Third Grade - American History - Lesson 16 - Colony of Massachusetts

 Objective

Recall the reasons why the Pilgrims came to the New World.

 Materials

Classroom-size world map

Classroom-size U. S. map

 Suggested Books

Student Titles

Siegel, Beatrice. A New Look at the Pilgrims: Why They Came to America. New York: Walker and Company, 1977.

A chapter book that answers questions regarding the Pilgrims. The author includes interesting details in her answers regarding why they were persecuted and what they believed.

Van Leeuwen, Jean. Across the Wide Dark Sea: The Mayflower Journey. New York: Dial Books, 1995.

In this book a boy tells the story of his journey to and first weeks at Plymouth Plantation.

 The following books are nicely done photoessays that detail the lives of a Pilgrim boy, girl, and ship's apprentice and a Wampanoag Indian boy:

Waters, Kate. On the Mayflower: voyage of the ship's apprentice & a passenger girl. New York: Scholastic, 1996.

Waters, Kate. Samuel Eaton's Day: A Day in the Life of a Pilgrim Boy. New York: Scholastic, 1993.

Waters, Kate. Sarah Morton's Day: A Day in the Life of a Pilgrim Girl. New York: Scholastic, 1989.

Waters, Kate. Tapenum's Day: A Wampanoag Indian Boy in Pilgrim Times. New York: Scholastic, 1996.

Teacher Reference

Fradin, Dennis B. The Massachusetts Colony. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1987.

Hakim, Joy. Making Thirteen Colonies: A History of US. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Moger, Susan. Pilgrims: Complete Theme Unit Developed in Cooperation with Pilgrim Hall Museum. New York: Scholastic, 1995.

Strohl, Mary and Susan Schneck. Colonial America: Cooperative Learning Activities. New York: Scholastic, 1991.
 
 

Teacher Resource

The Mailbox - Primary, Oct/Nov 1991 has a unit called A Pilgrim Profile that contains possible additional activities and worksheets.

The Education Department of Plymouth Plantation has resources for teachers such as copies of primary source documents and activity guides.

Education Department
Plymouth Plantation
P.O. Box 1620
Plymouth, MA 02362

Teacher Note

Students were introduced to the Pilgrims in Kindergarten and the subject was reviewed in First Grade.
 
 

Procedure

Have the students think of the regions of the Atlantic coast about which they have learned. Ask: Which region is the colony of Massachusetts a part of? (New England) Tell the students that starting with the New England region, they are going to take a look at specific groups of people who came from Europe to live in the colonies.

Explain that the first group they are going to look at are the Pilgrims. Write the word Pilgrims on the board. Ask: Does anyone know which colony the Pilgrims settled in? (Plymouth, Massachusetts) Show the location of Plymouth on the U. S. map. Tell the students that the Pilgrims settled in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Explain that the Pilgrims were a group made up of people who came to the New World for different reasons. Some came for religious freedom, and others for economic reasons.

Tell the students that those who came for religious reasons, left England because they were not allowed the religious freedom to worship in the way they chose. Explain that during this time in England, there was only one religion that was accepted and that was the Church of England. Tell the students that the Church of England was started when King Henry VIII of England broke off from the Catholic Church and made himself the head of the Church of England, so not only was the king head of the government, but also the head of the church. Ask: Can anyone think of any problems that could happen as a result of the king being in charge of both the church and government? (If a person disagrees with one, it may affect their rights in the other.)

Tell the children that because the Pilgrims wanted to worship in their own way and separate from the Church of England, they were called "Separatists." Draw two arrows below the word Pilgrims and write Separatists under one of the arrows. Explain that the Church of England did not allow freedom of religion; people either practiced the religion of the Church of England or were put in jail. Tell the students that the Separatists decided to move to Holland where they were promised religious freedom. After living in Holland for some time, the Separatists next decided to move to the New World.

Tell the students that the Pilgrims that came for economic reasons did so because they wanted to be able to own land and make a living, which they were not able to do in England. These people were called the "Strangers" by the Separatists. Write the word under the second arrow on the board.
 
 

Pilgrims

b `

Separatists Strangers
 
 

Call on students to explain how the Strangers were different from the Separatists. Under each group's name record a description of what was different about each group.

Tell the students that the Pilgrims landed in Plymouth in 1620. Show the students location of Plymouth on the classroom map. Explain that they had originally set sail from England to Virginia, but after running into a severe storm, they were blown off course and instead arrived in Massachusetts.

