children that flies never wipe their feet before they stand on your food, or walk on the counter where people make food. The germs they track onto your food can make you sick. In some places, flies have spread deadly diseases and many people have died.

Tell the children that there are other insects that spread diseases, too. These insects don't carry germs on their feet. They carry germs in their mouths and when they bite, we itch.

Ask: What insects bite people and animals? (fleas, ticks, mosquitoes) Ask: Why do you think they bite us? (to get blood) Tell the children when blood-sucking insects bite one person or animal, and then bite another, they carry germs from one to another and spread diseases.

Show the children pictures of fleas from Suggested Books. Make a tiny chalk dot on the board. Tell the children that a flea is tinier than the dot. A flea is as tiny as a grain of salt. Its tiny, thin body slides easily through the fur of dogs and cats. When a flea wants to catch a ride on an animal going by, it can use its back legs to jump 200 times the length of its body. That would be like a person jumping over a tall building in one leap.

Tell the children that back in castle times, tiny, high-jumping, biting fleas spread a disease that killed a million people. They called the disease The Plague. No one knew it then, but fleas were biting sick rats and then carrying the germs from their blood to people. That's why the people were getting sick and dying. They were being bitten by Bad News Bugs.

Tell the children that now you will tell them about the most dangerous insect of all. In fact, it is the most deadly animal in the world. Ask: What flying insect have we heard about with mouthparts like a needle? (mosquito) Tell the children that most of the time, mosquitoes eat flower nectar just as bees do. But when a female mosquito wants to lay her eggs, and mosquitoes lay lots and lots of eggs, she needs blood. She senses body heat and finds a person or an animal to bite. She uses her needle-like proboscis to punch through skin and suck up some blood. The blood helps eggs to grow inside her. The trouble is, when she bites one person or animal, and then bites another, she carries germs from one to another and spreads diseases. In tropical areas near the equator, mosquitoes carry deadly diseases such as yellow fever, malaria and many viruses. Millions of people have died of these diseases. Each year a lot more get sick. That is why the mosquito is called the deadliest animal in the world.

Show the children photographs of a mosquito's life cycle in Mosquitoes by Patent,

Mosquito by Coldrey or one of the other Suggested Books. Tell the children the name mosquito

BCP DRAFT SCI 153

Second Grade - Science - Lesson 47 - Insects

came from a Spanish word mosca which means to fly. Ito in Spanish means little. So mosquito means little fly in Spanish. Tell the children that mosquitoes lay their eggs in unmoving water such as a puddle. The puddles can be in old tires, in cans, in roof gutters, in birdbaths. When the eggs hatch, out come larvae called wigglers. They are called wigglers because they can wiggle to get away from animals that want to eat them.

Ask: Does anyone know what a snorkel is? (an air tube for breathing while underwater) Wigglers hang upside down at the surface of the water and use air tubes just like snorkels that poke up above the water to breathe. After only a few days, a wiggler changes into a pupa. A few more days and out of the pupa crawls a mosquito with wings to fly away. If the mosquito is a female, she will mate with a male mosquito and start looking for blood to lay more eggs and more eggs. But every egg does not become a mosquito. That is because there are many mosquito eaters.

Tell the children that a lot of people have asked, "What good are mosquitoes?" Write mosquitoes and wigglers on the board and draw lines radiating out. Ask: What animals eat mosquitoes or wigglers? (fish, bats, birds, dragonflies, frogs, water bugs, spiders, lizards) Write the names of the mosquito eaters at each line of the web. Show the children how they have helped you build a food web with mosquitoes in the middle. Erase the mosquitoes and wigglers. Ask: What if there weren't any mosquitoes to eat? What would happen to this food web? (It would fall apart. The animals wouldn't have a food source.)

Remind the children that people who study insects are called entomologists. Entomologists study what insects do, where they live and how they fit into the web of life. Tell the children that they, too, have been studying and learning about insects just as entomologists do. As great bug detectives they've learned a lot about insects. Remind the children that in previous classes they learned about insect bodies, insect diets, insect life cycles, and even how insects communicate (bee dance, cricket songs). Show the children the Bug Tree bulletin board and tell them that today they will make posters of favorite insects for the Bug Tree. Ask them to write the name of the insect at the top of the page provided, then draw and color a picture of the insect. Write underneath a description of the insect, where it lives and something about its habits and life cycle. Finally, have the students write what they like about their favorite insect.

