Third Grade - Visual Arts - Overview - April

This month in Art students investigate the architecture of Ancient Rome. The Pont du Gard, an aqueduct in Nimes, France; The Pantheon and Trajan's Column in Rome; and various triumphal arches throughout the land that was once the Roman Empire are the specific points.

Students participate by experimenting with the principles of the aqueducts, by creating a triumphal arch and illustrating and constructing a story column based on the story of Horatius and the bridge (see Literature--Greek and Roman Mythology, April).

Hopefully students will have a greater appreciation for the architectural knowledge and skill of the Romans when they complete this month's study. Discussion of the methods and tools the architects and builders used is included in the lessons.
 

In May, the art of the Byzantine Civilization, including the Hagia Sophia and a number of mosaics, is studied.
 

Third Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 25 - The Pont du Gard
 

Objectives
Recognize the reason for the use of the arch in Roman architecture.
Appreciate the combination of beauty and function in the aqueduct.
Recognize the difficulties faced by the early Roman architects and builders.
Experiment with slope in simulating an aqueduct (optional).
 

Materials
Classroom-size map of the world
Materials to simulate the channel or "gutter" of an aqueduct--plastic soda bottles, cardboard cylinder cut in half lengthwise
 

Suggested Books
Baxter, Nicola. Romans. New York: Franklin Watts, 1992. Pp. 6 and 7 contain an aerial view illustration of a Roman town complete with an aqueduct.
Burrell, Roy. The Romans. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Pp. 32 & 33 provide excellent information on the functionality of the aqueducts. A cross section showing the channels can also be found.
Clare, John D.,ed. Classical Rome. New York: Harcourt, Brace Jovanovich, 1993.
Many full-page photographs (the Pont du Gard) and accompanying text give information on life in Ancient Rome.
Cox, Phil Roxbee. Who Were the Romans? Tulsa, OK: EDC Publishing, 1993.
An Usborne Starting Point History Book--posed in a question and answer format, very basic text, good illustrations including a picture of an aqueduct on pp. 30 and 31.
Field Trip: Ancient Rome. Cleveland: Modern Curriculum Press, 1992.
Includes photographs of the Pont du Gard (p. 2), the Pantheon (p. 6), and Trajan's Column (p. 19).
Hinds, Kathryn. The Ancient Romans. New York: Michael Cavendish, 1997.
Contains photographs of The Pont du Gard and the Pantheon.
Hirsch, Jr., E. D., ed. What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell, 1992.
Pages 180 and 181 show two photographs of the Pont du Gard taken from different angles. Useful information on shapes and rhythm are also included.
Macaulay, David. City: a story of Roman planning and construction. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974. Useful for both the Art and World History lessons, Macaulay tells of the construction of a Roman city with detailed drawings.
Roberts, Paul C., ed. Ancient Rome. New York: Time-Life Books, 1997.
An illustration of the Pantheon (p. 27), and photographs of a triumphal arch (p. 53), Trajan's Column (p. 43) and an aqueduct (p. 26) are included. Students will enjoy the full page illustrations in this oversize book.
Wood, Richard. The Builder Through History. New York: Thomson Learning, 1994.
Excellent book complete with photos, illustrations and a time line. The Pont du Gard may be found on p. 17.
Wood, Tim. Ancient Wonders: See Through History. New York: Viking, 1997.
Wonderful full-page illustrations, complete with 4 see-through pages. The Pont du Gard and Trajan's Column can be found on page 32.
 

Video
Roman City by David Macaulay, produced by PBS is available in a 60 minute cassette. Macaulay is featured traveling to various sites of Ancient Rome and discussing the architecture; the Pont du Gard, the Colosseum and Pompeii are all featured.

Teacher Reference
de la Chris, Horst, Richard G. Tansy and Diane Kirkpatrick, ed. Gardner's Art Through the Ages, Vol. I: Ancient, Medieval and Non-European Art. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1991. Chapter 6, pp. 216-236 contain photographs and information on the Pont du Gard, the Pantheon, triumphal arches and Trajan's Column.

