Third Grade - Literature - Overview - May

Sayings and Phrases
Two sayings are introduced this month--Cold shoulder and Clean bill of health. In the accompanying lessons, students identify occupations and occasions that require a clean bill of health, and they use a thermometer as an aid in desirability ranking of sayings that include a reference to temperature.
The lessons may be used in any order at any time during the month.

Poetry
In order to better appreciate the poet's love of her childhood home, students examine what they personally love about summer in Baltimore before reading Nikki Giovanni's poem "Knoxville, Tennessee." References to sensory experiences are used both as a springboard and a link. Students are invited to write their own hometown poems and illustrate them.

Stories
Stories from The Arabian Nights, specifically "Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp" and "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves" are read this month. Students hear about the origin of the "One Thousand and One" stories and Sheherezade's masterful storytelling. A number of activities are provided, including character comparisons and investigations of magical words and items. The elements of a folktale are used as guidelines for study as well.
Adaptations of each story for student use are provided. Suggested titles of other tales from The Arabian Nights are also listed.

Third Grade - Literature - Sayings and Phrases - Clean bill of health

Objectives
Discuss reasons why a clean bill of health is important.
Brainstorm occupations and situations that require a clean bill of health.
Design a clean bill of health certificate (optional).

Materials
Copy of the saying Clean bill of health on sentence strip or chart paper
Drawing paper or light color construction paper, crayons

Suggested Books
Hirsch, Jr., E. D., ed. What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell, 1992.
The meaning and an illustrative example are included on p. 65.
________. A First Dictionary of Cultural Literacy: What Our Children Need to Know. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1989. The meaning may be found on p. 7.
Hirsch, Jr., E. D., Joseph F. Kett, James Trefil. The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1993. P. 63 gives an explanation of the figurative meaning of clean bill of health.
Room, Adrian, revised by. Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. New York: HarperCollins, 1959, 1995. P. 117 gives an explanation of the origin of the saying.

Procedure
Display the saying Clean bill of health and read it to the class. Tell the students that before a ship sails from a port there is a document (certificate) signed by the proper authorities (health department) and given to the master of a ship called a bill of health. A clean bill of health indicates that there was no infectious disorder existing in the place from which the ship sailed. Ask the students why such a document would be important. (If the people on the ship were coming from a place that had sickness or disease they might be carrying the germs with them and spread the disease to others. As the ship visited different ports it would bring the germs with it. That disease might be fatal to people who had never been exposed to it before.) Have students recall that germs are invisible so it is possible that a person might be carrying the germs of a serious disease and not know it and not be sick. Remind students about the number of natives in the Americas who died from exposure to germs and diseases brought by explorers.
People in the place where the ship was heading would not want sickness and disease brought to them so they would ask to see the bill of health before they allowed anyone (or thing) to leave the ship. If it was a clean bill of health the people could disembark, but a foul bill of health or no bill at all meant that it was dangerous to let these people come ashore. Tell the students that ships were required to fly a certain colored flag if they carried disease. This flag was a signal to others to keep away.
Ask the students if they have ever been given a clean bill of health. If students say they have, allow them to explain. Ask: Did you ever have to have a check-up before you could play on a team or go to camp? Why did that happen? (Accept all reasonable responses making sure that students realize that the check-up was necessary to verify good health.) Ask: Why do you have to be in good health to play on a team or go to camp? (Answers may vary.) What could happen if you had a contagious illness or disease? (It could be spread to others.) What could happen if you weren't in good health? (could get very ill, could even die if severe enough)
Explain that a doctor does sign a release form that says his or her patient is in good health and should be fine participating in that activity, etc. Tell students that doctors also check to be sure that a person's immunizations are up to date. Explain that immunizations are injections that prevent people from contracting various diseases. Be sure that students understand that the paperwork completed by the doctor is not an actual clean bill of health but just the way we reference it.
Ask students to work with a partner and together try to think of occupations and situations that would require the people involved to be well and eligible for a clean bill of health. Remind students to think of the two examples you just discussed to help provide ideas. After several minutes, invite the pairs to share. Possible answers are: to attend school, to join an exercise program, to be a food handler, to play any professional sport, for employment in a physically stressful job, to be licensed as a pilot. List student responses on the board and take time to discuss the importance of good health and the problems in each case associated with poor health. Remind students that the check-up is a protective and preventive measure.
Finally, explain that clean bill of health can mean even more. Tell the students that after a mechanic inspects a car and finds that there are no problems, the car is given a clean bill of health. The students' desks might even be given a clean bill of health if they are clean and organized. Be sure that students realize that this clean bill of health is figurative--a statement only. Ask students to suggest other situations where a clean bill of health is warranted (a perfect paper, a clean bedroom, neat appearance, etc.)
As a culminating activity distribute drawing paper (or light color construction paper) and crayons and have each student design a clean bill of health certificate for a particular scenario (a perfect desk, clean locker, neat book bag, orderly row or column of desks). Discuss the type of proclamation it would contain (e.g. Let it be known that __________ maintains a neat and tidy desk. It is a pleasure to see and touch.). Post these in the classroom under the heading "Looking and Feeling Fine!"

