Third Grade - Visual Arts - Overview - January
Note: There are only three January lessons because the Horace Pippin painting could not be obtained in time. When the painting becomes available, this lesson will be included.
The three January lessons focus on Rosa Bonheur's The Horse Fair, Edward Hicks' The Peaceable Kingdom and Early American quilts. While the quilt lesson may be introduced at any time, the Bonheur lesson should be completed before the Hicks' lesson.
Horace Pippin, AVictorian Interior" SW 20x24 $9.50
Rosa Bonheur, "The Horse Fair" MMOA 26x48 $14.95 NY 17x36 $30
Edward Hicks, "The Peaceable Kingdom"
BM 11x14 $5, 18x20 $25 PO 27x32 $15 HD 18x22 $16 GF 27x32 $25
NY 13x18 $20, 27x32 $30, 17x23 $30
Third Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 16 - Quilts
Analyze the patterns in a variety of quilts.
Tell the origin of a pattern or make up a story about the origin of a pattern.
Pictures of quilts in a variety of patterns and/or an actual quilt
Materials used in quilting: scissors, template, needle and thread, batting, fabric (optional)
Bishop, Robert and Elizabeth Safanda. A Gallery of Amish Quilts: Design Diversity from a Plain People. New York: E. P. Dutton, Co., 1976.
Contains a large selection of color photos of quilts from the late 1800s to mid-twentieth century. The designs stitched into the quilts are especially impressive.
Cobb, Mary. The Quilt-Block History of Pioneer Days. Brookfield: Millbrook Press, 1995.
Wonderful illustrations and an informative text tell the stories behind many quilt-block patterns. A map, recipes and several projects are included in this book.
Hirsch, E. D., Jr, ed. What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell, 1992.
Pp. 175-177 show two quilts and tell about how an applique quilt is made.
Kile, Michael M., ed. The Quilt Digest. San Francisco: Quilt Digest Press, 1985.
There are large, wonderful photographs that include a woman's quilting group and a variety of quilts. Especially useful to the lesson are the pictures of the crazy quilt (embroidery) and the hexagon quilt (tessellations).
Paul, Ann Whitford. Eight Hands Round: A Patchwork Alphabet. New York: HarperCollins, 1991.
26 Early-American quilt patterns are introduced in this alphabet quilt book. Rich, colorful illustrations by Jeanette Winter. An excellent choice for this lesson.
Baycura, Debra. Patchwork Math 1 - 100 Addition and Subtraction Reproducibles. New York: Scholastic, 1990.
Baycura, Debra. Patchwork Math 2 - 100 Multiplication and Division Reproducibles. New York: Scholastic, 1990.
Originally designed as math-fact practice sheets incorporating a patchwork motif, these are wonderful sources for quilt patterns--complete with a history of the origin of each. Templates are included for designing original patterns.
Eikmeier, Barbara J. Kids Can Quilt. Bothell, WA: That Patchwork Place, 1997.
Basic techniques and step-by-step diagrams are included.
Hendler, Muncie. Six Early American Quilt Postcards. New York: Dover, 1992.
Six full-color postcards are included in this inexpensive ($1.00) publication. Perfect as springboards for research or creative writing.
The Mailbox- Primary - February /March 1997 - Volume 19 - Number 1
Included in a unit titled "The Pioneers" (pp. 3-10) is an activity and worksheet for an album quilt.
The Mailbox - Primary - December/January 1996-97 - Volume 18 - Number 6
Pp. 3-9, a unit titled "Cozy Collectables," includes quilt related activities and annotations on several quilt books.
Schaffer, Frank. U.S. History Part I. Palos Verdes Estates, CA: Frank Schaffer Publications, 1992.
Contains quilt patterns and information on page 5, "The Art of Quilting."
The Maryland Historical Society has a traveling trunk titled A Stitch in Time: Quilts. The kit, which includes a video, poster, slides and pictures, a selection of books and an audio cassette, also includes quilting materials. The trunk is available on loan from the Education Department of the Maryland Historical Society (410) 685-3750.
Depending on the materials available to you, this could be a hands-on lesson, or simply an art appreciation exercise. In either case, try to show the students a number of quilt patterns. This can be done with a read aloud or (see Suggested Books) a book that catalogues the patterns.
