Third Grade - Visual Arts - Overview - February
 
This month, students explore The Banjo Lesson by Henry Ossawa Tanner, The Bath by Mary Cassatt, and Tar Beach by Faith Ringgold. Students are invited to respond to each by writing (perspective of subjects in The Banjo Lesson) or creating an artwork--a picture (The Bath), a quilt square (Tar Beach).
The painting The Bath should be introduced first, followed by The Banjo Lesson and then Tar Beach. If possible, leave each art reproduction on display after it has been introduced, so students can more easily relate one to the other. At the completion of the month's study, ask the students to recall that they are all narratives, that The Bath and The Banjo Lesson are genre art, that Cassatt and Tanner both had difficulty finding art schools that would accept them as students, and that the artworks span a period of over 150 years.
Ask students to consider how different Faith Ringgold's opportunity to study art was compared to those of Cassatt and Tanner. Help students to recognize that Ringgold did not meet with the discrimination because of gender or skin color that the other two artists had met. Ask students to predict what art schools and art study will be like in another 150 years. Ask if they expect any form of discrimination will exist then.
 
February Resources
 
Mary Cassatt, "The Bath" : HD 10x6 $3, 21x14 $14
 
Henry Tanner, "The Banjo Lesson": BT 28x23 IM 28x23 $18 SW 28x23 $9.50
 
Faith Ringgold, "Tar Beach": ARTM 24x36 $20
 

 
HD
Hadad's Fine Arts
3855 East Mira Loma Avenue
Aneheim, CA 92806
800-942-3323

 
ARTM
Art Market
75 Grand St.
New York, NY 10013
212-226-4370, Fax: 212-226-4350

 
BT
Bruce Teleky, Inc.
625 Broadway
New York, NY 10012-4436
212-677-2559
800-835-3539, Fax: 212-677-2253

 
IM
Image Masters 5034 N. Pkwy. Calabasas Calabasas, CA 91302
818-22-9600
800-535-5335, Fax: 818-222-9222

 

 SW
Shorewood Fine Arts
27 Glen Road
Sandy Hook, CT 06482-0319
203-426-8100; Fax 203-426-0867
All posters are $9.50 each for school orders. When ordering 5 or more posters, the price reduces to $8 each. Postage and handling $3.50, no matter how many posters are ordered.

 
 
 
 
Third Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 20 - Cassatt's The Bath
 
Objectives
Identify the artist's use of line, shape, color and light in the painting.
Identify the painting as genre art.
Create a drawing or painting of a bath scene.
 
Materials
Reproduction of Mary Cassatt's painting, The Bath
Drawing (or painting) paper
Crayons or watercolors and brushes
 
Suggested Books
Hirsch, E.D., Jr., and John Holdren, ed. What Your Kindergartner Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1996.
Information on Mary Cassatt and a full color reproduction of The Bath are included on page 167.
Hirsch, E. D., Jr, ed. What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell, 1992.
Information on Mary Cassatt and a black and white reproduction of The Bath may be found on page 178.
Garb, Tamar, ed. Women Impressionists. New York: Rizzoli, 1987.
Although The Bath is not included, a selection of Cassatt's studies of parent and child make this collection worthwhile viewing.
Turner, Robyn Montana. Mary Cassatt. Boston: Little, 1992.
Venezia, Mike. Mary Cassatt. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1990.
An appealing biography for students that includes a reproduction of The Bath.
 
Teacher Reference
Ashby, Ruth and Deborah Gore Ohrn. Herstory: Women Who Changed the World. New York: Viking, 1995.
Pp. 132-134 give information on Cassatt's life and her art.
Glubok, Shirley. Painting: Great Lives. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1994.
Pp. 1-9 contain biographical information on Cassatt.
Teacher Resource
Kohl, MaryAnn F. and Kim Solga . Discovering Great Artists: Hands-On Art for Children in the Styles of the Great Masters. Bellingham, WA: Bright Ring, 1996.
This delightful book includes brief biographical notes on artists and reproductions of their works (in black-and-white only, unfortunately), as well as directions for projects related to artists' styles and techniques. Page 44 provides directions for a tempera monoprint in the style of Cassatt.
Website
http://sunsite.unc.edu/wm/paint/auth/cassatt
Biographical notes and reproductions of several paintings including The Bath (La Toilette).
 
