Third Grade - World History - Overview - March

 This month's lessons begin the study of World History. For the next three months the students will be studying the Roman Empire. This month there are four lessons and one performance assessment task. The lessons should be completed before the task. While knowledge of the content of these lessons is not necessary for success in the performance assessment task, familiarity with the subject matter will aid in the children's understanding.

 Third Grade - World History - Lesson 23 - Ancient Rome

 Objectives

Distinguish A.D. from B.C. on a timeline.

Compare and contrast two different versions of the legend of Romulus and Remus.

 Materials

Classroom-size world map

1 per pair

Worksheet containing two versions of Romulus and Remus (attached)
 
 

Suggested Books

Hirsch, E. D. What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell, 1992.
 
 

Procedure

Tell the students that in our study of history we are next going to take a look at the ancient city of Rome in Italy. Tell the students that the city of Rome began in 753 B.C. Draw a timeline on the board and mark 753 B.C. on it and label as the beginning of Rome. Explain that during the study of history we oftentimes learn about the date when a particular event in history occurred. Ask: Why is it important for us to learn the date of when something occurred in history? (We use dates to put historical events in order. This helps us to understand which events came before or after another.) Have a student write today's date on the board by writing the name of the month and then the day and year in numbers. Ask: As you read the date what does the first number you read represent? (the day) Ask: What does the second number you read represent? (the year)

Tell the students that we count our years based on the birthday of a figure from the Christian religion, Jesus, whom Christians call Christ. Every date before Christ was born is called B.C. Write a 0 on the timeline to the right of 753 B.C. Explain that the years B.C., before Christ, are counted back from the date when Christ was born. For example, the city of Rome in Italy began in the year 753 B.C., which means it started 753 years before Christ was born. Write the year 500 B.C. on the timeline. Tell the students that the year 500 B.C. happened 500 years before Christ was born, but 253 years after the city of Rome began.

Tell the students that every date after Christ's birth is called A.D., which is an abbreviation for the Latin words Anno Domini, which means in the year of our lord. If you were born in 1990 that means that you were born 1,990 years after Christ was born. Point out that when we wrote today's date we did not write A.D. or B.C. Usually when a date is written without a note of either A.D. or B.C. it means that the date is after the birth of Christ or A.D. If students are having trouble understanding this, it may help to show this concept with a timeline that shows the birth date of a student or famous person. For example, you might use the current president's birthday and tell the students that if they were going to start a new way of recording dates using the president's birthday as a turning point, the year before the president was born would now be figured as 1 B.P. (before the president--you may wish to insert the president's name) and the year after the president was born would now be figured as 1 A.P. (after the president was born).

Tell the students that you would like to add a few more dates to the timeline and you need their help to determine where to place the dates. Ask: I am going to put the date 1,000 B.C. on the timeline. Would that date go to the left or the right of 753 B.C. on the timeline? (to the left) Give other examples by handing out dates to students (250 B.C., 1400 A.D., 1700 A.D.) and invite them to come up to the board and place the dates on the timeline. Leave the timeline on the board or post on a strip of paper, erasing all the dates except 753 B.C. for future lessons.

Direct the students' attention back to the date that marks the beginning of the city of Rome. Tell the students that now that they know when the city of Rome began, they will take a look at the world map to see where the city is located. Point to the country of Italy on the world map. Tell the students that the city of Rome is located in the country of Italy. Ask: Which continent is the country of Italy a part of? (Europe) Point to the city on the map.

Tell the students that there is an interesting legend about the way the city of Rome was formed. Explain that Roman legend says that the city of Rome began because of two brothers named Romulus and Remus. Write the two names on the board.

Give each student a copy of the two versions of the legend of Romulus and Remus. Ask students to take turns reading the legends aloud as the rest of the class follows along. Draw a Venn diagram on the board. Have the students discuss what is the same about each legend and what is different. Fill in the Venn diagram with the students' responses.

Ask: Looking at what is the same about the two legends, what do you think the Romans valued about the legend of the origins of Rome? (Romans are descendants of men who were raised by a wolf and therefore have the courage and fierceness of a wolf.)

Explain that the story of Romulus and Remus is a legend, which means it is a story based on historical fact. Rome was built on the Tiber River, but the reason the city of Rome was built on the Tiber River wasn't because the two boys nearly drowned there. Tell the students that Rome was built next to the Tiber River because the land was a good place for people to settle. Ask: Why would was the area next to the Tiber River be a good area to build the city of Rome? What benefits did the city gain by being located next to a river? (The river was a source of water. The river made travel by boat to places on the river possible. The river provided water for irrigation and fertile land for crops.)
 