Because of concerns regarding availability, this lesson does not address one particular quilt pattern, but provides questions that are suitable for all. Please note that Faith Ringgold's quilts are not addressed in this lesson, nor are any other story quilts, because her creation Tar Beach is examined next month.
Remind the students that they have been studying colonial America. Ask them to recall the ways that needs for goods and services were handled then. Remind students that everyone needed to do basic things like cook, sew, hunt, and farm because there weren't all the conveniences we have today. Point out that all the belongings the colonists had were important to them. Remind the students that these people couldn't simply go to the store to replace items. It was very important that everything be used as long as possible and recycled in creative ways.
Ask the students to think about clothing and fabric goods--sheets, tablecloths, blankets, etc. Ask: What do you think happened to clothing and fabric goods that wore out and could not be repaired? (Answers will vary.) What might the colonists have done with the usable parts of the fabric? Ask: How could they have recycled it? If no one offers quilting or patchwork as a response, continue to lead with questions addressing uses for the scraps of fabric.
Display a photograph of a quilt, or the actual item. Have the students look at the colors involved and the pattern. Is the quilt simply pieced together in any manner, or is there a particular design. Can the students identify what is being represented? Does the design look like a house, or a ring, or a path, or a trail? Is solid color fabric or print fabric used in the quilt? Why would the quilt maker use one or the other?
Tell the students that quilt making became a social activity for early American women. Ladies would come together to sew and talk, and a quilt could be completed at a much faster rate. When they first joined the group, young girls would have the job of keeping the needles threaded. Before they were allowed to sew on the quilt the girls would have to prove that they knew the stitches by completing a sampler of their stitches. (Explain that this meant a sample of each sewn onto a piece of cloth.) Tell the students that these gatherings became known as quilting bees. (Write on the board.) Ask students if they can figure out why that title was given. Have they ever heard it said that someone is "as busy as a bee"?
If possible, have several students move their chairs to form a large square. Have them sit so that they are facing each other. Place a quilt (or blanket or tablecloth) over their laps so that they have some idea of the difficulty of managing and sewing something this size.
Show a number of designs. Point out quilts that are made up of blocks and those that have designs appliqued on them. Show how a piece-work quilt is different from an applique one. Give the name of the pattern, if possible, and ask the students to consider the following as they look at each quilt.
Does the design repeat or is it different in each block? Does one design run throughout the quilt?
Are there a variety of colors or is one color pattern repeated throughout? Does one color lead our eyes around the pattern?
Can they see the stitches that join the fabric to the panel? Are they in a particular design? Is there embroidery (fancy stitches done with different color thread) on top of the patches?
Can they identify a particular scrap of fabric repeated in the pattern?
Is there a particular geometric design (circles, squares, etc.) repeated in the quilt?
Does the pattern look like a tessellation? Does one design fit into the next?
Write some of the quilt pattern names on the board (log cabin, geese, Dresden plate, bear's paw, wedding ring, hexagons, etc.). Ask students to tell how they think a particular quilt name originated. (If you have read one of the Suggested Books, students may be able to tell the true origin of a pattern.) Ask: Do you think there is a story that goes along with the name of the quilt? Invite students to tell how the name may have originated. Assure students that there may be more than one story told about the same pattern and encourage variations.
If you do not wish to investigate quilts further with your students select a particular pattern and have students write about the origin of the design. Encourage them to be creative as they tell their invented stories. Display the completed tales with a picture of the quilt.
If you do wish to explore quilting with your students, consider having them design their own individual patches or select a pattern and have each student do his or her own color interpretation. If possible, allow students to do some actual stitching. See the Suggested Books and Teacher Resources for ideas.
Third Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 18 - Bonheur's The Horse Fair
Hear about Bonheur's life.
Identify the difficulties presented to artists who use animals as their subjects.
Analyze the artist's use of color, light, shape and line.
Imagine the sounds that could be generated by the subjects of the painting.
Draw a horse using shapes to make the body framework.
Reproduction of The Horse Fair
Darst, Diane. Learning to Look. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1992.