Teacher Resource
Moore, Helen H. And Carmen R. Sorvillo. Pyramids to Pueblos: 15 Pop-Up Models for Students to Make. New York: Scholastic, 1995.
Information, patterns and step-by-step directions are given for constructing models of a variety of structures. A model of an aqueduct is included on p. 30.
Raphael, Elaine and Don Bolognese. Drawing History: Ancient Rome. New York: Scholastic, 1990. This how-to book gives very simple directions for drawing the arches of the aqueducts. The illustrations are simple but effective.

Teacher Note
Channels can be made from plastic 1 or 2 liter soda bottles that have both ends removed and have been cut in half lengthwise. Cardboard tubes may also be cut in this way to simulate a channel.
If possible, secure several lengths of plastic bottle together to form a channel. Make an incline with the channel and pour water in at the top. Show how the angle of the incline can affect the flow of water.

Procedure
Begin the lesson by asking the students: If you wanted a glass of water, or to take a bath, what would you do? (go to a faucet and turn it on) Tell the students that if they had lived in Ancient Rome and were very rich, they would have been able to have water running through pipes into and out of their houses, too. Even if they weren't rich, they would have been able to use the water that flowed to the public baths, lavatories and fountains.

Tell the students that today the water we use comes from reservoirs, or storage places for the water, that have been formed by damming a river or changing its flow. The water is electrically pumped from the reservoirs through pipes so we can turn on the faucet and get a fast spray of water in the sink or shower and firemen can open fire hydrants and have a strong stream of water for battling fires.

Explain that the Romans didn't have electricity so their water was not pressurized. It did not spray and the only way it was used for fighting fires was with buckets. Their water was kept in a reservoir in the city or town after traveling quite a distance. Ask: Where do you think the water came from? (Accept any thoughtful response.) Tell the students that the water was brought from the streams in the mountains and hills down to the city.

Draw a quick sketch of a large hill and a city some distance away and much lower in elevation. Ask the students to think about how the Romans could get the water from the streams in the hills and mountains down to the city. (Accept any thoughtful responses.) If students suggest techniques involving electricity, remind them that it was not yet available. If someone suggests using pipes to bring the water down, congratulate the student and ask the class to think about problems that the Romans might have encountered trying to do this. List their ideas on the board.

Using the techniques suggested in the Teacher Note, show the students how channels or gutters were used to direct the flow from the mountains to the city. Demonstrate how the angle of the piping needed to be just right or the water would flow too quickly, not fast enough, or would flow back.

Write the word aqueduct on the board. Tell the students that aqua is the Latin word for water and duct is a word that means a channel or pipe. It comes from the Latin word ducere which means "to lead." Ask a student to tell what aqueduct means (water channel or water pipe).

Remind the students that there was often a very long distance between the mountain stream and the city and sometimes there was a valley or hill in between. Explain that the pipes extended for a great distance. Point out that the pipes and channels could not be left unsupported. Nor could they be left open to insects, birds and animals. Ask the students how they think the Romans solved this problem. (Answers may vary.) Tell the students that the Romans built structures that allowed the channels to be covered and supported. Display a picture or photograph of an aqueduct or draw one on the board. Explain that the upper part that looked like a bridge provided a place for the channel. (If you have a photograph of the Pont du Gard explain that the lower part is a road.) Ask the students to identify the structure of the aqueduct (contains arches). Explain that an arch supports a great amount of weight. Demonstrate this by having the students make an arch with one hand by placing the thumb and first finger on a surface making an arch shape. Tell them to press on the top of that arch with their other hand. The arch should provide resistance. Point out to students that visually an arch is attractive and structurally it is useful.

Tell the students that some aqueducts were 55 feet high and some were as long as 50 miles. The framework of the aqueduct was made up of stone blocks used to create a series of arches. The stone blocks weighed up to 2 tons each. (A small car weighs about 2 tons, as does a small elephant.) The Pont du Gard, (show photographs) which runs across the River Gard in France was built in 20 B.C. Have a student locate France on the map. Remind students that this area was once part of the Roman Empire. Tell them that the Pont du Gard or Bridge of Gard is 30 miles long and at one time supplied the nearby city with 100 gallons of water a day for each person who lived there. It is constructed with two tiers that each contain large arches (each one spans 82 feet) topped by small arches that are placed in threes over each large arch. The arches make the aqueduct itself seem to flow with movement as our eyes travel over the arches. Ask the students why they think the Romans chose to use the arch (strength, beauty).