Additional Activity

Objective

Observe the life cycle of the mosquito.

Materials

A bucket of water from a pond or puddle with mosquito wigglers OR

A bucket of water sprinkled with crumbled dog biscuit placed outside for several warm days

A clear container (large jar or fishbowl)

A nylon stocking

Hand lenses

Procedure

When you see wigglers in the water, pour them into a clear container and stretch a

stocking over the top. Show the children the wigglers, tell them how you acquired them and

BCP DRAFT SCI 154

Second Grade - Science - Lesson 47 - Insects

review the life cycle of the mosquito. Ask: What stage are wigglers in the mosquito's life cycle? (larva stage) Have the children look closely with hand lenses to see the wigglers' snorkels or breathing tubes. Ask the children to describe how the wigglers move when disturbed. Tell the children that if water is moving as it is in a stream or in a pond with a fountain, mosquitoes will not lay their eggs. There are too many waves for the wigglers. Mosquitoes lay eggs in still water. Ask: Where would a mosquito find still water to lay her eggs? (puddles in old tires, roof gutters, cans and containers left out in the rain, bird baths) Ask: If we didn't want more mosquitoes around, what could we do? (Empty the containers. Dump and refill the bird bath often. Clean the gutters. Get rid of old tires.) Suppose there was a pond and we didn't want mosquitoes to lay eggs in it. What could we do? (Put a fountain or pump in it to keep the water moving. Put fish in it to eat the eggs and wigglers.)

Keep the wigglers in the classroom and have the children check them daily for changes. When the wigglers pupate, show the children and ask: Which stage is this in the mosquito's life cycle? (pupa stage) Ask: How has its shape changed? Why do you think people call mosquito pupae tumblers? (because of the way they move) Have the children continue to note changes in the tumblers for the next day or two. The mosquitoes should emerge as adults in a few days. If you remove the stocking, they will fly away.

BCP DRAFT SCI 156

Second Grade - Science - Lesson 48 - Insects

Objective

Brainstorm ingredients, sequence steps and create a recipe for an insect dish.

Materials

A measuring cup, tablespoon and teaspoon

Recipe sheet (attached) and crayons for each child

Teacher Resources

Bishop, Jerry. "Bug Mugs." Ranger Rick Magazine. National Wildlife Federation, June, 1994.

Booth, Jerry. Big Bugs. New York: Harcourt, 1994. Page 15 has authentic recipes for Chocolate Chirpies and Crispy Cajun Crickets that can be used as examples.

Taylor, Ronald. Entertaining with Insects. Yorba Linda, CA: Salutek Publishing, 1976. This book is hard to find but contains many interesting recipes by entomologists for preparing insect dishes.

Procedure

Remind the children that in studying insects they have learned about insects and food webs. They have learned about what different insects eat. Ask: What do grasshoppers eat? (leaves, plants) Read the following poem to the children about a grasshopper's diet.

I'm a hip, hop, grasshopper,

And I never pack a lunch.

I wrap my jaws around a plant,

And munch, munch, munch.

Gerry Bishop

from Ranger Rick Magazine, June, 1994.

Ask: What do fleas eat? (blood) How about butterflies? (flower nectar) What do termites eat? (wood) What do insects make that people harvest and eat? (honey)

Ask: Did you know that there are insects that people enjoy eating? There are places in the world where people eat beetle grubs or grasshoppers along with other food. Eating insects for them is a normal thing. Insects are an important source of protein in their diets. Tell the children that there are cookbooks with recipes for insect dishes such as chocolate covered ants, crispy crickets and rice, beetle grub fritters, roasted mealworms and spaghetti.