Pp. 120-126 contain background information on Bonheur and a lesson on The Horse Fair. A slide of The Horse Fair is included.
Turner, Robin Montana. Rosa Bonheur: Portraits of Women Artists for Children. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1991.
Use this excellent biography as a read aloud, if possible. Contains a small reproduction of The Horse Fair.
Display a reproduction of the painting The Horse Fair. Tell the students that the actual painting is 16 feet 6 inches wide and seven feet nine inches tall. If possible measure this area off on one of the classroom walls. Tell the students that it is the largest animal painting ever done.
Ask for volunteers to tell what they see in the painting (horses, men, buildings, a street, etc.). (Write responses on the board.) Ask: What is happening in the painting? (Horses are being paraded before potential buyers.) Remind the students of the title and ask for a volunteer to explain what happens at a fair. (A fair is a gathering for the purpose of buying and selling; nowadays a fair is like a carnival.)
Ask: Do you think that the artist went to a horse fair one time and then painted this picture, or do you think the artist went to the horse fair more often? Why? How long do you think a person would have to study an animal in order to paint it well? What are the problems that could occur when trying to study and paint an animal? (keeping the animal still, knowing how the animal looks in a variety of moods and actions)
Tell the students that the artist who painted The Horse Fair is a woman. Her name is Rosa Bonheur (baw NUR) and she was born in France in 1822. Ask: Did you expect the artist to be a woman, or did you expect that it would be a man? (Answers will vary.) Tell students that we might not be surprised to have a woman paint this picture today, but when Rosa Bonheur was growing up it was quite unusual.
Explain that first of all, women did not usually study art. It was not considered appropriate for women to sketch the human body by looking at a naked person as men did in the art schools. Remind students that women did not have many rights then and had to do what their fathers or husbands told them to do. They could not go out in public unaccompanied and they were not even allowed to wear pants--only skirts. Have students recall that no women are included in the painting; that is because women were not allowed to go to the horse fair.
Ask: How do you think Rosa Bonheur learned about what goes on at the horse market?
How did she learn to paint horses so well? Allow the students to speculate, then tell them that Bonheur got permission from the head of the police to dress in men's clothes and go to the horse fair. She spent a year and a half sketching the horses she observed there. (If you have a copy of the Turner biography, you may wish to share it with the class.)
Direct the students' attention back to the painting. Ask: How does Bonheur direct our attention to the horses? (use of light, puts them in the center, puts them in the foreground) Does it look like the people and horses in the painting are posed? (no) Does it look like a snapshot--like a film has been stopped momentarily? (yes) How does Bonheur make it look like there is movement in the painting? (curved lines, the horses are moving in a circle, the men look like they are working hard to hold onto the horses)
Tell the students to look at the painting and imagine that it has come to life. Ask them to think about the sounds that they would hear if this was true. Have volunteers describe the sounds. (neighing, whinnying, stomping, clip-clopping, thumping, shouting, bumping, snorting, etc.) Ask: Would this be a quiet or a noisy scene? (noisy)
Have the students look at a particular horse in the painting. Tell them to imagine that the horse is made up of shapes. Ask: Can you see a sphere and a box for the head? Is the horse rearing? Do the legs look like a triangle shape fits there? Do the hind quarters look like several spheres joined together?
Distribute drawing paper and tell the students to make a horse composed of shapes. Tell them to think about the different kinds of 3-dimensional shapes that they've talked about this year and have them think about how a cylinder, or a pyramid, or a sphere is a part of a horse. Tell them that after they have used the 3-dimensional shapes to build the framework of the horse, to then join it together with lines, adding a mane and tail. Tell the students not to be concerned if their drawings do not look completely realistic.
Display the sketches or allow partners to compare and contrast theirs.
Third Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 19 - Hicks' The Peaceable Kingdom
Note: This lesson should be used after Rosa Bonheur's The Horse Fair.
Recognize the relationship between the painting and Biblical text.
Describe and discuss the scene painted.
Determine what to include in a picture that symbolizes peace.
Reproduction of the painting, The Peaceable Kingdom
Hirsch, E. D., Jr, ed. What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell, 1992.
Pp. 179-180 contain information and a black and white photograph of the painting.
Edward Hicks was a Quaker artist who lived from 1770 to 1849.
