Third Grade - Music - Lesson 7 - Lines & Spaces

Objectives
Identify C-major scale on "personal keyboard."
Recall C-major scale as notated on music staff (from Lesson 3).
Identify letter names of C-major scale on keyboard transparency.
Identify letter names of C-major scale on music staff.
Identify names of lines and spaces on music staff.
Sing a song about bones (review from First Grade) that climbs up and down scale.

Materials
Personal keyboard from Lesson 1 used as a transparency for demonstration
C-major scale notation from Lesson 3, reproduced again below
Words to song "Dry Bones," reproduced for students (attached)

Note to the Teacher
The students sang the song "Dry Bones" as part of their science lessons in First Grade. They have just finished learning about the human skeleton in more detail in their science lessons last month. This time when they learn the song, they will tie it to some of the elements of music they have recently learned. Notation for the song has not been included, because the melody moves up and down in chromatic increments, with sharps and flats which the students are not introduced to until next year. Most of them will know the melody by heart already, but now they can hear that the melody keeps climbing up as the bones are connected and coming back down as the bones are disconnected. By showing them with your hand when to get gradually louder and softer, the point will be made even more clearly.

Procedure
Show the class the transparency of the keyboard, point out middle C with a pointer, and have them sing the C-major scale, using the syllables do, re, mi. By way of review, ask them how many notes there are in the C-major scale (8). Again, point to the keyboard and ask them to check their answer by singing the scale with numbers as you point to each one. Next ask them what they see written on the keys in addition to the numbers (letters). As you point to them, have the students sing the scale using the letters this time. Go up and then down the scale with them several times as they sing it using the letters. Ask them: What makes this musical alphabet so different from our regular alphabet? (just keeps starting over again, never gets to use all the letters) You might want to start at middle C and have them sing all the way to the upper end of the keyboard, then middle C going down, so they see they can know the names of the notes (by letter) just by knowing the arrangement C, D, E, F, G, A, B and C starts once again.
Next ask the students: How would a musician notate that same scale? (lines, staff, notes, accept any answer that refers to writing notes on a music staff) Draw on the board the C-major scale they used in lesson 3 and reviewed in Lesson 5.
Have the students sing the scale as you point to the notes on the staff, this time using the letters they just identified on the keyboard transparency. Write in the notes going down the scale; then try to have them go down as well as up the scale, though they will find it harder to sing the letters in descending order. Help them by letting them give you the letter names of the notes to write under the ascending scale, then under the notes of the descending scale, which will be in reverse order. Have them sing the scale once more, up and then down, as you point to the notes.
Tell the class: When you sing the scale, the letters always go in order; but in many songs for voices and for instruments, the notes skip around a lot. The way that music readers--especially students who play piano, violin, clarinet and other instruments--figure out the names of the notes is by remembering that the lines and spaces of the staff always keep the same letter names. Point to the scale, erase the descending scale, and have the students help you fill in the letters that remain on the staff if you continue from the second C (D, E, and F). Then ask them to tell you the names of the 5 lines from bottom to top as you point (E, G, B, D, F) and the 4 spaces from bottom to top (F, A, C, E).
Ask them to name them again as you write the letter names of the lines on the board. Tell them the way to remember the names of the lines is to memorize the little sentence
Every Good Boy Does Fine.
The way to remember the names of the spaces (have them tell you the names as you write them on the board) is to remember what they spell, which is? (FACE) (It might be helpful if you use 2 different colors of chalk: one for the names of the lines, and the other for the names of the spaces.)
Congratulate the class for their hard work; tell them that they are going to learn a song they may have sung together in First Grade, and that it has to do with what they learned in Science this past month. Try to have them guess by encouraging them to recall what they learned, until someone arrives at "skeleton" and then "Dry Bones."
Pass out copies of the words to the song. Most of the students will have the tune in their heads from hearing it sung, in or out of school. You might sing it through for them once as they follow along on the copies you have given them. Once they have learned the song, have them slap the parts of the body they are singing about each time it says (clap) on their sheets, so they can feel that off-beat hesitation that marks the syncopated rhythm. For tempo and dynamic changes, try thinking of the opening part as an Introduction, sung in a moderate tempo and medium loud. When you start to sing about the actual bones, begin to increase the tempo and sound very gradually; as they disconnect the bones, gradually diminish the sound and speed until it is very soft when they get to the toe bone. The ending should again be forceful and loud on, "I hear the word of the Lord!" perhaps even louder each time. The changes in dynamics and tempo will make the song more dramatic and more fun for the students to sing.
 

Dry Bones

Ezekiel connected them (clap) dry bones, (REPEAT 2X)
I hear the word of the Lord!

Your toe bone connected to your (clap) foot bone,
foot bone (clap) ankle bone,
ankle bone (clap) leg bone,
leg bone (clap) knee bone,
knee bone (clap) thigh bone,
thigh bone (clap) hip bone,
hip bone (clap) back bone,
back bone (clap) shoulder bone,
shoulder bone (clap) neck bone,
neck bone (clap) head bone,
I hear the word of the Lord!

