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Baltimore Curriculum Project Draft Lessons

Introductory Notes

These lessons generally follow the grade-by-grade topics in the Core Knowledge Sequence, but they have been developed independent of the Core Knowledge Foundation. While the Core Knowledge Foundation encourages the development and sharing of lessons based on the Core Knowledge Sequence, it does not endorse any one set of lesson plans as the best or only way that the knowledge in the Sequence should be taught.

You may feel free to download and distribute these lessons, but please note that they are currently in DRAFT form. At this time the draft lessons on this web site do NOT have accompanying graphics, such as maps or cut-out patterns. Graphics will be added to this site later.

In participating BCP schools, these lessons are used in conjunction with the Direct Instruction skills programs in reading, language, and math. If you use or adapt these lessons, keep in mind that they are meant to address content and the application of skills. You will need to use other materials to ensure that children master skills in reading, language, and math.

Second Grade - Visual Arts - Overview

The lessons contained in visual arts are intended to expose students to the diverse body of arts that exist in many media and various cultures. They are not intended to be used so that the typical lessons of art that involve doing will be eliminated. There has been an effort made to marry the doing and the seeing so that lessons involve the students as much as possible.

We have written four formal lessons for each month, following the sequence recommended by the Core Knowledge Foundation. For example, our lessons for September are designed to increase the awareness of Second Grade children to the elements of color, texture, and shape, which are introduced in Kindergarten and First Grade. The lessons may be taught on successive days or on several days far apart from each other. However, the order of the lessons is important throughout the year. The lessons are sequential, and build upon one another.

Do not limit your students' exposure to art by only using and discussing the specific works mentioned. If other artwork is available to you, go ahead and incorporate it in the lessons where applicable.

Since we cannot presume that any of our schools has a ready collection of good reproductions, we have written the lessons based on a group of art works owned by either the Walters Art Gallery or the Baltimore Museum of Art. We are grateful that each of our participating schools has slides of the particular artworks as a donation from the two museums. It is our hope that the children will be stimulated to want to see the original works of art they have been studying. This might take the form of a class trip, or it could be done within the family or with friends over weekends or vacation times. In this way, the lessons have been created specifically with the children of Baltimore City in mind.

As the year progresses, students will begin to write about the art as well as participate in attempting facets of it. When possible, draw parallels to art and artists in all areas of study. You will find that the visual arts lessons often incorporate information that informs American or World Civilization. For example, in March the Core Knowledge sequence for World Civilizations presents the civilizations and religions of Asia, and we build our visual arts lessons around a core of artwork from several different Asian countries. In this way we think the arts can cut through time limitations built into a rigorous schedule of skillbuilding.

A suggested list of teacher resources is included in the overview. Be sure to familiarize yourself with the topics and, when possible, use the resources.

Teacher Resources

Bonica, Diane. Writing & Art Go Hand in Hand. Nashville: Incentive Publications, 1988.

Chertok, Bobbi, Goody Hirshfeld, Marilyn Rosh. Month-By-Month Masterpieces. New York: Scholastic, 1996.

Massey, Sue J. and Diane Darst. Learning to Look. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1992.

Venezia, Mike. Getting to Know the World's Greatest Artists - Van Gogh. Chicago: Children's Press, 1988.

Color

Carle, Eric. The Very Hungry Caterpillar. New York: Scholastic, 1969.

Color, texture, overlapping tissue



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Second Grade - Visual Arts - Overview

Carle, Eric. The Tiny Seed. New York: Scholastic, 1970.

Color, splash art

Dewey, Ariane. Naming Colors. New York: HarperCollins, 1995.

Wonderful reference about how colors came to have their English names

Ehlert, Lois. Color Zoo. New York: HarperCollins, 1989.

Familiar geometric shapes and primary colors

Emberly, Edward. Green Says Go. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1968.

Primary and secondary colors are explained as are the feelings colors evoke.

Jonas, Ann. Color Dance. New York: Greenwillow Books, 1989.

Beautiful illustrations of how primary colors mix to make secondary colors

O'Neill, Mary. Hailstones and Halibut Bones. New York: Doubleday, 1961.