Remind the students that when an artist is preparing to do a painting, he or she makes many, sometimes hundreds, of sketches in order to get the subject just right. Remind students that Rosa Bonheur spent a year and a half doing sketches before she got her ideas right for The Horse Fair. Point out that making sketches is similar to brainstorming and writing a rough draft.
Tell students that Edward Hicks, the artist who painted The Peaceable Kingdom which they are about to see, did even more than that. He painted almost fifty versions of the same painting. The subject of his painting was so important to him that he had to get it just right.
Display the reproduction of The Peaceable Kingdom. Assign partners and tell the students to look carefully at the painting and write down what they see. Allow a few moments for the students to work, then ask the partners to share their responses with the rest of the class. (The list should include a variety of animals, people: children, white men, Native Americans, trees, clouds, water, etc.) Ask the students if they think there is anything unusual about the way the people and the animals are together in this painting. (There are wild animals and children seated together. There are wild and domesticated animals together.) Ask the students: Are the animals fighting? Do they look dangerous? Do the children look afraid? How would you describe the way the animals look? (If possible, lead with your questions until the response is "peaceful.")
Write the following sentence on the board.
The wolf shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them.
Tell students that it is a line from Isaiah, one of the books of the Bible. (Be sure that students understand the quote. Tell them that the word fatling refers to a young animal.) Explain to the students that it refers to peace. (Write peace on the board.) Explain that the idea of peace was very important to Hicks and that was why he painted that idea over and over again. Tell students that the lion and the lamb are often pictured together as being symbolic of peace.
Direct the students' attention to the group of men in the background of the painting. Tell the students that the white men are Quakers. Ask students if they remember who the Quakers are. (People who came to America for religious freedom. They settled in Pennsylvania.) Explain that
Edward Hicks was a Quaker, too. He hoped, as did the other Quakers, that their new homes in America would be peaceful. They hoped that it would be so peaceful that even the animals who were enemies would become friends. Point out that Hicks believed that the Quakers and the Native Americans could become friends, too.
Have students notice the contrasts Hicks used in his painting. Ask them to consider light vs dark and foreground vs background. Have them identify the way that he draws our attention to the animals and the children. Ask: Are the lines in the painting rounded or straight? (rounded) What kind of feeling do these lines give?
Tell the students to pretend that they have been hired to paint a picture that symbolizes peace. Ask them to tell which animals they would include. Would they include particular people? Why would those people be included? Remind students that Hicks painted a scene of the wilderness--just the way America looked at this time. Ask: Would you put your subjects in the wilderness or somewhere else?
If time permits, allow students to sketch their pictures of peace or have them write a paragraph of description. Remind students to consider using the foreground and background as Hicks did.
Bishop, Robert and Elizabeth Safanda. A Gallery of Amish Quilts: Design Diversity from a Plain People. New York: E. P. Dutton, Co., 1976. (0-525-47444-7)
Cobb, Mary. The Quilt-Block History of Pioneer Days. Brookfield: Millbrook Press, 1995.
Darst, Diane. Learning to Look. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1992. (0-13-528795-2)
Hirsch, E. D., Jr, ed. What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell, 1992. (0-385-31257-1)
Kile, Michael M., ed. The Quilt Digest. San Francisco: Quilt Digest Press, 1985.(0-913327-02-6)
Paul, Ann Whitford. Eight Hands Round: A Patchwork Alphabet. New York: HarperCollins, 1991. (0-06-024704-5)
Turner, Robin Montana. Rosa Bonheur: Portraits of Women Artists for Children. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1991. (0-316-85648-7)
Baycura, Debra. Patchwork Math 1 - 100 Addition and Subtraction Reproducibles. New York: Scholastic, 1990. (0-590-49073-7)
Baycura, Debra. Patchwork Math 2 - 100 Multiplication and Division Reproducibles. New York: Scholastic, 1990. (0-590-49076-1)
Eikmeier, Barbara J. Kids Can Quilt. Bothell,WA: That Patchwork Place, 1997. (1-56477-177-6)
Hendler, Muncie. Six Early American Quilt Postcards. New York: Dover, 1992. (0-486-27001-7)