Tell the children that today the class will be creating an insect cookbook. Each student will write an insect dish recipe for the cookbook, including a color picture of what it should look like on the plate. Ask: Suppose I opened up our cookbook and saw a picture of a dish I would like to make. What information should there be in the recipe to help me make the dish? (ingredients, the things the person will need to get before starting to cook) Ask: How will I know how much of an ingredient to put in the dish? What else must a recipe have? (amounts) Show the children the measuring cup, tablespoon and teaspoon and write some sample measurements with abbreviations on the board such as 1 c., 2 Tbsp. 3 tsp. Ask: What else does a recipe need? If I have a list of ingredients and how much of each ingredient, what do I need to know now?

BCP DRAFT SCI 157

Second Grade - Science - Lesson 48 - Insects

(directions for how to put the ingredients together) Tell the children that a recipe has a list of steps that tell the reader how to make the dish--what to do first, second, third and so on. Identify some recipe direction words such as mix, chop, add. Brainstorm some others with the children and make a list on the board.

Tell the children that recipe makers usually test out their recipes many times to get them right. Since the recipes they will be creating are special what-if-there-was-such-a thing recipes, they can be free to imagine whatever they want for measurements and ingredients.

Distribute a blank recipe page (attached) and crayons to each child. Suggest various insects they have studied that might make interesting dishes combined with their favorite foods. Use illustrations of insects from books suggested in this unit as idea starters. If children want to work together on recipes, this is a good do-together project. When the children are finished, have them share their recipes and illustrations. Collect the recipes together in an Insect Cookbook that

BCP DRAFT SCI 159

Second Grade - Science - Lesson 49 - Insects

Objective

Review facts about insect body design, diet, life cycles and communication.

Materials

Crayons and a sentence strip for each team of four children

Four badges or ribbons for winning team members with a fancy "E" for entomologist

Procedure

On the board draw a large grid with four blocks across and five down. In the blocks of the top row write the letters B-U-G-S. Outside the empty blocks of the first column write 1-2-3-4.















Tell the children that today they will be playing Bug Bingo, a question and answer game that tests their insect knowledge. Divide the children into teams of four or five and give each team a crayon and sentence strip. Ask each team to pick an insect name for their team and write it on the sentence strip. If two teams choose the same insect, add an adjective to one, such as High-Hopping Grasshoppers, Incredible Crickets, etc. When the teams have been named, tell the children you will explain the rules of the game.

Show the children the Bug Bingo Board. Contestants in Bug Bingo can choose from four different topics for their questions. Show the children the B-U-G-S and tell them the topics are B-Insect Body Design, U-What Insects Eat, G-Insect Life Cycles, S-How Insects Communicate. Tell them that a team picks a letter for its topic and and a number for its question. You read the question. Team members can talk among themselves about the answer, but they must give their final answer when you say "Buzz-buzz." If their answer is correct, write the team's name in the blank box next to their question number. If incorrect, leave the box blank. Tell them the winning team will be awarded BIG E badges for Expert Entomologists. Following are questions for each topic:

B column (Insect Body Design)

1. Q. How many legs does an insect have?

A. Six

2. Q. What are the three parts of an insect's body?

A. Head, Thorax, Abdomen

3. Q. Is an insect's skeleton on the inside or the outside?

A. Outside.

4. Q. True or false. A butterfly's proboscis is on its tail.

A. False. A proboscis is a butterfly's mouthpart.

BCP DRAFT SCI 160

Second Grade - Science - Lesson 49 - Insects U column (What Insects Eat)

1. Q. These insects live underground and eat wood. What is their name?

A. Termites

2. Q. What do silkworms eat?

A. Leaves of mulberry trees

3. Q. This insect needs blood for her eggs to grow. What is her name?

A. Mosquito

4. Q. What do honeybees eat?

A. Flower nectar and/or pollen

G column (Insect Life Cycles)

1. Q. What insect larvae hang upside down underwater and breathe through snorkels?

A. Mosquito larvae

2. Q. When a butterfly lays an egg, what hatches out of the egg?

A. A caterpillar (or larva)

3. Q. Does a baby praying mantis look like its parents?

A. Yes, except its much smaller

4. Q. Where could you find ant larvae?

A. Underground in an anthill

S column (How Insects Communicate)

1. Q. When a honeybee finds a lot of flower nectar, how does it tell the other bees

where to find it?