Tell the students that many aqueducts still stand in parts of the old Roman Empire and some of their roads are large enough to drive a car on. Tell students that some of the piping that remains cannot even be seen because it runs through a hillside.
 

Additional Activities
 

Designer Aqueducts

Tell the students that they have been selected to decorate an aqueduct. Have them think about the types of designs they would choose to include and whether they would do relief sculpture or paint designs, etc. Provide paper, crayons or paints and a very simple aqueduct structure for students to copy. Display the decorator aqueducts with pictures of tubs, sinks, etc. clipped from magazines.

Water, Water Everywhere

Have students think of all the ways that we use water in our city. Challenge teams to come up with the longest list. Be sure to have them think of businesses that depend on water for use in processing a particular product.

Aqua-Plumbum

Remind the students that aqua is the Latin word for water and tell them that plumbum is the Latin word for lead, which is where our word plumbing comes from. Have students make lists of all the words we use today that come from these two roots. Have students define each word and do an accompanying illustration to create a water-pipe dictionary. (Words to include are: aquarium, aquamarine, aquaplane, aquanaut, plumber, plumb, plumb line, plumber's helper, etc.)
 

Third Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 26 - Trajan's Column

Note: This lesson may be used in conjunction with the literature lesson on Horatius at the bridge. Be sure to prepare the drawing paper for the lesson as directed below.
 

Objectives
Identify the bas-relief sculpture of the column and relate it to prior art studies.
Recognize the column as a commemorative monument.
Illustrate and construct a story column.
 

Materials
Classroom-size map of the world
Photographs or illustrations of Trajan's Column
Sequence chart from Literature Lesson Horatius at the bridge
Gray, black and white crayons
Drawing paper (see below)

Paper preparation:

Make a column out of oaktag by rolling pieces into tubes and joining them together to reach a desired height. Use long strips of paper 5 to 8 inches wide and join them checking to see the length needed to wrap around the entire column. Be sure to leave several extra inches of blank paper at each end. Then, remove the scroll of paper and mark a to 1 inch wide border along the top and bottom edges (to allow for overlap). Divide the scroll into 10 parts (10 parts of the story of Horatius) and distribute these pieces to the students to illustrate the story of Horatius.

Suggested Books
Beckett, Sister Wendy and Patricia Wright. The Story of Painting. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1994.
An extremely clear close-up of a detail from Trajan's Column is included on p. 29.

Burrell, Roy. The Romans. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
An illustration of Trajan's army crossing the Danube and an account of his conquests discussed in first person by an elderly man of the time can be found on pp. 50 & 51. A scene from Trajan's Column can also be found there.

Field Trip: Ancient Rome. Cleveland: Modern Curriculum Press, 1992.
Includes photographs of Trajan's Column (p. 19), directions for making a story column are also included there.

Hirsch, Jr., E. D., ed. What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell, 1992.
Page 96 has a photograph of a relief which is not associated with Trajan's Column, but may be useful as an example of this type of art.

Roberts, Paul C., ed. Ancient Rome. New York: Time-Life Books, 1997.
An illustration of Trajan's Column is on p. 43 and a bust of Trajan is included on p. 61. Students will enjoy the full page illustrations in this oversize book and will be able to see many examples of relief art.

Wood, Tim. Ancient Wonders: See Through History. New York: Viking, 1997.
Wonderful full-page illustrations, complete with 4 see-through pages. The Pont du Gard and Trajan's Column can be found on page 32.
 

Teacher Reference

Tappan, Eva March. The Story of the Roman People: An Elementary History of Rome.
Cambridge: The Riverside Press, 1938. Information on Trajan is included in Chapter 15, The Five Good Emperors, in this delightful, though dated, history book.
 

Teacher Note

If possible, borrow slide # 13 from Kindergarten Visual Arts, Triumph of Bacchus and from First Grade, slides # 13 and 14, Oliphant and Assyrian Winged Genius and show these to the students as a review of relief sculpture.
 