Ask: Does anyone know the name of the boat on which the 102 Pilgrims traveled to the Plymouth? (The Mayflower) Direct the students' attention to the classroom world map. Trace the route of the Mayflower on the map with your finger from England to Plymouth, Massachusetts. Tell the students that it took sixty-six days for the Pilgrims to cross the Atlantic to the New World.

Tell the students that once the Pilgrims arrived in the New World they realized they needed to make rules for the new colony and they came up with a document called the Mayflower Compact. (Write the name on the board.) The Mayflower Compact stated a plan for a government and rules for the general good of the new colony. Explain that this is a very important document in history because it is an agreement drawn up by a group of people to rule themselves. Ask: How is this unlike the government the Puritans had back in England? (They are not being ruled by a king; they are instead ruling themselves.)

Explain to the students that the Puritans arrived in Plymouth in December. It was cold, the land was rocky, and it was too late to plant crops for food. Tell the students that more than half of the 102 who came to Plymouth died that first winter and if it were not for the help of the Native Americans who lived in the area, the Pilgrims may not have made it at all. The Native Americans who lived in this area were Wampanoag Indians.

Read the following excerpt from Making Thirteen Colonies by Joy Hakim aloud to the students:

Picture this scene: Pilgrims are struggling to find ways to live in this difficult region, when out of the woods strides a tall man in deerskin clothes. They are astounded when he greets them. "Welcome, Englishmen," he says. His name is Samoset, and he has learned some English from fishermen and traders.

Samoset returns with 60 Indians, a chieftain named Massasoit, and an Indian whom the settlers name Squanto. Squanto speaks English well. He had been kidnaped by sailors, taken to London, befriended by a London merchant, and returned to his native land. . .

Squanto stays with the settlers. To the Pilgrims he was Aa special instrument sent of God for their good beyond their expectations... He directed them how to set [plant] their corn, where to take [catch] fish, and to procure [get] other commodities [goods], and was their pilot to bring them to unknown places.

Ask: How did the Native Americans help the Pilgrims? (Taught them how to plant corn, catch fish, and get other things they needed.) Ask: What other needs would the Pilgrims have to fill in order to survive in the New World? (shelter, clothing, tools)

 Optional Activity

Have the students help you write a journal entry for a Pilgrim on board the Mayflower. Give the students information about what it was like to travel on a ship during this time.

The ships were very crowded.

People did not change clothes or bathe.

There was not have enough fresh water on board for everyone.

Many people got seasick because ships sometimes encountered bad storms.

People had to eat dried beef, moldy cheese, and stale biscuits.

The trip across the Atlantic took months.
 
 

Write a starting sentence for the journal entry on the board and ask the children to make suggestions to add to the entry. For example the entry could start: We have been stuck below deck for days because the ship is now passing through a dangerous storm.
 
 

Third Grade - American History - Lesson 17 - The Massachusetts Bay Colony and Rhode Island

 Objectives

Identify the Puritans as the founders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

Identify Roger Williams as the founder of a colony in Providence, Rhode Island.

Compare and contrast the ideas of Roger Williams to those of the Puritans.

 Materials

Classroom-size map of the United States

Statements on chart paper or board (statements included at the end of the lesson)

 Suggested Books

Teacher Reference

Fradin, Dennis B. The Massachusetts Colony. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1987.

Hakim, Joy. Making Thirteen Colonies: A History of US. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
 
 

Teacher Note

As you talk about and locate each of the settlements formed by the colonists, you may want to mark the location of the settlement on the classroom map using a small post-it, a piece of colored paper backed by tape, or stickers. Leave the settlements marked on the map until the end of the colonies unit.
 
 

Procedure

Ask the students to recall from their last lesson the name of the group of people who settled in Massachusetts (the Pilgrims). Ask: What was the name of the place in Massachusetts that they landed and settled? (Plymouth) Who helped the Pilgrims learn how to plant corn and catch fish in the New World? (The Wampanoag Indians) What was the name of the Native American who stayed with the Pilgrims to help them? (Squanto)

Tell the students that next they are going to learn about another group that came to Massachusetts to start a colony called the Puritans. Write the word Puritan on the board. Explain that the Puritans came to the New World for religious freedom just as the Pilgrims had. Explain that the name Puritans came from that fact that they wanted to purify or simplify the Church of England. Unlike the Separatists or Pilgrims who wanted to separate from the church, the Puritans wanted to control and change the Church of England.