Highly descriptive color poems - Beautiful read aloud

Spinelli, Eileen. If You Want to Find Golden. Morton Grove: Albert Whitman & Co.,1993.

Colors are viewed throughout the city. Colorful paintings enhance text

Westray, Kathleen. A Color Sampler. New York, Ticknor & Fields, 1993.

Patchwork patterns are used to show how colors recede and advance.

 

Williams, Vera. A Chair for My Mother. New York, Scholastic, 1982.

Beautiful colors and patterns

Yenawine, Philip. Colors. New York: Delacorte Press, 1991.

Works of art are featured for investigating how color is used. Excellent!

Zolotov, Charlotte. Everything Glistens and Everything Sings. New York: Harper & Row, 1987.

Chapter dedicated to color poems - great

Shape

MacAgy, Douglas and Elizabeth. Going for a Walk with a Line...a Step into the World of Modern Art. New York: Doubleday & Co., 1959.

Interesting opportunity to view lines and shapes within modern art

Texture

Seidelman, James E. The Rub Book. New York: Macmillan, 1968.

Good reference for techniques for doing rubbings

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Second Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 1- Color

Objectives

Review primary and secondary colors.

Make a primary or secondary color collage.

Materials

Fabric, paper, wrapping paper, wallpaper, and paint samples in primary and secondary colors

Construction paper in primary and secondary colors

Magazine or picture sources, stickers, glitter, trims, feathers etc.

Scissors, glue

Chart paper (optional)

Chalk or markers in the colors of red, yellow, blue, orange, green, purple

Procedure

Make three columns on the board or on a piece of chart paper. Write the word Primary at the top of the first column. Ask: Who can name the primary colors? (red, blue, yellow) If the students have difficulty recalling these colors tell them to remember that the primary colors cannot be made from any other colors. List the words red, blue and yellow written in their respective colors underneath the word primary.

At the top of column three write the word Secondary. Ask: Who can name the secondary colors? (orange, green, purple) If the students have difficulty recalling these colors remind them that the secondary colors are made by mixing two primary colors. Add the secondary colors to the chart written in their respective colors, making sure that purple is across from red, green is across from blue, and orange is across from yellow.

At the top of column two write the word plus. Use this column to list the colors written with their respective pens or chalk, that are mixed with the primary colors to make secondary colors. The columns should look like this:

Primary plus Secondary

red blue purple

blue yellow green

yellow red orange

Have the students read across the columns after each line you read. Say:

Red plus blue makes purple. Signal.

Red plus blue makes ___________ Signal. (purple)

Blue plus yellow makes green. Signal.

Blue plus yellow makes __________ Signal. (green)

Yellow plus red makes orange. Signal.

Yellow plus red makes ___________ Signal. (orange)

Repeat until firm.

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Second Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 1- Color

The question of the colors brown, black, and white may come up. Brown is made by mixing black with orange. When the pigment black is added to another color it darkens it. White pigment added to another color lightens it. With the colors red, yellow, blue, black, and white it is possible to make any color.

Constructing collages

Distribute a piece of construction paper to each child. You may choose to have the children share materials with a partner or work in a group, but the class should produce at least one collage in each of the primary and secondary colors. Demonstrate to the students how a collage is made by gluing and overlapping materials. Specify that only items the color of the piece of construction paper they have been given may be used and that the collage will contain many shades of that color. Most children will be familiar with the many different colors of red, blue, green, and orange crayons contained in a large box of crayons. If necessary, you can show that there are many different shades of a color. Collect and display the collages when complete. These will be used in a future lesson.

Teacher notes

Books illustrated by Eric Carle show a variety of colors and shades. You may wish to show some of them to the class as well as the collage technique used by Ezra Jack Keats.

Suggested Books

Carle, Eric. The Very Hungry Caterpillar. New York: Scholastic, 1969.

Carle, Eric. The Tiny Seed. New York: Scholastic, 1970.

Dewey, Ariane. Naming Colors. New York: HarperCollins, 1995.

Emberly, Edward. Green Says Go. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1968.