Teacher Background

The emperor Trajan who was born in Spain, ruled the Roman empire from 98 A.D. to 117 A.D. He tried during his reign to extend the empire through a series of military conquests.He was a benevolent ruler who initiated a program of care for orphaned children and loaned money at half the usual rates to landowners who wished to improve their property. He saw to it that theaters, baths, libraries, arches and public halls and squares were built not only in Rome, but in all the provinces. He maintained roads and bridges throughout the empire. Hadrian (117-138 A.D.) who was responsible for having the domed portion of the Pantheon built, was his adopted son.
 

Procedure

Ask the students to think: If you wanted to tell people about your accomplishments what would you do? Ask:Would you write them down or take a photograph of them? Maybe you would ask someone to videotape you in action. Tell the students that these are all ways that we might keep a record of what we have done, but to now imagine that they lived back in the time of the Romans around 100 A.D. Remind them that there weren't any cameras or video recorders available and only some of the people could read and write. Ask: How could you let people know about important things you had done? Point out that photographs and film are good ways to tell by showing, so some kind of picture would definitely be the way to go. Ask: How could you make a picture for everyone to see that would last for a long, long time? Out of which material would you make the picture if you wanted to display it outside? (marble, stone, concrete)

Tell the students that these are the same kind of questions that the emperor Trajan probably asked himself many years ago. He decided that he would tell of his accomplishments in a very special way. He had a column made and around the column in a long curving scroll, he had his accomplishments carved. This column would last for years and commemorate, or serve as a reminder, of his deeds. (Be sure that students understand what a column is.)

Explain that the column, which was made from 20 blocks of marble, is 128 feet high (as tall as a ten story building) and sits upon a hollow base that is square in shape and 2 stories high. The base first served as a mausoleum for Trajan. In 117 A.D. his ashes were placed within inside a golden urn. The column was originally topped with a gilded statue of Trajan, but it was lost sometime during the Middle Ages. The column is now topped with a statue of St. Peter.

Show close-ups of the column or review the slides from earlier grades to be sure that students recall relief sculpture. Remind them that parts of the marble are cut away to leave a raised picture. When the carving is not very deep, it is called bas-relief. (Write this on the board.) Ask students to recall other examples they have seen of this type of sculpture. (See Teacher Note.) Tell the students that the marble reliefs, which wrap (or scroll) around the column in a continuous band, tell the story of Trajan's war with the people of Dacia which is now known as the country of Romania. Explain that Trajan and his army crossed the Danube River and conquered the Dacians. Ask the students why they think Dacia's name has been changed to Romania (Roman culture took hold there).

Tell the students that the scroll or band is more than 600 feet in length and increases in width from 36 inches at the base to 50 inches at the top. Ask: Why do you think that the pictures were made larger near the top? (to provide greater visibility from the ground) Explain that it contains more than 2,500 figures. Show pictures of the column and help students to see that concern was not given to the relative proportions of the figures; horses and people appear to be the same size and soldiers stand as tall as the buildings around them. Tell them the intent was to provide a narrative rather than isolated scenes so figures are often superimposed (or placed in rows one above the other). Pictures of military triumphs and routine building and city improvements share space on the 150 episodes contained there.

Remind the students of the story of Horatius at the bridge over the River Tiber and the events they sequenced. Display the chart and discuss pictures that could be drawn that are related to each event (see below). Tell them that ten pictures will be drawn and they will be joined together to make a story column like Trajan's. (If you do not choose to use Horatius, decide on another story to illustrate.) Put the students in ten groups and assign one step in the sequence of the story to each. Have them use gray, black and white crayons to simulate the relief sculpture of Trajan's Column. Remind students to not worry about proportions and to superimpose figures.

When the students have completed their drawings attach the sections of paper to make a continuous scroll. Wrap the paper around the oaktag column, folding the blank ends under at the bottom and top. A large box with a hole cut in the top can serve as the base. If you wish, several smaller columns could be made instead.
 

Story Column activity adapted from Field Trip: Ancient Rome, Modern Curriculum Press.
 