Since the king did not agree with the Puritans, they were forced to either leave England or be punished for not following the accepted religion, which was the Church of England. In 1630, a group of Puritans led by a man named John Winthrop traveled to the New World to settle in the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

Show the students the location of the Massachusetts Bay Colony on the classroom map (the bay near Boston and Salem, north of Plymouth). Tell the students that the first town in the Massachusetts Bay Colony was Salem. Explain that the Massachusetts Bay Colony was completely separate from that of the Pilgrim colony at Plymouth.

Tell the students that John Winthrop became the Governor of the Massachusetts Bay

Colony. Explain that he believed that the Massachusetts Bay Colony was to become a model community for others to look to as an example of how religion, government, and daily life should be. He once said, "We must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill. The eyes of all people are upon us." Ask: What do you think he meant when he said this? Explain that just as a city built on a hill can be seen by anyone who is around it, John Winthrop was saying that people would be looking to see how well the Puritans were able to run the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

Tell the students that although the Puritans wanted the freedom to practice their own religion, they were not tolerant or accepting of other people's religions. A man named Roger Williams disagreed with this practice. Write the name on the board. Explain that he believed that people should be tolerant of each other's beliefs.

Tell the students that Roger Williams was a Puritan. He came to Massachusetts looking for religious freedom. Explain that like other Puritans, Williams believed in a very pure and simple form of Christianity that used the Bible as a guide to follow in every area of life. But unlike other Puritans he did not believe that anyone should be forced to believe the way he did. He instead believed that although another person may not agree with his beliefs, that person should not be punished or killed because of their beliefs.

Ask: Since Roger Williams spoke out against some of the Puritan beliefs, how do you think other Puritans in Massachusetts felt about Williams? (disliked him, thought he was a troublemaker) Tell the students that the Puritans decided to send Williams back to England because they felt he was a troublemaker, but before they could catch him, Williams left Massachusetts and went to Rhode Island.

Explain that Williams bought land from the Native Americans who lived in the area and started a colony there which he named Providence. Write Providence on the board. Tell the students that Providence went on to become the capital of Rhode Island. Show the students the location of Providence on the classroom map. Explain that anyone who wished to come to Rhode Island was welcome no matter what religious beliefs they held.

Have the students recall the Golden Rule, which is Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. Write the saying on the board. Ask: What does this saying mean? (Treat others as you would like to be treated.) Tell the students to keep this saying in mind and think about the differences between the Puritans and Roger Williams; both the Puritans and Williams wanted religious freedom, but only one was accepting of other religions. Ask: Who followed the Golden Rule, the Puritans or Williams? (Williams) In what way did he follow the Golden Rule? (He was accepting of people who had different religious beliefs than he did.)

Display the following statements on chart paper or on the board:

Roger Williams believed that people should be punished if they did not follow the Puritan religion.

Roger Williams formed a colony in Providence, Rhode Island.

The Puritans came from England to practice their religion in Massachusetts.

The Massachusetts Bay Colony was separate from the Pilgrim colony at Plymouth.

The Puritans believed in religious freedom.
 
 

As you read each statement aloud, have the students respond as to whether the statement is true or false. Mark a T or F next to each statement accordingly.
 
 

Answers

F, T, T, T, F
 
 

Third Grade - American History - Lesson 18 - Colony of New York
 
 

Objectives

Identify that the Dutch founded New Netherland and New Amsterdam.

Recall information about the New England colonies.
 
 

Materials

Classroom-size world map

Classroom-size U. S. map

1 per student

Colonial Questions worksheet (attached)
 
 

Suggested Books

Teacher Reference

Fradin, Dennis. The New York Colony. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1988.

Hakim, Joy. Making Thirteen Colonies: A History of US. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
 
 

Procedure

Tell the students that although the colonies of Massachusetts and Rhode Island were started by colonists who came mostly from England, the next colony we are going to take a look at originally began as a colony of Holland. Explain to the students that the Netherlands and Holland refer to the same country in Europe. Locate the country on a world map for the students. Remind the students that last month they studied the artist Rembrandt who also came from this country. Also, tell the students that the people who come from this country are called Dutch, just as people from England are called English or British. Locate England on the map. Ask: Looking at the geography of both Holland and England, why do you think both of these countries became great sea powers? (A good area of both countries have access to water.)