Third Grade - Literature - Sayings and Phrases - Cold shoulder

Objectives
Hear the origin of the saying.
List reasons why someone might be given the cold shoulder.
Rank phrases on a thermometer chart to indicate whether they describe something desirable or undesirable.

Materials
Copy of the saying Cold shoulder on sentence strip or chart paper
Thermometer diagram (attached) for transparency

Suggested Books
Hirsch, Jr., E. D., ed. What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell, 1992.
The meaning and an illustrative example are included on p. 66.
________. A First Dictionary of Cultural Literacy: What Our Children Need to Know. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1989. The meaning can be found on p. 7.
Hirsch, Jr., E. D., Joseph F. Kett, James Trefil. The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1989. The meaning can be found on p. 64.
Morris, William and Mary. Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins. New York: Harper & Row, 1977, 1988. The meaning can be found on p. 142.

Procedure
Display the saying Cold shoulder, and ask the students if they have ever heard it used and if so, under what circumstances. If no one volunteers a response, tell the students that when someone says they have been given the cold shoulder it means that they have been ignored by someone they know. Explain that two people may have had a disagreement and one of them may be so angry that he or she refuses to talk to the other, pretending to not even know that other person. When that happens we say that the person who is angry has given the cold shoulder to the other person.
Tell students that the cold shoulder might also be given to someone who isn't very popular when more popular people are around or for any number of other reasons. Ask students to share reasons they might know. (Possible reasons are that one person might believe untrue gossip about the other; a person may be in a hurry and doesn't want to get caught in conversation; the person ignored might be very obnoxious and difficult to be around; a person might not want to introduce the other person to another friend; etc.) Ask students if they have ever given or received the cold shoulder. Invite students to share their experiences.
Explain that cold shoulder is a term that has been used for a long time. It goes back to the time of castles, kings and knights. When a knight was traveling and stopped at an inn, he would be served a hot meal, whereas the common traveler would be offered cold meat. Tell the students that this meat was usually mutton (sheep)--the shoulder portion, and so it was called cold shoulder. Over time cold shoulder meant to treat someone as though they were beneath you in worth or value or that it was acceptable to avoid that person on purpose.
Have students recall that when we use the word cold as part of a description of a person or situation we usually mean unpleasant or uncomfortable. A person may have "cold feet" or may break out in a "cold sweat." Someone who is unpleasant to others may be referred to as a "cold fish." Write the phrases containing the word cold on the board. Ask students if they can add any others.
Next, have the students consider how the word hot is used. A person may be described as
"hot headed," or may get "hot under the collar." When someone gets into trouble that person is "in hot water" and a problem caused by someone or something may be a "hot potato." A person who is sick may be feeling "not so hot." Add these "hot" phrases to the board and again ask students to share their ideas.
Point out to students that it is uncomfortable to be either too hot or too cold. When we mention these two extremes (hot and cold) while speaking about a person or situation we are indicating something undesirable. Discuss the farthest extremes by reminding students that when water gets really hot, it boils and then changes to steam and when it gets very cold, it freezes and changes to ice. Tell the students that if the "hot" and "cold" phrases they discussed were put on a thermometer chart they would get listed at the opposite ends.
Display a transparency of the thermometer. Remind students that neither very high nor very low temperatures are desirable so those areas on the thermometer are marked as TOO HOT (unpleasant and uncomfortable) or TOO COLD (unpleasant and uncomfortable). Have students recall the story of "Goldilocks and the Three Bears" in order to name the center area (JUST RIGHT--pleasant and comfortable). Asking the students to provide direction, fill in the phrases you have already discussed on the chart. Some phrases may share the same degree (and line). Have the students discuss whether one phrase indicates something more or less unpleasant than another.
After the original 8 phrases (and any the students suggested) have been placed, ask students to consider and place the following:
icy stare
boiling mad
heated argument
chilly outlook
warm welcome
as cool as a cucumber
smile melted my heart house-warming
burning desire

When all the phrases have been placed, ask the students if they notice any relationship between the degree of temperature indicated by the word in a phrase and the desirability of the situation it describes. Ask a student to make a statement about this observation (words that indicate moderate temperatures are associated with pleasant people or situations).