Teacher Background
Mary Cassatt was born in Pennsylvania in 1844. She decided at a very young age that she wanted to be an artist, and with her father vehemently objecting, she left America to study in
Paris, France. Because of her gender she was not allowed to attend art school there and received her training through private lessons. She quickly developed her own style.
As she continued her studies she met other artists. She became part of a group of artists who were known as Impressionists, because their work suggested a theme rather than presented a posed portrait. Cassatt enjoyed the freedom of this style that let her show the feelings of people as they went about their everyday lives. Her paintings show her great tenderness for mothers and children.
Cassatt visited the United States several times in her lifetime, but made France her home. She died there in 1926.
 
Procedure
Ask students: What do you do when someone tells you to get ready to take a bath? Do you gather up toys to take in the tub with you? Do you get a robe and towel ready? Do you choose a bubble bath or special soap to use? Do you think about relaxing in the warm water and reading a book?
Tell the students that the painting that they are about to see is called The Bath and it was painted by a woman named Mary Cassatt (cuh-SAHT) . Write the title of the painting and the artist's name on the board. Tell the students to turn to a partner and talk about what they each expect to see in the painting. Tell them to think about who might be taking a bath, what the tub might look like, and in which time period the scene might have taken place. Allow a few minutes for discussion, then call on volunteers to share their ideas. Web the ideas on the board using a tub containing the words "a bath" as the center.
After the ideas have all been listed, display the reproduction of The Bath. Ask for a show of hands of those who expected a different picture. Remind students that we use our own experience to help us relate to things and people around us. Point out that our ideas of a bath are different from those of Mary Cassatt. Take a few moments to discuss the use of a basin of water for bathing, reminding students that there were few indoor bathrooms at this time and that tubs were usually portable having to be filled and emptied by hand. Have students recall that even today children are frequently bathed in smaller portable tubs.
Tell the students that Mary Cassatt was an American artist who lived from 1844 to 1926. Remind students that at that time there weren't schools of art in America like there were in Europe, so Mary Cassatt left her home in Pennsylvania and went to France to study art. Tell students that she became part of a group of artists called Impressionists (write on board) who painted pictures that suggested scenes from life rather than posing them. Their paintings were colorful presentations of everyday life brightened with lively lighting. Point out to the students that Cassatt used darker lines to "outline" her figures and explain that this was very different from the work of other artists of her time. (If you wish, share biographical information on Mary Cassatt from one of the Suggested Books or the Teacher Background.)
Direct the students' attention back to the painting and ask the following questions:
 
Who are the people in the painting? (Accept responses that indicate a woman and child, leading students to identify mother and child.)
From which angle was the artist looking? (above, looking down; We see the floor but not the ceiling.)
Where does the light in the painting seem to be coming from? (window, other light in the room)
Look at the lines and shapes in the painting, where do you see straight lines? Where do you see rounded lines? Which lines are vertical? Which lines are horizontal?
How does the artist draw our attention to the woman and the child? (light colors against a dark background, center of the painting, rounded lines compared to the straight lines elsewhere, dark color of their hair, outlining of child's figure)
Where has the artist used flowers in the painting? (on the pitcher, on the carpet [or linoleum], on the wallpaper, on the dresser)
How would you describe the mood of the painting? How do you think the mother and daughter feel about each other? (Accept all reasonable responses.)
What is different about the tub that is used in this painting from portable tubs that are used today? (smaller, material [made of china], shape)
Do you recall the name given to art that shows a scene from everyday life? (genre art)
What similarities are there between the scene in The Bath and present-day bathing? (mother with young child, towels, tub)
 
After a discussion of the questions, ask the students to pretend that they are creating a painting titled The Bath. Tell them to think about what they would include in the painting as well as who would be included. Distribute drawing (or painting) paper and have the students make their pictures. Display the completed artwork on a bulletin board with towel and soap attached.
 
Third Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 21 - Tanner's The Banjo Lesson
Adapted from an Instructor Magazine (October 1991) lesson by Diane W. Darst
Objectives
Identify the use of line, shape, color and light in the painting.
Identify the setting and objects within the painting.
Write a paragraph telling what is going on in the scene from the perspective of either the boy or the man.
 
Materials
Reproduction of Henry Tanner's The Banjo Lesson
Questions about the painting (attached) reproduced for groups or written on chart paper
 
Suggested Books
Adelstein, Amy. African American Life: The Arts. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Press, 1995.
Pp. 35-36 give a brief commentary on Tanner's art.
Hirsch, E.D., Jr., and John Holdren, ed. What Your Kindergartner Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1996.
Page 116 contains a small color photograph of The Banjo Player.
 