Ask the students to recall the explorer Henry Hudson from earlier this year. Remind the students that Henry Hudson sailed for the country of Holland to the continent of North America. Explain that from this trip, Hudson had claimed large amounts of land for Holland in what is today the state of New York.

Explain that a business called the Dutch West India Company set up the colony of New Netherland in the location of what is today the state of New York. Write the name on the board. Ask: What does the name of the colony come from? (The name tells that this place in the New World is the "new" Netherland.) Tell the students that the colony was primarily set up as a fur trading post that would buy the furs of beaver, bear, and fox from settlers and Native Americans then sell them to people in Europe. So not only was New Netherland not a British colony, but it was also not set up by people seeking religious freedom. Ask the students to recall that the Pilgrims and Puritans were seeking religious freedom, whereas the Dutch settled in the New World for economic reasons.

Explain that the Dutch West India Company made a deal with the Native Americans who lived in the area to purchase land from them. Point to New York City on a U. S. map. Tell the students that the island of Manhattan is the center of New York City. Explain that the Dutch bought the island of Manhattan from the Native Americans for beads and goods worth about 24 dollars. Ask: Do you think this was a fair trade? Explain that this was probably a misunderstanding between the Indians and the Dutch--the Native Americans didn't believe people could own land, so they probably thought they were getting a good deal and the Dutch

probably thought they were the ones getting good land for a cheap price. Tell the students that in 1626 the Dutch built a town called New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island. Write the name on the board. This town later became New York City.

Tell the students that the British wanted to add New Netherland to the other colonies they had on the Atlantic coast. Explain that in 1660 King Charles II of England gave his brother the Duke of York, New Netherland, even though the Dutch claimed it as theirs. Explain that the Duke of York organized a fleet of ships carrying soldiers to New Netherland. The Dutch were forced to surrender because they were outnumbered by the British. Tell the students that New Netherland was renamed New York. Ask: Where do you think that name came from? (It was named after the Duke of York.)

Give each student a copy of the Colonial Questions worksheet. Read the directions and the questions aloud as the students follow along. Have the students complete the worksheet by writing words from the word list in the spaces provided.

 Answer Key

1. Plymouth
2. Massachusetts Bay
3. Roger Williams
4. New York
5. Mayflower
6. New England
7. England
 

Third Grade - American History - Lesson 18 - Colony of New York
 
 

Name __________________________________________________
 
 

Colonial Questions
 
 

Directions: Complete the sentence by filling in the blank with a word from the list provided below. No answers will be used more than once. There will be two words left which you will not use to answer the questions.
 
 

Roger Williams

Massachusetts Bay

England

Plymouth

New York

Wampanoag

Mayflower

Duke of York

New England
 
 

1. The Pilgrims sailed from England and settled in Massachusetts in the town of _______________________________________.
 
 

2. The Puritans also settled in Massachusetts, but settled north of Plymouth in the _________________________________________________ Colony.
 
 

3. ___________________________________________ was the founder of a colony in Rhode

Island who believed in accepting people of all religions.

4. First known as New Netherland, the colony later known as ____________________________

was started by the Dutch.

5. The ____________________________________ was the name of the boat on which the

Pilgrims sailed to the New World.

6. Massachusetts and Rhode Island are part of the _____________________________________

region of the Atlantic coast.

7. The Dutch surrendered the colony of New Netherland to the country of ________________________________.
 
 

Third Grade - American History - Lesson 19 - Pensylvania and Maryland
 
 

Objectives

Identify William Penn as the founder of Pennsylvania.

Identify the Calverts as the founders of Maryland.
 
 

Materials

Classroom-size U. S. map

Thirteen Colonies map (attached) - for transparency
 
 

Suggested Books

Teacher Reference

Fradin, Dennis B. The Pennsylvania Colony. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1988.

Gurney, Gene and Clare. The Colony of Maryland. New York: Franklin Watts, 1972.

Hakim, Joy. Making Thirteen Colonies: A History of US. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
 
 

Teacher Note:

You may wish to contact the Maryland Historical Society for more information regarding the Calverts and the first Maryland colonists.

The Maryland Historical Society
Education Department
201 West Monument St.
Baltimore, MD 21201
(410) 685-3750
 

Procedure

Ask: What was different about the founding of New Netherland that was different than the founding of other colonies? (New Netherland was founded by the Dutch and was founded for economic not religious reasons.) Tell the students that the next colony they are going to learn about was founded by a man named William Penn. Write name on the board.