Third Grade - Literature - Poetry - Knoxville, Tennessee

Objectives
List favorite aspects of summer according to the five senses.
Locate references to the five senses within the poem.
Write a poem titled "Baltimore, Maryland."
Illustrate the poem "Knoxville, Tennessee" or "Baltimore, Maryland" (optional).

Materials
Classroom-size U.S. map
Copy of the poem (attached) for each student or for transparency

Suggested Books
deRegniers, Beatrice Schenk, Eva Moore, Mary Michaels White and Jan Carr, selected by. Sing a Song of Popcorn: Every Child's Book of Poems. New York: Scholastic, 1988.
Wonderful anthology illustrated by nine Caldecott medal artists; "Knoxville, Tennessee" is found on p. 91.
Giovanni, Nikki. Knoxville, Tennessee. New York: Scholastic, 1969.
Text of the poem with colorful illustrations by Larry Johnson.
Teacher Reference
Strickland, Michael R. African-American Poets. Springfield, NJ: Enslow, 1996.
Profiles of ten African American poets including Nikki Giovanni.

Teacher Background
Nikki Giovanni was born June 7, 1943 in Knoxville, Tennessee. Her full name is Yolande Cornelia Giovanni, Jr. She received a B.A. from Fisk University. Her early poetry expressed her strong feelings regarding civil rights and revolution. Years later, when she became a mother, her poetry took on a youthful tone and her poems sounded more like the short rhythmic conversations of children.

Teacher Note
Students are asked to write a poem in the activity portion of this lesson. This poem emphasizes enjoyment of the summer in Baltimore by having students relate their summer pleasures through sensory experiences. It would be possible to instead use any season and location as a basis for a poem or do the poetry writing exercise as an entire class exercise.
Procedure
Begin the lesson by asking students to visualize themselves out of school for summer vacation. Tell them to close their eyes and think of what they most enjoy doing during the summer. Ask a few students to share their thoughts.
Next ask students to take a piece of paper and divide it into five sections, titling each one for one of the senses. Invite a student to name the five senses as you write them across the board in five columns (see, hear, smell, touch, taste).
Tell the students to take a few minutes to list their favorite aspects of summer under the appropriate headings. Have them recall their earlier visualizations. Ask: What sights, sounds, smells, tastes and touches do you enjoy most during the summer? Is it the feel of the sun on your skin? the voices of friends at the swimming pool? the flavor of your favorite snowball? the smell
of barbecue or watermelon? looking through books at the library? Walk around the room providing help with spelling, etc. as students compose their lists.
After several minutes, ask students to share their lists, writing two or three (or more) of their ideas in each of the categories on the board. Ask the students if they had any of the same ideas suggested by their classmates. Ask: Are there any similarities about what each of us enjoys about summertime in Baltimore? Why do you think that might have happened?
Begin reading an example from each list, prefacing the reading with the statement "I always like summer best, you can..." >eat corn on the cob while the crabs are steaming in the pot, run around and play tag with your cousins, then watch the fireworks on the Fourth of July with your dad's arm around you while you ooh and aah with the rest of your family.'
Try several more reads, each time using at least one example from each category. Ask the students if they notice that the result of each combination sounds something like a poem. Invite a student to try putting together a sampler as well.
Next, display (or distribute copies to students) the poem "Knoxville, Tennessee." Read it through for the class, then ask them to read along with you. Point out how similar the poem sounds to the class' work. Tell the students that the poet, Nikki Giovanni, was writing about going to stay with her grandparents during the summer. Ask: Where did her grandparents live? (Knoxville, Tennessee) Ask a student to locate Tennessee on the map. Have the class note Tennessee's relative location to Maryland. Discuss any similarities between the two states (climate, mountains, etc.) Ask students to think about which summer experiences are shared. Are there summer activities that take place in Knoxville but not in Baltimore and vice-versa?
Direct the students' attention back to the poem. Ask them if it looks similar to or different from most of the poems they have seen (different). What do they notice about the poem? (no punctuation, is a long run-on sentence, 11 "ands" in the poem, sounds like someone talking, etc.) Ask: Does the speaker sound like an adult or a child? (Answers may vary.) Ask students to support their opinions with lines from the poem. Ask: Are there references to all five senses in the poem? (yes) Have the students find an example of each. Be sure to point out that some are implied (e.g. barbecue can appeal to senses of smell and taste).
Tell the students that you will read the poem aloud again, and this time you would like them to close their eyes when they listen. Suggest that they try to "step into the poem" and experience all the things the speaker mentions. Point out that these memories must have been very sharp in Nikki Giovanni's memory to enable her to write such a clear picture.
Next, tell the students to close their eyes again. This time read the poem sampler of their phrases. Congratulate them on being able to create wonderful sensory pictures just as Nikki Giovanni did. Try reading several and ask the students if their mouths started watering or they could feel the warmth of the sun on their skin as they listened.
Finally, tell the students that they will be composing their own poems like "Knoxville, Tennessee." Ask: What would be a good name for our poems? Where do our summer memories take place? (Baltimore, Maryland)
Have the students use their own lists to create their poems. Suggest that they may wish to add to some categories before they start writing. Have the students title their poems "Baltimore, Maryland" (or a title of your choice) and begin with the lines "I always like summer best, you can..." When the poems have been completed have the students illustrate them. You may wish to share the book Knoxville, Tennessee to show how Larry Johnson created pictures to go along with Nikki Giovanni's words.