Them bones, them bones gonna (clap) walk around, (REPEAT 2X)
I hear the word of the Lord!

Disconnect them bones, them (clap) dry bones, (REPEAT 2X)
I hear the word of the Lord!

Disconnect your head bone from your (clap) neckbone,
neck bone (clap) shoulder bone,
shoulder bone (clap) back bone,
back bone (clap) hip bone,
hip bone (clap) thigh bone,
thigh bone (clap) knee bone,
knee bone (clap) leg bone,
leg bone (clap) ankle bone,
ankle bone (clap) foot bone,
foot bone (clap) toe bone,
I hear the word of the Lord! I hear the word of the Lord!

Third Grade - Music - Lesson 8 - Beethoven Symphony

Objectives
Recall the terms symphony, orchestra, and conductor.
Listen carefully to 1st movement of Beethoven's Symphony #5.
Make up a phrase whose text matches the rhythm of Beethoven's theme.
Discuss the role of silence in the theme and in the whole movement.

Materials
Recording of Beethoven's Symphony #5, see Suggested Recording below; 1st movement takes about 8 minutes to play
Simplified notation of the opening theme of Beethoven's Symphony #5, for transparency (attached)

Suggested Books
Student Titles
Giants of the Arts: Ludwig van Beethoven, Charles Dickens, Vincent van Gogh. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation, 1991.
Wonderful coverage of Beethoven. Includes personal profile, place on a timeline, archival photographs and art works relating to his life and music, reporting on history of time between Austria and Napoleon, and a retelling by the soprano Anna Milder (later Hauptmann) of her experience singing in various productions of Beethoven's only opera Fidelio, which is based on the heroism of a woman in an incident that took place during the French revolution.
*Nichol, Barbara. Beethoven Lives Upstairs. New York: Orchard Books Watts, 1994.
A wonderful story about a young boy who is at first put off by Beethoven's eccentricities as a neighbor. This is the same story in the Classical Kids cassette and CD. A video version is also available (BMG, 1992)
Thompson Wendy. Ludwig van Beethoven. New York: Viking Penguin, 1991.
Part of a series called "Composer's World" developed in England by Faber & Faber. This is very similar in feeling and in format to the Cavendish book above, showing archival photographs and providing a lot of historical context for Beethoven' life. A piano reduction of the actual music for the opening of the Fifth Symphony is given on p. 27, which the students might enjoy seeing as they listen. A Glossary of Musical Terms and a list of Beethoven's major works are included.
Teacher Reference
Marri, Noemi Vicini. Ludwig van Beethoven. Parsippany, NJ: Silver Burdett, 1987.
A rather strange book which was translated from the Italian, then an English adaptation was made from the translation. It is illustrated with original paintings and packed with information and stories from the life of the composer. A Chronology in the back is really a kind of timeline, giving dates for events in Beethoven's life and important historical and cultural events that are contemporary. It is definitely too difficult for third grade students to read on their own.

*Reading this book aloud or playing the CD or cassette made by Classical Kids about Beethoven
would definitely be the best introduction the students could have for making this composer come alive before listening to his fifth symphony.