Jonas, Ann. Color Dance. New York: Greenwillow Books, 1989.

Keats, Ezra Jack. Peter's Chair. New York: HarperCollins, 1967.

Spinelli, Eileen. If You Want to Find Golden. Morton Grove: Albert Whitman & Co., 1993.

Westray, Kathleen. A Color Sampler. New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1993.

Williams, Vera. A Chair for My Mother. New York: Scholastic, 1982.

Yenawine, Philip. Colors. New York: Delacorte Press, 1991.

Young, James. A Million Chameleons. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1990.

Related Poetry Books

O'Neill, Mary. Hailstones and Halibut Bones. New York: Doubleday, 1961.

Zolotov, Charlotte. Everything Glistens and Everything Sings. New York: Harper & Row, 1987.

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Second Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 2 - Color

Objectives

Identify and classify colors as warm or cool.

Recognize the effect of color in Starry Night and The Little Concert

Materials

Print of van Gogh's Starry Night and slide of The Little Concert by Marc Chagall

Primary and secondary color collages (Lesson 1)

Other art prints that may be available

Procedure

Review primary and secondary colors.

Ask:

Who can name a primary color? (red, blue or yellow )

Who can name a secondary color? (orange, green or purple)

Call on several children until all the colors are stated. If the students are having difficulty take time to again review the primary and secondary colors as reviewed in the last lesson.

Display several of the color collages making sure to show one of each color (primary and secondary). You may wish to have the children stand in line holding the collages to form the color mixtures (red + blue = purple, blue + yellow = green, yellow + red = orange). Next, arrange and rearrange the collages next to each other to help the students see that some colors seem to come forward or advance and some colors seem to go back or recede.

Have students suggest things that feel warm (fire, the sun, the desert). List these words in a column and title the column warm. Do the same thing for things that feel cool (snow, ice, water, grass, night). After there are a number of items in each column have the students suggest the colors that are associated with the items. The colors red, orange and yellow should be listed as warm; and blue, green, and purple should be listed as cool. If the students suggest shades of any of these colors accept them and clarify that they still belong within the same color group. Point out that the colors we call warm colors are the colors that advance or stand out and the colors we call cool colors are the colors that recede or go back.

Display the painting Starry Night. Identify the title of the painting and the artist, Vincent van Gogh. (If possible, share some of the book Van Gogh by Mike Venezia. (Series: Getting to Know the World's Greatest Artists - Children's Press, 1988) You might read a few pages from his life and show several of his paintings included in the book.)

Ask:

When you look at this picture what do you see first? (the stars, moon, lights)

How did the artist make these stand out for you? (used yellow, warm colors)

What is the main color you see? (blue)

How does the painting make you feel?

Do you think the night is warm or cold? Why?

When you look at the buildings in the town, how do the lights in the windows make you feel?

Discuss with the children how an artist uses color to draw our attention to certain things. Because of color a painting can make us feel a particular way when we look at it or know that the

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Second Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 2 - Color

artist felt a particular way. Tell them that warm colors usually make us feel happy or excited and that cool colors make us feel peaceful and sometimes sad. Van Gogh was sad when he painted Starry Night.

Leave Starry Night on display and introduce The Little Concert by Marc Chagall. Even though this painting will be studied in greater detail when you discuss shapes, have the students respond to the use of color.

Ask:

Does this painting look like Starry Night?

What makes it look so different?

How does the artist use warm colors and cool colors?

Does it make you feel happy or sad? Why?

 

If possible, show and discuss other paintings. Magazine advertisements also work well for showing the way that warm colors draw our attention. You may also want to tell the students that in nature our attention is usually drawn to the warm colors like a red cardinal or a yellow daffodil. Ask them to be on the lookout for the way color is used by illustrators, too. Once again the books illustrated by Eric Carle are perfect for this as are the books by Denise Fleming.

Close the lesson by reviewing primary, secondary, warm and cool colors.

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Second Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 3 - Shape

 

Objectives

Recognize basic geometric shapes in nature, man-made objects and artworks:

square, rectangle, triangle, circle, oval.

Recognize free-form shapes.

Make a picture using various shapes.