Third Grade - Literature - Stories - Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp

Objectives
Hear the origin of the tales told in The Arabian Nights.
Determine if the story contains the elements of a folktale.
Identify problems and their solutions in the story.
Relate "Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp" to other stories where magic objects intended for good, are used for evil (optional).

Materials
Copy of the story "Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp" (one version is attached)
Student copies of "Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp," attached (optional)
Classroom-size world map
Suggested Books
Alderson, Brian, retold by. The Arabian Nights or Tales Told by Sheherezade During a Thousand Nights and One Night. New York: Morrow, 1992.
This retelling is easy reading, but some of the terms will still be foreign to third-graders. Beautiful illustrations, highlighted with gold--some cover two pages. The story of Aladdin begins on page 142.
Hirsch, Jr., E. D., ed. What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell, 1992.
The selection included with this lesson may be found on pp. 12-14.
Kimmel, Eric, retold by. The Tale of Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp: A Story from the Arabian Nights. New York: Holiday House, 1992.
Beautiful, colorful illustrations by Ju-Hong Chen highlight this book which is a good selection for independent reading by students. Contains some difficult vocabulary.
Kubista, Ludek, retold by. Aladdin and His Wonderful Lamp. London: Hamlyn, 1976.
A longer version of the tale with stunning artwork by Jiri Behounek.
Lewis, Naomi, retold by. Stories from the Arabian Nights. New York: Henry Holt, 1987.
Good read aloud, language may be too difficult for independent reading. Intricate illustrations by Anton Peck.; the story of Aladdin begins on p. 153.
Philip, Neil, retold by. The Arabian Nights. New York: Orchard, 1994.
This is a good selection for a read aloud. The story of Aladdin begins on p. 79.
Other Tales from The Arabian Nights
Wade, Gini, retold and illustrated by. The Wonderful Bag: Folk Tales of the World; An Arabian Tale from The Thousand and One Nights. New York: Bedrick, 1993.
Fantastic tales make up this story about a disagreement regarding the ownership of a damask bag. A good independent read.
Yeoman, John, retold by. The Seven Voyages of Sinbad the Sailor. New York: Margaret K. McElderry Books, 1996.
Illustrated by Quentin Blake, this wonderful collaboration is sure to be enjoyed.

Teacher Background
There are approximately 200 stories in The Arabian Nights, which is a collection of folktales from Arabia, Egypt, India and Persia. The tales were first written down in Arabic in the 1500s. In the 1700s, Jean Antoine Galland translated the stories into French. In the 1880s, they were translated into English by Sir Richard Francis Burton and John Payne.
Music Lesson 18 has students listen to Rimsky-Korsakov's "The Sea and Sinbad's Ship"
from The Arabian Nights. Plan to use it in conjunction with this lesson and the lesson on "Ali Baba." Students will better appreciate the relationship between the Sultan and the storyteller after hearing this selection.
Teacher Note
Students should be told the story of the origin of The Arabian Nights (The Thousand and One Nights) before they hear or read the stories of "Aladdin" and "Ali Baba." The magic of these stories and the talent of the storyteller Sheherezade will be better appreciated if students realize that these are but two of many tales told in a clever life-saving scheme.
Students may already be familiar with the story of "Aladdin" due to the Disney film of the same name, but share the prose and illustrations from one of the Suggested Books.