Suggested Recording
Beethoven, Symphonies 5 & 6, Naxos CD 8.553224

Procedure
If you have not been able to get the Nichols book or the Classical Kids recorded materials about Beethoven's life and work, read sections of one of the other books listed above or tell the students something about Beethoven's life and the times in which he lived. He was born in 1770 in Bonn, Germany, which is on the Rhine River (point it out on the map) and spent most of his life in Vienna, Austria (show it on the map), where he died in 1827. It is important that the students know what a turbulent time in history this was. Tell them there were many wars that went on during Beethoven's lifetime--the American Revolution, as well as revolutions in France and countries in South America. In fact the city of Vienna was taken over by French soldiers while Beethoven was living and composing there. Tell the students: Just as you have been learning in the American Revolution, men and women at this time all over Europe and the Americas were filled with strong ideas about independence from colonial rule and about religious freedom, and held debates about the slave trade; Beethoven expressed many of these strong feelings in his music, even though most of his music had no words.
The students should also know about Beethoven's deafness and what a terrible frustration it was for a man whose whole life was devoted to music not to be able to hear. He had the first signs of deafness before he was 30, and he was completely deaf by 1818, when he was 48. Beethoven used various kinds of ear trumpets (that looked like little horns of varying sizes and have been preserved in a museum for visitors to see) for years, because there was no such thing as a hearing aid in those days. His deafness made him irritable; it made him shout when he spoke to people because he couldn-t hear himself, and it made it nearly impossible for him to work with an orchestra that was playing his music or to continue to perform on the piano, which he did for years as a child and very young man. Ask the students: How do you think Beethoven could hear the music he wrote? (He heard every note in his head.) If you have a book that shows pages from Beethoven's manuscript books, show the students how many times he revised his compositions, crossing out and rewriting, and then making another copy and another revision for all those instruments playing at once, while inside his head he could hear every little change that he made on the paper.
Tell the students that Beethoven wrote many different kinds of classical music--quartets for 4 solo instruments of the string family, piano solo pieces and piano concertos (remind them that they heard a clarinet concerto of Mozart's, last time, and that concerto means a solo instrument taking turns with and playing against a full orchestra), even an opera, but that probably his best known pieces are his symphonies. Remind the students that symphonies are pieces of classical music written for all four families of instruments (have the students name the families). Ask them: With all those instruments playing at once, how do you think they stay together? (conductor) Tell the students that composers during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries in Europe wrote symphonies, and, during that time, they kept getting bigger, longer, and more complicated. Tell them: Beethoven wrote nine of them, whereas Haydn, a composer from the generation before Beethoven, wrote over 100; but Beethoven wrote symphonies that were very different from any symphonies people had heard before.
The symphony you will listen to today has 4 movements, or sections. It is Beethoven's 5th Symphony, and we are going to hear just the first movement. Tell them: Remember, you will hear all 4 families of instruments playing together in a very large orchestra, but Beethoven has written all the parts to fit so well together that you probably won-t hear individual instruments the first time you listen. As you listen, see whether you have ever heard the theme before. The theme is the main melody that starts at the very first measure.
Begin the recording, and make sure it is at a good volume before you begin, so that the students can hear the abrupt way the movement begins. The movement takes only 8 minutes, so let them hear it through. When they have heard it, ask them some questions about it. First let them tell you whether they have ever heard that 1st theme, and where. Ask whether they could hear it come back, again and again, all during the movement. Next, ask them if they can either sing or clap out with their hands or beat on their desks the rhythm of the opening theme. If they cannot do this, let a few individuals do it first, then the others.
Next, show the students the simplified notation of the theme provided below. Tell them this is only the opening theme and does not show the parts for all the instruments, but that one of the reasons the theme sounds so dramatic is that all the instruments play this theme together, in unison (have them recall that unison means exactly the same music at exactly the same time). As you point to the notes of music in rhythm, have the students tap it or say it as, "Buh, buh, buh, boom" or "Dot, dot, dot, daaash," or syllables that you find effective for bringing out the rhythm. They will probably notice how hard it is for everybody to come in at the same time. Say to them: Can you imagine what a mess it would be in a great big concert hall if the players didn-t all begin at exactly the same moment? What do you think a conductor does to make sure everyone begins this theme at exactly the same time? (Let them respond.) Show them the rest that stands at the very beginning of the 1st measure, the 3rd measure, and so on, and show them how a large and vigorous breath and strong beat of your hand and arm shows the whole orchestra exactly when to start playing. Tell them: Those little rests are some of the most important parts of this theme. Also show them the ff in the first measure and the p in the 6th, and so on. Tell them: These little marks of Beethoven's tell all the players exactly how loud to play the music. The loudest is ff, the mark for fortissimo, which means very loud in Italian. The p you already know means piano, or soft in Italian. The single f is forte, or loud, but not as loud as ff. You can watch this time as you listen, to see whether the conductor and the orchestra follow those markings. Notice that the music changes its dynamics all the time; it never stays the same. It's always getting softer or louder, sometimes gradually and sometimes very suddenly and dramatically.
Play the movement again for the students and encourage them to beat out the theme each time they hear it return. Also alert them to the part where the solo French horn plays the theme as a very loud solo, adding 2 extra notes to change it. When they have listened again, ask them whether they could say something about the feeling of this theme of Beethoven's--does it sound sad, happy, strong, dreamy? (Accept any answers, but emphasize the strength of the theme if they do not bring it out in their responses.) Say to them: I would like you to make up some words that have the same rhythm as this opening of Beethoven's 5th symphony. They should have the same rhythm and the same feeling. If they don-t immediately suggest some, suggest the following and write them on the board. Have the students try individually and then as a group to declaim these sentences in rhythm. It helps if everyone takes a big, rapid silent breath that you indicate by a strong beat down with your hand and arm at the beginning of each to mark the "rest" and make it stronger.
Go to your room! Try that again! You saved my life!
Stand up and try! That's all there is! We-ll try once more!
Come here and speak! We will succeed!

When the horn solo comes in and adds a few notes it sounds like:
Back to your room and stay! We will not fail this time!
Get out of bed right now! She's brave and filled with trust!

If there is time and the students are interested, encourage them to make up some more phrases or short sentences to add to the list. Let the person who makes the suggestion say it in rhythm for the class, and then have everyone say it together, again giving them a large and definite signal. If the student who makes the suggestion can also make the large gesture to bring the rest of the group in together, that would be even better.