A. By doing a dance

2. Q. True or False. Crickets sing by blowing air through their noses.

A. False. They rub their wings together.

3. Q. What kind of insect follows a smell trail to find its way home?

A. Ant

4. Q. To feel, smell and sometimes hear each other, insects use a pair of feelers on their heads. What are these feelers called?

A. Antennae

If there are blank blocks for missed questions, go back and have teams answer them until all blocks are filled. The team with the most correct answers can receive badges to wear with a big E for entomologist.

 

Additional Activity

If the children are enthusastic about Bug Bingo after playing a game, have them write their own game questions on strips of paper and play a general round. Each child can read his or her question and the class can try to answer it. can be displayed in the classroom.

BCP DRAFT SCI 161

Second Grade - Science - Insects

Suggested Books for Unit

Read Alouds

Aardema, Verna. Why Mosquitoes Buzz in Peoples' Ears: A West African Tale. New York: Dial, 1984.

*Dorros, Arthur. Ant Cities (a Let's-Read-and-Find-Out Science Book). New York: Crowell, 1987.

Berman, Ruth. Ants (an Early Bird Nature Book). Minneapolis: Lerner, 1996.

Fowler, Allan. Busy, Buzzy Bees (Rookie Read-About Science series). Chicago: Childrens Press, 1995.

Gershator, Phillis. Zzzing Zzzing: A Yoruba Tale. New York: Orchard, 1997.

Gibbons, Gail. The Honeymakers. New York: Morrow, 1997.

Heiligman, Deborah. From Caterpillar to Butterfly (A Let's-Read-and-Find-Out Science Book). New York: HarperCollins, 1996.

Hogan, Paula. The Life Cycle of the Honeybee. Milwaukee: Raintree Books, 1979.

*Hong, Lily Toy. The Empress and the Silkworm. New York: Albert Whitman, 1995.

Lionni, Leo. A Flea Story: I Want to Stay Here! I Want to Go There!. New York: Knopf, 1995. Parker, Nancy Winslow and Joan Wright. Bugs. New York: Greenwillow, 1987.

Pellowski, Michael. No Fleas, Please. New York: Troll, 1989.

Polacco, Patricia. The Bee Tree. New York: Philomel, 1993.

Sonenklar, Carol. Bug Boy. New York: Henry Holt. 1997.

*Van Allsburg, Chris. Two Bad Ants. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1988.

*Wilder, Laura Ingalls. On the Banks of Plum Creek. New York: Harper, 1937. Chapter 25: "The Glittering Cloud," pages 193-200.

Reference

Amery, Heather and J.Songi. Bugs (Discover Hidden Worlds series). Racine, WI: Western Publishing Co., 1994.

*Booth, Jerry. Big Bugs: Getting to Know Little Creatures Up Close. New York: Harcourt, 1994.

Coldrey, Jennifer. Mosquito (Stop Watch series) Englewood Cliffs: Silver Burdett, 1997.

Cole, Joanna. Fleas. New York: Morrow, 1973.

*Cole, Joanna. An Insect's Body. New York: Morrow, 1984.

*Cole, Joanna. Magic School Bus Inside a Bee Hive. New York: Scholastic, 1996.

Dallinger, Jane. Grasshoppers. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1981.

Facklam, Margery. Creepy, Crawly Caterpillars. New York: Little, Brown, 1996.

Fowler, Allan. It's A Good Thing There Are Insects. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1990.

Graham, Ada and Frank. Busy Bugs. New York: Dodd, 1983.

Heiderose, A. The Housefly (Nature Watch series). Minneapolis: Carolrhoda, 1990.

Hoke, Helen. Fleas, A First Book. New York: Franklin Watts, 1974.

Horton, Casey. Insects. New York: Gloucester Press, 1984.

Jennings, Terry. Insects (Junior Science series). New York: Gloucester Press, 1991.

Johnson, Jinny. Bugs. New York: Reader's Digest, 1995.