Procedure
Before beginning the lesson on "Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp," tell the students the background of The Arabian Nights. You may use the background provided, or tell one of your own.

The Arabian Nights
Point to the areas of India, Persia, Egypt and Arabia on a world map. Tell the students that this is the area from which the next stories they will hear (or read) came. Tell them that the setting of the stories is a land with beautiful buildings with tall towers, where flying carpets move throughout the sky. The time that the stories took place was long ago when the possibilities of magic, spells, genies and evil villains were believed by most.
Tell the students that the teller of the tales was a beautiful woman named Sheherezade. (Write her name on the board.) She told the stories to Sultan Schahriar. (Write his name on the board, underlining Sultan.) Explain that a sultan is a ruler much like a king.
Explain that Sheherezade was a wonderful storyteller and explain that this is very important because it was her storytelling skills that saved her life. Tell the students that the Sultan had made it his practice to marry a woman, spend the wedding night with her and then have her beheaded in the morning. Sheherezade was selected as the Sultan's wife and she knew that her life would soon be over, so she made a plan. On the wedding night just as they were preparing for sleep, Sheherezade's sister came to the room and asked to spend some time with her sister, explaining that she did this because she knew that Sheherezade would die in the morning. The Sultan agreed and then the sister begged Sheherezade to tell a story. (Sheherezade and her sister had planned this.) Sheherezade began a wonderful tale that caught the interest of the Sultan. He became so interested, in fact, that when the morning came and she had not completed the story, he postponed her execution for a day. And so it was that Sheherezade told such marvelous tales, always making them so exciting and then running out of time, that she was able to stay alive for one thousand and one nights. The Sultan at that point realized what a wonderful person Sheherezade was and he gave up his practice of beheading his wives and stayed happily married to Sheherezade.
Tell the students that the stories that Sheherezade told are called The Arabian Nights. (Write this title on the board also.) Ask: Why do you think the title mentions night? (Answers may vary but should reference the time of day that they were told.) Tell the students that there are approximately 200 stories in The Arabian Nights which have been told and retold for many years. Explain that we don't really know who the first storyteller was (or were), but we do know
that the stories were told for a long time before they were ever written down. We don't know the storyteller and we don't know exactly where in the world these stories began. Some of the stories will be familiar ones like "Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp," "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves" and "The Voyages of Sinbad," however there are many more that are exciting adventures or curious tales.
Tell the students that the stories are all folktales. Ask them for a definition of a folktale (story that has been told and retold for many generations and not written down). Remind the students that the Anansi (Anancy) stories are folktales as are the Brer Rabbit stories and many others they have read. Ask: What are the elements of a folktale? (magic characters, objects or events, certain numbers like 3 or 7, one character is a royal person, one character is good, one character is wicked, goodness or kindness is rewarded, story may begin with "Once upon a time..." and end with "... they lived happily ever after.") List these elements on the board and ask the students to be aware of them as they hear (or read) the stories.
Write the title "Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp" on the board. Ask the students to share whatever they know about the story before you (or they) begin reading. Be sure that students know that the lamps that were used at the time of the story were oil lamps. There was no electricity. Remind the students to be looking (or listening) for the elements of a folktale in the story of Aladdin, then read (or have the students read) the story.
After completing the tale, ask the students for examples from the story to match each of the elements, writing these on the board as well. Have the students note that examples may be found for each.
Next, ask the students to brainstorm the character traits of Aladdin and those of the evil magician who pretended to be his uncle. Allow pairs of students to work together before going over the list as an entire class. Be sure that students note differences between the two in age and size as well. Students should recognize that Aladdin is naive and good, while the magician is scheming and evil.
Have students note the problems and solutions in the story also. Make three columns on the board, one titled "Problem," the next titled "Who does it belong to," and the last titled "Solution." As problems are identified and the solutions posted, students should be able to see that a solution to one problem may in fact cause another (e.g. The Magician needed someone small to climb down to get the lamp--Aladdin was the solution, however he refused to hand over the lamp and another problem was born.)
As a closing activity, you may wish to invite the students to act out scenes from the story. The conversations between the Magician and Aladdin, for example, could be done quite dramatically.