Materials

Print of Starry Night, slides of Chagall's The Little Concert, and Portrait No. 1 by Joan Miro

Pipe cleaners

Pattern blocks, attribute blocks, or cardboard shapes for tracing

Manila paper, crayons

 

Procedure

Recall with the students that you have been looking at artworks and discussing the colors the artists used when painting them. Briefly review primary, secondary, warm, and cool colors. Tell the students that today you will be looking at another way artists draw our attention to a work of art. They use shapes. Ask: Who can name a shape? (square, circle, rectangle, oval, semicircle, pentagon, octagon, hexagon, parallelogram) As the students respond, list their answers on the board. Using a different pipe cleaner for each one, make several of the shapes. (You could also draw the shape on the board; just make sure that you make it in one continuous line.) Ask: How is a shape made? (A shape is made by taking a line and enclosing itself.) Be sure that students recognize that some shapes do not have specific names; they are simply free-form.

Display Starry Night. Review the title and the artist. Remind the students that they were able to tell you that the stars in the painting are done in warm colors and therefore get your attention. Ask: Do the circles around the stars also draw your eyes there? What other shapes does van Gogh use in this painting? (rectangles for windows and buildings, triangles for roofs) What does the tree in the front of the painting look like? (flames)

Display The Little Concert. Have the students look at it silently and mentally list the shapes they see. Ask: What shape did Chagall use more than any other? (oval) What shapes are the buildings? (squares, rectangles, and triangles) Which artist uses more shapes that have straight lines? (Chagall) Which painting do you think is more interesting? Why? Which painting do you think was more difficult to paint? Why?

Display Portrait No. 1. Tell the students that this is a painting by a man named Joan Miro. Ask:

If you didn't know the title, could you guess this was a portrait? How?

What interesting shape did the artist use that you see upside down right in the middle of the forehead? (heart)

Is it repeated anywhere else? (yes)

How is it different there? (larger and rightside up)

Do you see other shapes in this painting? (triangles, circles, squares)

Have the children tell you which shapes they think represent the eyes, nose, and mouth of this portrait and what they think about the butterfly, sun, and star. (Accept any thoughtful response.)

 

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Second Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 3 - Shape

 

Tell the children that they now will have the opportunity to create a picture using shapes. It could be a portrait of a friend or family member, with clearly recognizable shapes like the Miro portrait, or it could be a scene more like the Chagall or van Gogh where the shapes are more disguised. Demonstrate by taking one of the shapes and tracing around it on the paper. Talk about the various figures or parts of figures it could become. Demonstrate that it is possible to overlap pieces or put shapes inside one another. Show that shapes can be combined to make various figures. Remind the children that any free-form shape is acceptable and desirable. (You might point out the fish and bird shapes in the Miro.) Encourage creativity and remind the children that their choice of color will have an effect on their artwork as well. (You could show them the green face in the Chagall and the swirling colors in the sky of the van Gogh.) When you distribute the materials you may wish to have the children work in groups with the full selection of shapes possible or partner students and give them a limited number of shapes to use.

Display the artwork when completed and ask the students to identify the shapes they see. Review the names of basic geometric shapes and the term free-form.

You may enjoy sharing some books that include shapes in the illustrations. Suggested books are:

Suggested Books

Ehlert, Lois. Color Zoo. New York: HarperCollins, 1989.

Combines primary colors and familiar geometric shapes.

MacAgy, Douglas and Elizabeth. Going for a Walk with a Line... a Step into the World of Modern Art. New York: Doubleday & Co., 1959.

A good way for children to have a guided approach to modern art.

Yenawine, Philip. Shapes. New York: The Museum of Modern Art/Delacorte Press, 1991.

Extremely simple and straightforward approach to looking at shapes in a few works of well-known artists. Brief text on each page is easily readable by seond graders.

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Second Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 4 -Texture

Objectives

Describe the qualities of tactile and visual texture.

Make a rubbing or a texture collage or paint print.