Possible illustrations for the story

1- (the city of Rome). Draw a few buildings and monuments. Remind the students that Rome was a beautiful city and was well protected by her army.
2- (soldiers) Next, draw a number of soldiers. Remind the students that the soldiers wore helmets and breastplates and used shields and swords.
3- (the Etruscans) Draw an army heading to Rome.
4- (the bridge) Draw the soldiers facing a bridge.
5- (Horatius) Draw Horatius repelling the Etruscans at the bridge.
6- (The bridge was cut.) Draw a picture of the bridge dangling, cut away from the one side.
7- (Horatius) Draw Horatius standing alone.
8- (He dove into the river.) Draw a person's head sticking out of water.
9- (Yes, he was pulled to safety.) Draw the soldiers helping him onto the shore.
10- He was rewarded with a gift of land. Draw Horatius with a plow.
 

Third Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 27 - The Pantheon

Objectives
Analyze the building challenges faced during the construction of the Pantheon.
Hear facts about and see photographs and illustrations of the exterior and interior of the Pantheon.

Materials
Classroom-size world map
Photographs or illustrations of the Pantheon (see Suggested Books)

Suggested Books
Burrell, Roy. The Romans. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. Pp. 36 & 37 tell about the Pantheon and a wonderful, large photograph of the interior is provided.

Eyewitness Visual Dictionary of Buildings. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1992.
Pages 10 and 11 are devoted to the Pantheon and show a front view and a side view as well as a cross section of the rotunda and portico that exposes the interior of the building. Each view of the structure is labeled.

Field Trip: Ancient Rome. Cleveland: Modern Curriculum Press, 1992.
Includes photographs of the Pont du Gard (p. 2), the Pantheon (p. 6), and Trajan's Column (p. 19).

Hinds, Kathryn. The Ancient Romans. New York: Michael Cavendish, 1997.
Contains photographs of the Pont du Gard and the Pantheon.

Roberts, Paul C., ed. Ancient Rome. New York: Time-Life Books, 1997.
An illustration of the Pantheon is included on p. 27 and a bust of Hadrian is found on p. 61. Students will enjoy the full page illustrations in this oversize book.

Teacher Reference and for showing pictures to students

Brown, Frank E. Roman Architecture. New York: G. Braziller, 1967.
Useful as a reference, this book gives information on Rome from 800 BC to 550 AD; plates (65-69) feature the Pantheon.

de la Croix, Horst, Richard G. Tansey and Diane Kirkpatrick, ed. Gardner's Art Through the Ages, Vol. I: Ancient, Medieval and Non-European Art. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1991. Chapter 6, pp. 226-228 contain photographs and information on the Pantheon. A drawing plan for the building (including a cross section) is on p. 227 and a medallion showing a profile of Hadrian is found on p. 251.

Robinson, Charles Alexander. Ancient Rome. New York: Franklin Watts, 1984.
Information on Hadrian and a photograph of the Pantheon are included. Unfortunately all photographs in the book are black and white.

Teacher Resource

Moore, Helen H. And Carmen R. Sorvillo. Pyramids to Pueblos: 15 Pop-Up Models for Students to Make. New York: Scholastic, 1995.
Information, patterns and step-by-step directions are given for constructing models of a variety of structures. A black line master of the Pantheon is included on pp. 32-34.

Teacher Background
Hadrian was a Spaniard, the adopted son of Trajan (98-117 A.D.), and the emperor of the Roman Empire from 117-138 A.D. Unlike his father, Hadrian was not interested in extending the Roman Empire; he chose instead to defend it. Under his direction, a wall was built at the northernmost point of the empire. The wall stood 20 feet high and was 74 miles long. Part of the wall still remains in Britain today.
 

Procedure

Remind the students that the Romans worshiped many gods. Have them recall the names of a few (Jupiter, Mercury, Mars, Neptune, Venus, Juno, Cupid, etc.). Ask: How did the Romans honor their gods? (They built temples and altars and they offered gifts.) Tell the students that one of the most impressive temples that was built to the gods is called the Pantheon and it is still standing today in Rome. Have a student tell in which country Rome can be found today (Italy), then go to the map and locate both country and city.

Explain that Pantheon is a Greek word that means "all the gods." (Write the word Pantheon on the board.) Marcus Agrippa, a Roman general, originally had a rectangular portico with columns built to use as the temple to the gods. The inscription across the front tells us: Agrippa made this in his third term as consul. Hadrian, an emperor of Rome who was himself a master builder, had the domed rotunda added to it around 120 A.D. Show the students pictures of the Pantheon from Suggested Books.