Ask: Keeping William Penn's name in mind, can anyone guess which colony in the Middle Atlantic region we are going to discuss next? (Pennsylvania) Write Pennsylvania on the board. Explain that the colony of Pennsylvania, which means "Penn's woods," was given to William Penn because Charles II who was the king of England at the time, owed Penn's father a large amount of money. Explain that Penn asked to be repaid with a piece of land in America, so the king repaid Penn by giving him a very large area of land, which he named Pennsylvania.

Tell the students that William Penn wanted to move to Pennsylvania because the religion that he practiced was not accepted in England. Penn was a member of the Society of Friends, also known as the Quaker religion. Write the two phrases on the board. Explain that the Quaker religion is different from other religions in that Quakers believe that everyone is equal and that no one should be looked up to except for God. Tell that the students that this was not an accepted way of thinking in England because during this time ministers, kings, lords, and dukes were considered to be above other people. The Quakers refused to consider anyone more important than anyone else because they considered God to be the only superior being.

Tell the students that the next colony they are going to learn about, Maryland, which was started in much the same way as Pennsylvania. Explain that Sir George Calvert, who also the title Lord Baltimore, asked King Charles I of England for land in America. The king gave Calvert a large piece of land in America, which Calvert named Maryland after the king's wife Queen Henrietta Maria. Ask: Can anyone think of something in Maryland that is named after Sir Calvert, the Lord Baltimore? (the city of Baltimore, Baltimore County, Calvert Street in Baltimore, Calvert County)

Explain that one reason that Sir George Calvert wanted a colony in America was that he was a Catholic and not allowed to practice his religion in England. Ask the students to recall that the only accepted religion was the Church of England. Calvert started Maryland mainly as a safe place for Catholics to live and practice their religion.

Tell the students that George Calvert died before he was able to carry out his plan of establishing the colony of Maryland. The land was left to his sons, Cecil and Leonard, who then recruited colonists to live in the colony of Maryland. Tell the students that the first colonists came to Maryland on two ships named the Ark and the Dove. Write the names on the board. Tell the students that the Ark and the Dove reached the Chesapeake Bay in 1634. Explain that the first town set up by the colonists in Maryland was at St. Mary's which is located on the southwestern shore of Maryland's Chesapeake Bay (show on map).

Display the transparency of the map of the Thirteen Colonies. Have the children tell you which colonies they have learned about so far (Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland). Using a marker, outline those colonies on the map. Remind the students that only one of the colonies we have studied so far was started for economic reasons rather than people seeking religious freedom. Write the headings Economic (Money) and Religious Freedom on the board. Ask the students to name which of the colonies they have learned about were settled for economic reasons and which were settled for religious reasons. List the colonies under the appropriate headings.

Bibliography
 
 

Student Titles

Siegel, Beatrice. A New Look at the Pilgrims: Why They Came to America. New York: Walker and Company, 1977. (0-8027-6292-1)

Van Leeuwen, Jean. Across the Wide Dark Sea: The Mayflower Journey. New York: Dial Books, 1995. (0-8037-11670)

Waters, Kate. On the Mayflower: voyage of the ship's apprentice & a passenger girl. New York: Scholastic, 1996. (0-590-673084)

Waters, Kate. Samuel Eaton's Day: A Day in the Life of a Pilgrim Boy. New York: Scholastic, 1993. (0-590-46312-8)

Waters, Kate. Sarah Morton's Day: A Day in the Life of a Pilgrim Girl. New York: Scholastic, 1989. (0-590-44871-4)

Waters, Kate. Tapenum's Day: A Wampanoag Indian Boy in Pilgrim Times. New York: Scholastic, 1996. (0-590-20237-5)
 
 

Teacher Reference

Fradin, Dennis B. The Massachusetts Colony. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1987. (0-516-00386-0)

Fradin, Dennis. The New York Colony. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1988. (0-516-00389-5)

Fradin, Dennis B. The Pennsylvania Colony. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1988. (0-516-00390-9)

Gurney, Gene and Clare. The Colony of Marland. New York: Franklin Watts, 1972. (531-00757-x)

Hakim, Joy. Making Thirteen Colonies: A History of US. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. (0-669-36833-4)

Moger, Susan. Pilgrims: Complete Theme Unit Developed in Cooperation with Pilgrim Hall Museum. New York: Scholastic, 1995. (0-590-49787-1)

Strohl, Mary and Susan Schneck. Colonial America: Cooperative Learning Activities. New York: Scholastic, 1991. (0-590-49133-4)