Materials

Print of Starry Night

Pictures of patterning in nature, patterned wallpaper or fabric

Rubbing

Objects that provide a variety of textures (rough, smooth, bumpy, scratchy, silky, slippery)

Crayons, lightweight white paper

Collage

Objects that provide a variety of textures (rough, smooth, bumpy, scratchy, silky, slippery)

scissors, glue, construction paper

Print

Objects that provide a variety of textures (rough, smooth, bumpy, scratchy, silky, slippery) Tempera paint in a variety of colors, flat pans or pie plates

Brayer or other roller for applying paint, white construction paper

Background

Making a collage of materials that are all a particular texture can be very interesting with visual and tactile appeal; however since one art lesson has already produced a collage you may wish to do the rubbing or the print with your class. If desired all three projects can certainly be done as time allows.

Procedure

Tell the students that you have already looked at two aspects of art: color and shape. Quickly review primary, secondary, warm, and cool colors; and shapes. Tell them that now you are ready to talk about another aspect of art. Explain that it is rather unusual because it involves the part of studying art we usually are not allowed to do and that is touch.

Explain that when we touch something we feel the texture of that thing. Have the students slide the palms of their hands across their desks and ask them to describe what they feel. Do this for a number of objects (hair, a spiral on a book, the floor, the wall, the point of a pencil, etc.) List the words they use to describe the various textures. Ask the students to think of the textures of different fruits: oranges and lemons - bumpy; apples and watermelon - smooth; peaches and kiwi - fuzzy; coconut - rough.

Tell the students that sometimes artists produce tactile texture in their art by using cutouts of different materials or applying the paint very thick with a knife or right from the tube, as van Gogh did. Explain that most of the time, however, artists depend on visual texture. They use a pattern in the painting or show the bark of a tree or the fur of an animal with brush strokes. We can imagine how those things feel by the picture the artist gives us.

Display the print Starry Night. Ask the students to look at the texture of the surface of the painting. Van Gogh has applied the paint in a very thick way. This is tactile texture. If you look at some other paintings by van Gogh you'll see that he uses texture with line, color and pattern,

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Second Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 4 -Texture

too. Any of the paintings illustrated in the Mike Venezia book would be suitable to discuss.

(Select the art project you wish to do with the class and continue from there.)

Rubbing

Tell the students to run the palms of their hands over their desk tops again. Ask: How does the desk top feel? (smooth) Demonstrate that the chalkboard is smooth also and when a crayon is rubbed over a paper placed on the surface of the board the crayon lines also look smooth. Next, demonstrate that a very different picture appears if the paper is placed over a comb or a cinder block wall. Give each child a piece of paper, a crayon or crayons and several objects to use for texture. Remind the students that they may also use the edge of a desk, a wire in a spiral notebook, and even the sole of a tennis shoe. Encourage the children to use the entire sheet of paper and not to do too much overlapping of objects.

Collage

Review with the children the technique for making a collage. Tell them that they will be making a collage again but this time the theme will be a particular texture. Explain that they may use rough, smooth, soft, fuzzy, etc. to name their collage. The items that make up the collage should all be representative of the title. A smooth collage might have wrapping paper, ribbon, waxed paper and cellophane as some of its components. Suggest that the children try placing the materials in different ways before finally glueing them to the paper. You may wish to have children who select the same texture work together. As you select materials don't overlook various fabrics like corduroy, vinyl, dotted Swiss; and sandpaper, cotton balls, Velcro, dried beans and corn.

Print

An interesting print can be made by applying paint to various materials and stamping or printing them on paper. You will want to demonstrate how some objects are best dipped into paint (toothbrush, steel wool), while others need the paint applied to them either with a brayer or brush (blocks of wood, pieces of yarn glued to a piece of cardboard). Then print the design. Be sure that your students recognize that the paint does not have to be applied too thickly in order to print. Consider allowing only one color to be used for all the printing, or make an assembly line type of center where each object is assigned a color and printed from that pan only. Demonstrate that different prints may be applied on top of one another.

 

In closing, students should now be able to identify color, shape and texture as some of the ways artists make their artwork interesting. Students should also be able to recall the primary and secondary colors as well as warm and cool.

Suggested Books

Seidelman, James E. The Rub Book. New York: Macmillan, 1968.