Explain that the dome of the rotunda is 144 feet in diameter and 144 feet in height at the summit or highest point. Be sure that students understand what diameter means. Draw two intersecting circles (one horizontal, one vertical) to help the students visualize the concept. Tell them that in the center of the dome is an opening called an oculus which is 30 feet in diameter. Ask: Why do you think they put an opening at the top of the dome? (allow light to enter) Explain that rain also enters this way and so drainage for the rainwater is provided through a depression in the center of the floor. Remind the students of the Latin words aqua and plumbum that they have already learned and ask them what they think the word oculus means (eye). Write oculus and eye on the board.

Tell the students that the domed roof is made of overlapping concrete rings which grow thicker near the base. Explain that the Romans made concrete from broken bits of brick and stone mixed together with sand and gravel, cement and water. Tell them that the outside of the dome was once covered with tiles of gilded bronze. It could be seen gleaming from any place in Rome. The inside of the dome is coffered, which means it is covered with decorative sunken panels, each with a bronze rosette at the center. Ask the students if they have any idea what these rosettes were supposed to represent (the stars). Ask what they think the oculus was supposed to represent (the sun). Explain that the height of the dome and the curved walls of the room give a feeling of great space. Point out that the space created by this high ceiling makes the Pantheon a cool place to be on hot summer days.

Tell the students that inside the rotunda there are a series of piers (supports) and rectangular and rounded niches. Explain that decorative marble from the region was used inside the temple. If possible, display a reproduction of the painting Interior of the Pantheon by Giovanni Pannini (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.)

End the lesson with a discussion of the difficulties the builders must have faced with construction. Remind the students that a limited number of tools were available during Roman times and there was no electricity. Ask students to theorize how the rings of the dome were lifted and fitted. Have students explain how they think the sunken panels were placed. Have them consider which modern machine would have been most useful to the builders.
 

Third Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 28 - Arches of Triumph

Objectives
Recognize that triumphal arches were erected to commemorate people and events.
Note the continued use of the arch in Roman architecture.
Decorate and assemble a triumphal arch (see Teacher Note).

Materials
Photographs or illustrations of triumphal arches (see Suggested Books)
Worksheet of arch (attached) 1 per student
White, black and gray crayons
Scissors, glue or tape

Suggested Books
Roberts, Paul C., ed. Ancient Rome. New York: Time-Life Books, 1997.
A photograph of a triumphal arch can be found on p. 53. Students will enjoy the many full-page illustrations in this oversize book.

Teacher Reference and for showing pictures to students

de la Croix, Horst, Richard G. Tansey and Diane Kirkpatrick, ed. Gardner's Art Through the Ages, Vol. I: Ancient, Medieval and Non-European Art. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1991.

Chapter 6, Etruscan and Roman Art contains photographs of the Arch of Titus on pp. 232-233 and the Arch of Constantine on pp. 249-250.

Robinson, Charles Alexander. Ancient Rome. New York: Franklin Watts, 1984.

Photograph of the Arch of Constantine on p. 53.
 

Teacher Note

You may wish to have the students decorate their triumphal arches with personal accomplishments and successes, or you may choose to have them commemorate a particular person or event from past or present history. A triumphal arch could certainly be decorated to honor a person living today.
 

Procedure

Ask the students to recall the architectural element that was used in building the aqueducts (arch). Ask them to explain the structural advantage of an arch (support weight). Tell them that this feature was repeated in another structure that the Romans made. This was the triumphal arch.

Write the word triumph on the board. Ask: What does triumph mean? (victory, success, to win or gain mastery) Ask: How do people act when they are successful? (happy, celebrate, cheer) Do people like to keep their successes a secret or let other people know? (let others know)

Ask: Do you remember how Trajan told people about his success in battling the Dacians? (had a story column built)

Tell the students that the triumphal arch was another way that rulers told of their successes. Ask the students to recall the arch shape by using one of their hands to trace an arch shape in the air or make one with thumb and first finger on the desktop. Invite a student to draw one on the board. Expand the arch by adding the piers (side columns) and the attic (superstructure across the top). Tell the students that some triumphal arches actually have more than one arch--sometimes there are three, a large one in the center and a smaller one on each side

Show photographs and illustrations of triumphal arches from Suggested Books.