Additional Activity
Good Magic/Bad Magic
Discuss with the students the use of the lamp in the story Aladdin (i.e., Aladdin used the lamp for good, but the magician used the lamp for evil.) Ask if they are familiar with other stories involving magic objects that are intended to be used for good, but are taken by someone who tries (and sometimes succeeds) to use them for evil (see books listed below).
Be sure the selections that students suggest and the discussion that follows involves only magic objects used for good and evil. Do not let the students confuse an accidental misuse of a magic object (e.g. Strega Nona's Big Anthony or The Sorcerer's Apprentice) with intended
misuse for evil purposes.
Have the students identify the outcome for the evil person in each story suggested and discuss the lesson that the story "teaches" (good triumphs over evil, etc.).
Demi. Liang and the Magic Paintbrush. NY: Henry Holt, 1980.
The evil emperor tries to use the paintbrush for his own personal gain.
________. Chen Ping and His Magic Axe. NY: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1987.
The evil rich man is not content with the magic he has been given and greedily seeks more.

Third Grade - Literature - Stories - Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves
Note: This lesson should be used after the introduction to The Arabian Nights contained in the lesson on "Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp."

Objectives
Recall stories in which magic words are used.
Determine if the story contains the elements of a folktale.
Identify character traits of Morgiana supported by examples within the story.
Compare and contrast Ali Baba and Cassim (optional).
Make a collaborative picture with other group members by using a variety of patterns (optional).

Materials
One of the Suggested Books or the attached selection
Sesame seeds

Suggested Books
Alderson, Brian, retold by. The Arabian Nights or Tales Told by Sheherezade During a Thousand Nights and One Night. New York: Morrow, 1992.
This retelling is easy reading, but some of the terms will still be foreign to third-graders. Beautiful illustrations, highlighted with gold--some cover two pages. The story of "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves" begins on page 120.
Hirsch, Jr., E. D., ed. What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell, 1992.
The selection included with this lesson may be found on pp. 15-16.
Lewis, Naomi, retold by. Stories from the Arabian Nights. New York: Henry Holt, 1987. Good read aloud, language may be difficult for independent reading. Intricate illustrations by Anton Peck.; the story of Ali Baba begins on p. 188.
McVitty, Walter, retold by. Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1988. Wonderful decorative borders surround illustrations done in the style of Persian miniatures by Margaret Early. Touches of gold enhance the pictures which complement the tale suitable for read aloud or independent read.
Philip, Neil, retold by. The Arabian Nights. New York: Orchard, 1994.
This is a good selection for a read aloud. The story of Ali Baba begins on p. 131.
Saniels, Patricia. Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves. Milwaukee: Raintree, 1980.
Very simple retelling of only 16 pages, students will be able to read independently.

Teacher Background
The original story of Ali Baba contains much violence (Cassim is cut into six pieces, Mustapha sews the body back together, etc.) If you choose to read one of the complete retellings, be sure to familiarize yourself with the material before reading it to the class.

Procedure
Begin the class by challenging the students to recall any magic words they might know. (Abracadabra; Alacazam; Alacazee; Bippity, boppity, boo; Presto-chango; Shazam) Write these on the board, including "Open Sesame" if it is suggested.
Ask the students to tell what usually happens when a magic word is spoken (something appears or disappears, something changes, etc.) Ask: Who uses magic words? (magicians, fairies, wizards, etc.) Tell the students that in the next story they will hear (or read), a very unlikely person use magic words. Tell them to listen (or look) for the identity of the person and the magic words.
Read the story from one of the Suggested Books or provide the students with copies of the attached adaptation.
After the reading is complete, ask the students to identify the character who first uses the magic words in the story (the robber). Ask: What are the magic words that the robber said? (Open Sesame, Close Sesame) Ask: Do you know what sesame is? (seed of an East Indian plant used in cooking and for providing oil) Display some sesame seeds and ask students if they have ever seen them used in cooking. (They may be familiar with sesame seeds used in baking.) Show the students that pressing the seeds results in oil being released. Ask the students to note that oil is an important element in the story. Invite a volunteer to explain how oil is used in the story (excuse for the jars the robber brings to Ali Baba's house; borrowed by Morgiana who overhears the thieves; used by Morgiana to scald and kill the thieves in their jars). You may wish to web these uses from the word "oil." If you have read the full version, remind the students that when Cassim forgets the word "sesame" he tries unsuccessfully to use the words "rye," "barley" and "caraway" (all names of seeds).
Next, ask the students to consider Morgiana. Ask them to choose words to describe her character and find supporting lines in the story. Students could work in pairs or small groups to complete this activity. If you have read the full version, students will see how Morgiana outsmarts the robbers several times. Morgiana could be described as clever, quick-thinking, wise, brave, loyal or devoted, and a problem-solver. You may wish to have students compare Morgiana to her boss. Ali Baba is humble, but he is also very trusting of the robber when he appears as a merchant. Morgiana is not so trusting, she is far more cautious.
Ask the students to look for the elements of a folktale (see Aladdin lesson for a listing) in "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves." Remind them that not all elements need to be present but most should be.