Teacher Reference
Bearden, Romare and Harry Henderson. A History of African-American Artists: From 1792 to the Present. New York: Pantheon, 1993.
Pp. 78-109 give extensive biographical information on Henry O. Tanner and provide insights into his artistic style.
Green, Richard, ed. Historic Blacks in the Arts. Chicago: Empak Enterprises, 1991.
Pp. 28-29 give biographical information on Tanner.
 
Website
http://www.cs.hamptonu.edu/admissions/gallery/aaa36.html
The Banjo Lesson is included along with other works by Tanner. The print is marked "Proprietary to Hampton University.@
http://www.rams.com/masterprints/rm10.htm
The Banjo Lesson and works by other artists can be found at this site.
 
Teacher Background
It is expected that most third graders will be familiar with the musical instrument, the banjo, so it is not introduced in the lesson. If necessary, take the time to discuss the instrument with your students. You may wish to play a tape of banjo instrumentals while the students answer the questions.
 
Procedure
Display a reproduction of Henry Ossawa Tanner's painting The Banjo Lesson. Ask for a volunteer to tell the kind of painting it is (genre art). Then ask the students if the painting reminds them of another they have recently seen (The Bath by Mary Cassatt).
Write the title of the painting, The Banjo Lesson, and the artist's name, Henry Ossawa
Tanner, on the board. Tell the students that Henry Tanner was born in 1859 in Pennsylvania.
 
Remind them that Mary Cassatt was also from Pennsylvania, and was fifteen years old when Tanner was born. Tell the students the following or share biographical information you may have.
When he was thirteen, Tanner decided that he wanted to be an artist after watching a man sketching. Unfortunately, he had a difficult time finding an art school that would take him because of his color. At the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Tanner became the second black student in the school's history.
Thomas Eakins, who was Tanner's teacher and a noted artist, encouraged him. Tanner was not able to make a living with his painting, however, and with financial help, he moved to Paris, France where his art was appreciated. He soon gained acclaim in America as well. Tanner lived in France the rest of his life and died in 1937.
 
Students should note the similarities between Tanner and Cassatt, recalling that Cassatt also moved to France and lived there the remainder of her life.
Tell the students that The Banjo Lesson is narrative painting as well as genre art. Explain that means there is a story in this painting. Tell the students that they will take a few minutes to work together and investigate the story.
Put the students in groups of four and distribute the page of questions (or display them on chart paper). Have them answer the 7 questions (attached) about the painting. Have one student in each group, read aloud each question and have another record the group's answers.
After the students have had time to discuss and answer the questions, take time to discuss them as a class. Accept all reasonable responses and point out to the students that the man in the painting is much older than the boy so it is likely that he is the grandfather or some other elder.
Have the students identify the shape that the figures and the banjo make (rectangle) and trace the line from the man's head to the banjo, to his feet (first one, then the other) and back to his head. As you discuss the question regarding the objects in the room (Which objects in the room helped you to make that decision?) have the students find the object that repeats the shape and alignment of the banjo (the frying pan).
Point out that there are two light sources in the painting. Ask students to identify these and note which parts of the painting are brighter, or highlighted in white (the tablecloth and background wall). Ask students to consider viewpoint (more floor and no ceiling) and placement (figures in center of painting, take up most of the space).
End the discussion by asking the students to name some of the feelings between the man and the boy (tenderness, affection, respect, love, patience, interest, care, etc.) Have them note the closeness of the heads of the two figures (remind them of The Bath). Invite volunteers to share the words they assign to the man in the tone of speech they would have expected to hear in the room.
Finally ask the students to tell what is going on in the painting from the perspective of either the man or the boy. Encourage the students to become the speaker for one of them, saying things like "I enjoy getting together with my grandson (or friend). I have been teaching him how to play the banjo..." or "My grandfather (or uncle or friend) is teaching me to play the banjo. He is very patient because I make a lot of mistakes. He helps me place my fingers and strum..." Have the students write a paragraph from that perspective.
If possible, at another time have several students share their paragraphs with the rest of
the class.
 
Who are the subjects in this painting?
How are they related to one another? What makes you think that?
Where is this scene taking place?
Which objects in the painting helped you to make that decision?
If you could hear the conversation between the two people, what would the man be saying to the boy? How would he be speaking?
 
 
Third Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 22 - Faith Ringgold's Tar Beach
 
Objectives
Identify the use of color, shape and line in Ringgold's quilt Tar Beach.
Describe the function of a story quilt.
Create an individual story quilt.
 