Johnson, Sylvia. Roses Red, Violets Blue: Why Flowers Have Colors. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1991. BCP DRAFT SCI 162

Second Grade - Science - Insects

Johnson, Sylvia. Mantises. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1984.

Johnson, Sylvia. Silkworms. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1989.

Lavies, Bianca. Backyard Hunter: The Praying Mantis. New York: Dutton, 1990.

Lecht, Jane. Honeybees. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic, 1973.

*Micucci, Charles. The Life and Times of the Honeybee. New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1995.

Parker, Steve. Beastly Bugs. Austin, TX: Raintree Steck-Vaughn, 1994.

Parker, Steve. Insects (Eyewitness Explorers series). New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1992.

Patent, Dorothy. Looking at Ants. New York: Holiday House, 1989.

Patent, Dorothy. Mosquitoes. New York: Holiday House, 1986.

Pope, Joyce. Insects (Action Science series). New York: Franklin Watts, 1984.

Souza, D.M. Insects Around the House. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda, 1991.

Souza, D.M. Insects in the Garden. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda, 1991.

Souza, D.M. What Bit Me? Minneapolis: Carolrhoda, 1991.

Starosta, Paul. The Bee, Friend of the Flowers. New York: Charlesbridge, 1992.

Stefoff, Rebecca. Praying Mantis. New York: Benchmark Books, 1997.

Suzuki, David. Looking At Insects. New York: John Wiley, 1986.

Terry, Trevor and Margaret Linton. Life Cycle of an Ant. New York: Bookwright, 1988.

Watts, Barrie. Fly (Stop Watch series). Englewood Cliffs: Silver Burdett, 1997.

Watts, Barrie. Honeybee. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett, 1989.

Wilkinson, Valerie. Flies Are Fascinating (Rookie Read Aloud Science series). Chicago: Childrens Press, 1994.

Zim, Herbert and C. Cottam. A Golden Guide to Insects. Racine: WI: Western Publishing Co., 1956.

Teacher Resources

Berenbaum, May. Bugs in the System: Insects and Their Impact on Human Affairs. New York: Addison-Wesley, 1996.

Berenbaum, May R. Ninety-nine Gnats, Nits, and Nibblers. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1989.

Bishop, Jerry. Bug Mugs. Ranger Rick Magazine. National Wildlife Federation, June, 1994. "Butterflies!" Copycat. Racine, WI: Copycat Press, May/June 1996.

Causey, Don. Killer Insects. New York: Franklin Watts, 1979.

Edmund Scientifics Catalog, 101 East Gloucester Pike, Barrington, NJ 08007, (609) 547-8880. Hall, Katy and Lisa Eisenberg. Buggy Riddles (Puffin Easy-to-Read series). New York: Puffin, 1993.

Hickman, Pamela. Thirty Insect Investigations and Arachnid Activities. New York: Addison- Wesley, 1991.

Hopkins, Lee Bennet and M. Arenstein (eds.). Potato Chips and a Slice of Moon. New York: Scholastic, 1976.

Insect Lore. P.O. Box 1535, Shafter, CA. 93263. For a catalog of live insect stock call 1-800- LIVE BUG. Suppliers of silkworm eggs, butterfly eggs, ladybug and praying mantis eggs.

Irvin, Tommy. "Making Honey." Ranger Rick Magazine, August, 1996, p. 42.

Jourdan, Eveline. Butterflies and Moths Around the World. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1981.

Mound, Lawrence and Stephen Brooks. Insects (Pockets Full of Knowledge series). New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1995.

BCP DRAFT SCI 163

Second Grade - Science - Insects

Nature Scope: Incredible Insects. Washington, D.C.: National Wildlife Federation, 1984.

Stein, Sara. The Evolution Book. New York: Workman, 1986.

Stokes, Donald. Observing Insect Lives. Chicago: Little Brown, 1983. A classic.

Taylor, Ronald. Entertaining with Insects. Yorba Linda, CA: Salutek Publishing, 1976.

Walton, Stewart and Sally. Bugs Paper Chains. New York: Morrow, 1997. Stencils and directions to make paper chains in the shapes of bees, beetles, dragonflies and butterflies.

*Required or highly recommended for lessons