Ask the students to identify the material used for the arches (concrete, marble, stone) and the kind of artwork used to decorate them (relief sculpture). If you are unable to show pictures, tell this information to the students. Remind them of the bas-relief they saw on Trajan's Column. Point to the attic of the arch drawn on the board and explain that the inscription, or writing about the person or events, would be carved there. Tell the students that medallions which are similar to medals, often decorated the arch as well. Show a picture of a medallion or draw a circle and put the profile of a person inside it or draw a circle and show several people inside. Ask the students to tell whose profile or picture they would expect to see in a medallion on an arch (the person for whom it was erected).

Point to the piers and note that columns were often carved on them as well. Explain that deep or haut-relief made statue-like figures as well. Show that on the outer walls and the inner walls of the arch, scenes were carved. Ask students to tell what they might expect to see depicted in a scene on a triumphal arch (scenes of triumph in battle or scenes honoring the accomplishments of the person for whom the arch was made).

Tell the students that during the years of the Roman Empire each city was marked with its own distinctive gate. The gate stood at the entrance to the city. A city gate looked like a triumphal arch in its shape, but it was not as decorative and was not constructed as a monument. A triumphal arch is much more ornamental than a city gate and it is usually located in the center of the city. Ask the students if they have seen any arches like this around our city.

Ask the students to think about their own triumphs and successes and make a list (or suggest a person or event you wish to have them celebrate). Remind them that they can list being able to ride a bike, learning to swim, etc. Tell them that they will put their accomplishments into pictures and words on their own triumphal arches.

Distribute the triumphal arch worksheets. Have them do their illustrations using gray, white and black crayons to simulate the relief on marble. They should not draw on the parts marked with arrows as these fold under in construction. Have the students note that they should cut on the solid lines and fold on the dotted ones. As the students assemble their arches, have them use either glue or tape to secure the sides.

Bibliography

Baxter, Nicola. Romans. New York: Franklin Watts, 1992. (0-531-14143-8)
Beckett, Sister Wendy and Patricia Wright. The Story of Painting. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1994. (1-56458-615-4)
Burrell, Roy. The Romans. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. (0-19-917162-9)
Clare, John D., ed. Classical Rome. New York: Harcourt, Brace Jovanovich, 1993. (0-15-200513-7)
Cox, Phil Roxbee. Who Were the Romans? Tulsa, OK: EDC Publishing, 1993. (0-7460-1339-6)
Eyewitness Visual Dictionary of Buildings. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1992. (1-56458-102-0)
Field Trip: Ancient Rome. Cleveland: Modern Curriculum Press, 1992. (0-8136-6291-5)
Hinds, Kathryn. The Ancient Romans. New York: Michael Cavendish, 1997. (0-7614-0090-7)
Hirsch, Jr., E. D., ed. What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell, 1992. (0-385-31257-1)
Macaulay, David. City; a story of Roman planning and construction. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974. (0-39519492X)
Roberts, Paul C., ed. Ancient Rome. New York: Time-Life Books, 1997. (0-7835-4909-1)
Wood, Richard. The Builder Through History. New York: Thomson Learning, 1994. (1-56847-102-5)
Wood, Tim. Ancient Wonders: See Through History. New York: Viking, 1997. (0-670-87468-X)

Teacher Reference
Brown, Frank E. Roman Architecture. New York: G. Braziller, 1967.
de la Croix, Horst, Richard G. Tansey and Diane Kirkpatrick, ed. Gardner's Art Through the Ages, Vol. I: Ancient, Medieval and Non-European Art. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1991. (0-15-503770-6)
Robinson, Charles Alexander. Ancient Rome. New York: Franklin Watts, 1984. (0-531-04728-8)
Tappan, Eva March. The Story of the Roman People: An Elementary History of Rome. Cambridge: The Riverside Press, 1938.

Teacher Resource
Moore, Helen H. And Carmen R. Sorvillo. Pyramids to Pueblos: 15 Pop-Up Models for Students to Make. New York: Scholastic, 1995. (0-590-67481-1)
Raphael, Elaine and Don Bolognese. Drawing History: Ancient Rome. New York: Scholastic, 1990. (0-590-25090-6)