Materials
Reproduction of Ringgold's Tar Beach
Copy of the book Tar Beach
Drawing paper or fabric (canvas, muslin)
Crayons, tempera or fabric paints and brushes
Fabric scraps pre-cut into small squares, glue
 
Suggested Books
Adelstein, Amy. African American Life: The Arts. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Press, 1995.
Page 40 gives only a brief commentary on Ringgold's art, but the cover is a wonderful photograph of her.
Ringgold, Faith. Tar Beach. New York: Scholastic, 1991.
Full page reproduction of the quilt along with notes on the author/artist included. The print fabric used in the patches of the quilt forms the bottom border on the page.
Turner, Robyn Montana. Faith Ringgold. Boston: Little, Brown, 1993.
Contains many black and white photographs of Ringgold's youth, as well as several large colored reproductions of her artwork. Tar Beach is featured on the cover.
 
Teacher Reference
Ringgold, Faith, Linda Freeman and Nancy Roucher. Talking to Faith Ringgold. New York: Crown Publishers, 1996.
Biography of Faith Ringgold that invites the reader to respond to her questions and learn about her perspectives on many topics.
Teacher Resource
Kohl, MaryAnn F. and Kim Solga. Discovering Great Artists: Hands-On Art for Children in the Styles of the Great Masters. Bellingham, WA: Bright Ring, 1996.
This delightful book includes brief biographical notes on artists and reproductions of their works (in black-and-white only, unfortunately), as well as directions for projects related to artists' styles and techniques. Page 104 suggests a quilted work in Ringgold's style.
 
Teacher Background
This lesson is limited to the study of Ringgold's quilt, Tar Beach, but there are certainly other story quilts that you may wish to investigate with your students. Lists of additional story quilt books and other books by Faith Ringgold are included at the end of the lesson.
 
Procedure
Begin the lesson by reading the book Tar Beach to the class. As you read the story, point to the border at the bottom of each page and ask students to describe what the border looks like (a quilt, fabric squares). When you have finished the story ask for a volunteer to tell what the story was about. Ask the students to think carefully and then tell where the story of Tar Beach takes place. The obvious answer will be the roof, but point out that the story actually takes place in Cassie's imagination. (Congratulate any students who recognize this.) Ask why Cassie calls the roof "Tar Beach" (the roof was covered with tar and tar paper, it was like a beach [perhaps an island] to her, sun overhead, etc.).
Next ask students to decide which picture from the book best represents what is going on in the story (the front cover). Point out that each of the other pictures in the book illustrates a part of the story Cassie imagines.
Display the reproduction of the quilt. Students will recognize the cover painting as the centerpiece. Tell them that the quilt came before the book. Remind the students of the border at the bottom of the pages that shows the fabric used in the quilt. Explain that Faith Ringgold, the author and artist, made the quilt first and told the story of Cassie there. Point to the text at the top and bottom of the quilt. Tell the students that the book came second, and that Ringgold painted all the illustrations within it to go along with the story on the quilt. Point out that the quilt is different from the Early American quilts they looked at last month. Those quilts used patterns and designs and this quilt uses a painting and words. Do explain that stories can be told with shapes as well.
Tell the students that Faith Ringgold was born in New York City and ask how they can tell that she knows city life well (the story, the illustrations, the quilt). Pointing to the quilt, ask the students if they think that Ringgold tried to show perspective (yes and no; there is a foreground and background but the picture is flat). Point out that we seem to be drawn into the entire picture at once.
Put the students in groups of four and ask them to find straight lines, curved lines and patterns in the painting. (Write these headings on the board.) Allow several minutes for them to make their lists. Tell the students to work together but have each child keep a separate list. (Lists of possible responses are included for your convenience.)
 

 
Straight lines

 
Curved lines

 
Patterns

 
buildings

 
clothesline

 
lady's dress

 
edges of the roof

 
chair top

 
man's shirt

 
BeBe's suit

 
bridge cables/wires, arches

 
tablecloth

 
bridge ends

 
pitcher, bowls, bottles

 
blanket/quilt

 
mattress ticking

 
stars, lights

 
Cassie's dress

 
poles

 
watermelon

 
cloth in the basket

 
quilt

 
basket

 
clothes on the line

 
table and chair legs

 
lamp on table

 
border fabric squares

 
rungs in chair

 
faces, bodies

 
design around roof edges

 
table top

 
clothes hanging on line

 
steelwork in bridge ends

 
border squares/rectangles

 
shapes in building facade

 
 