Additional Activities
Ali Baba and Cassim
Students will note that Ali Baba and Cassim are brothers who are very unlike one another. Even though Cassim is only included for a brief time in the story, the reader learns quite a bit about his character. Have the students identify a particular character trait, then have them select the passage from the story where that character demonstrates it. Remind the students that we can learn about a character by what others say about him or her as well.

Pattern Pictures
Share the gorgeous artwork done by Margaret Early in the Walter McVitty retelling (see Suggested Books). Divide the class into groups and have each student responsible for creating a half page (or more) of a pattern.(Patterns could be made through stamping--pencil erasers work, as do bits of sponge.) Some wrapping papers or wallpaper samples will work and photographs of patterned material may be found in magazines as well. Have the students cut the patterned paper to provide clothing, rugs, curtains, wall covering, etc. for a collaborative scene from "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves."
Read "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves" from What Your Third Grader Needs to Know by E. D. Hirsch, Jr.

Bibliography

Alderson, Brian, retold by. The Arabian Nights or Tales Told by Sheherezade During a Thousand Nights and One Night. New York: Morrow, 1992. (0-688-14219-2)
Demi. Liang and the Magic Paintbrush. NY: Henry Holt, 1980. (0-8050-0220-0)
________. Chen Ping and His Magic Axe. NY: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1987. (0-396-08907-0)
deRegniers, Beatrice Schenk, Eva Moore, Mary Michaels White and Jan Carr, selected by. Sing a Song of Popcorn: Every Child's Book of Poems. New York: Scholastic, 1988.
(0-590-43974-X)
Giovanni, Nikki. Knoxville, Tennessee. New York: Scholastic, 1969. (0-590-47074-4)
Hirsch, Jr., E. D., ed. What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell, 1992.
(0-385-31257-1)
Kimmel, Eric, retold by. The Tale of Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp: A Story from the Arabian Nights. New York: Holiday House, 1992. (0-8234-0938-4)
Kubista, Ludek, retold by. Aladdin and His Wonderful Lamp. London: Hamlyn, 1976.(0-600-30229-6)
Lewis, Naomi, retold by. Stories from the Arabian Nights. New York: Henry Holt, 1987.(0-8050-0404-1)
McVitty, Walter, retold by. Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1988. (0-8109-1888-9)
Philip, Neil, retold by. The Arabian Nights. New York: Orchard, 1994. (0-531-06868-4)
Saniels, Patricia. Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves. Milwaukee: Raintree, 1980. (0-8393-0255-X)
Wade, Gini, retold and illustrated by. The Wonderful Bag: Folk Tales of the World; An Arabian Tale from The Thousand and One Nights. New York: Bedrick, 1993. (0-216-93252-1)
Yeoman, John, retold by. The Seven Voyages of Sinbad the Sailor. New York: Margaret K. McElderry Books, 1996. (0-689-81368-6)

Teacher Reference
Hirsch, Jr., E. D., Joseph F. Kett, James Trefil. The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1993. (0-395-65597-8)
Hirsch, Jr., E. D., ed. A First Dictionary of Cultural Literacy: What Our Children Need to Know. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1989. (0-395-59901-6)
Morris, William and Mary. Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins. New York: Harper & Row, 1977, 1988. (0-06-015862-X)
Room, Adrian, revised by. Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. New York: HarperCollins, 1959, 1995. (0-06-270133-9)
Strickland, Michael R. African-American Poets. Springfield, NJ: Enslow, 1996.(0-89490-774-3)