 
After allowing time for students to study and discuss the quilt, ask groups to share their lists. Write the responses on the board and praise the students for being keen observers.
Tell the students that the picture portion of Ringgold's quilt is actually quite large,
measuring 74 by 69 inches. (If possible, mark this area on the wall or floor.) Count across and then down the quilt squares and show the students that each of the blocks' sides is between 8 and 9 inches. Remind the students that while the entire story is told in the writing on the quilt, the picture in the center really shows us what is going on.
Point out to the students that a quilt was Faith Ringgold's way of telling a story about her life. Ask the students to think of what story they would each like to tell and invite the students to create center squares for their own story quilts. First, have them write a short composition about something that happened in their lives. Then tell them to think of a picture that shows the main idea of what their story is about and have them draw and color or paint it. (You may choose to have the students use either paper or canvas for this activity.)
Attach each picture to a larger piece of paper and have the student glue pre-cut fabric squares around it. Tell the students to vary the placement of different patterns around the picture. Display the completed story quilts with the titles and the names of the author/illustrators clearly marked.
 
Other Books by Faith Ringgold
Ringgold, Faith. Aunt Harriet's Underground Railroad in the Sky. New York: Scholastic, 1992.
________. My Dream of Martin Luther King. New York: Crown, 1995.
________. Bonjour, Lonnie. New York: Hyperion, 1996.
________. Dinner at Aunt Connie's House. New York: Hyperion, 1993.
Like Tar Beach, this is based on a story quilt.
 
Additional Story Quilt Books
Student Reference
Coerr, Eleanor. The Josefina Story Quilt. New York: Harper Trophy, 1986.
Hopkinson, Deborah. Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt. New York: Knopf, 1993.
 
Teacher Reference
Lyons, Mary. Stitching Stars: The Story Quilts of Harriet Powers. New York: Scribner's Sons, 1993.
Bibliography
 
Student Titles
Adelstein, Amy. African American Life: The Arts. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Press, 1995. (1-57103-028-X)
Garb, Tamar, ed. Women Impressionists. New York: Rizzoli, 1987. (0-8478-0757-6)
Hirsch, E. D., Jr, ed. What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell, 1992. (0-385-31257-1)
Hirsch, E.D., Jr., and John Holdren, ed. What Your Kindergartner Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1996. (0-385-48117-9)
*Ringgold, Faith. Tar Beach. New York: Scholastic, 1991. (0-590-46381-0)
Turner, Robyn Montana. Mary Cassatt. Boston: Little, 1992. (0-316-85650-9)
________. Faith Ringgold. Boston: Little, Brown, 1993. (0-316-85652-5)
Venezia, Mike. Mary Cassatt. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1990. (0-516-02278-4)
 
Other Books by Faith Ringgold
Ringgold, Faith. Aunt Harriet's Underground Railroad in the Sky. New York: Scholastic, 1992.
(0-590-47781-1)
________. My Dream of Martin Luther King. New York: Crown, 1995. (0-517-59977-5)
________. Bonjour, Lonnie. New York: Hyperion, 1996.
________. Dinner at Aunt Connie's House. New York: Hyperion, 1993. (1-56282-426-0)
 
Additional Story Quilt Books
Coerr, Eleanor. The Josefina Story Quilt. New York: Harper Trophy, 1986.
Hopkinson, Deborah. Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt. New York: Knopf, 1993.(0-679-82311-5)
 
Teacher Reference
Ashby, Ruth and Deborah Gore Ohrn. Herstory: Women Who Changed the World. New York: Viking, 1995. (0-670-85434-4)
Bearden, Romare and Harry Henderson. A History of African-American Artists: From 1792 to the Present. New York: Pantheon, 1993. (0-394-57016-2)
Glubok, Shirley. Painting: Great Lives. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1994.(0-684-19052-4)
Green, Richard, ed. Historic Blacks in the Arts. Chicago: Empak Enterprises, 1991. (0-922162-83-2)
Lyons, Mary. Stitching Stars: The Story Quilts of Harriet Powers. New York: Scribner's Sons, 1993. (0-684-19576-3)
Ringgold, Faith, Linda Freeman and Nancy Roucher. Talking to Faith Ringgold. New York: Crown Publishers, 1996. (0-517-70914-7)
 
Teacher Resource
Kohl, MaryAnn F. and Kim Solga. Discovering Great Artists: Hands-On Art for Children in the Styles of the Great Masters. Bellingham,WA: Bright Ring, 1996. (0-935607-09-9)
* Required or strongly recommended for lessons