The Legend of Romulus and Remus

Version I


 


 Romulus and his twin brother, Remus, were supposed to be descendants of Mars (the Roman god of war) and a Latin princess. But they had no royal house to live in. As babies, the twins were thrown into the Tiber River by a jealous uncle! But they did not drown. They were found on the river's bank by a female wolf, who gave them milk and saved them. Later, a shepherd took care of the twins until they were young men.

When Romulus and Remus left the shepherd's home they decided to build a city on the Tiber, near the place where they had almost drowned. But they argued terribly over who would rule the city and Romulus killed Remus. Romulus built the city alone and became its first king. He ruled Rome for many years and then mysteriously disappeared during a storm. The Romans believed Romulus had been changed into a god and began to worship him.

 from What Your Third Grader Needs to Know by E. D. Hirsch. New York: Dell, 1992.
 


Version II


 




A beautiful Latin princess had two sons by the god Mars. Her twin sons, Romulus and Remus, were put into a basket and thrown into the Tiber River to die. The basket floated ashore and a she-wolf found the twins, fed them, and protected them. When they grew into men, the twins decided they would build a new city on the Tiber River. They made a bet that whoever saw the most vultures at one time would plow a line in the ground that traced the area of the city. Romulus won the bet and outlined the future boundaries of Rome. Romulus became the king of his city and named it Rome after himself.

After ruling Rome for forty years, Romulus was taken to Mount Olympus to become a god and live with his father. The ancient Romans then worshiped Romulus.
 
 

Third Grade - World History - Lesson 24 - Ancient Rome

 Objective

Identify the influence of Roman language and government on language and government today.

 Materials

Classroom-size world map

 Suggested Books

Student Title

Dineen, Jacqueline. The Romans: Worlds of the Past. New York: New Discovery Books, 1992.

The information on the Romans is nicely organized and the book contains a simple table of contents, making it easier for students to find the information in which they are interested.

Teacher Reference

Cairns, Trevor. The Romans and Their Empire. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner, 1974.

Hinds, Kathryn. The Ancient Romans. New York: Benchmark Books, 1997.

 Procedure

Ask: Why did the Romans worship Romulus as a god? (because he was said to be the founder of Rome) Have a student come up to the world map and locate the city of Rome. Tell the students that Rome is an important city in history from which many important parts of our present-day language and government came.

Explain that the language the Romans spoke was called Latin. Although Latin is not a language frequently used today, many languages spoken today in Europe, North America, and South America grew out of the Latin language. For example, Spanish, French, and English all have a Latin background. Explain that some Latin phrases such as status quo, meaning things as they are, and et cetera, meaning and the rest, are still used today. Write the two phrases on the board.

Tell the students that having a common language in a country helps to join the people in that country together. So just as the common language in the United States is English, the common language throughout the Roman Empire was Latin.

Tell the students that as well as language, there is also a Roman influence in the government we have today. Explain that Rome was ruled by kings until 509 B.C. (add to the timeline) at which time the last king of Rome was thrown out of office because the Romans no longer wanted one man to have all the power.

Explain that the Romans solved this problem by deciding to appoint two men to share the power and the jobs that the king used to have--the two men were called consuls (Write consuls on the board. As you write the Latin words on the board, ask the students if there are words that they recognize). Explain that there was also a group of men called a Senate (write on the board), who helped govern. Tell the students that the new government that formed was called a Republic (write on the board).

Tell the students that the Republic meant that the people who governed were elected by the people of the state. The people who were allowed to vote were called citizens and were divided into two classes--patricians and plebians (write on the board). The patricians were people who were from the wealthy, upper-class families in Rome and the plebians were the common people. Tell the students that there were problems that arose because of this distinction of classes--the plebians resented the fact that they could not hold office. Explain another unfair law in Rome was that women and slaves were not considered citizens during this time and therefore were not allowed to vote. Ask: How could the government been made more fair?

Ask: What similarities do you see between the way our government began and the beginning of the Roman Republic? (representatives elected by people, women and slaves were also excluded from voting in the beginning of American democracy)

 Third Grade - World History - Lesson 25 - The Punic Wars

 Objectives

Identify the cause and the outcome of the Punic Wars.

Locate and mark on a map the areas that became Roman territories.

Create a map key that shows areas that became Roman territories.

 Materials

Classroom-size world map

1 per student

Map of Europe, Asia, and northern Africa (attached)

Crayons or colored pencils

 Suggested Books

Student Titles

Grant, Neil. Roman Conquests: Wars That Changed the World. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 1991.

James, Simon. Rome: Great Civilizations. New York: Franklin Watts, 1987.

Teacher Reference

Cairns, Trevor. The Romans and Their Empire. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner, 1974.

Hinds, Kathryn. The Ancient Romans. New York: Benchmark Books, 1997.

 Procedure

Tell the students that as the city of Rome and its population grew, the city slowly spread to other areas on the Italian peninsula. Explain that as Rome expanded, the Romans became involved in conflicts with the surrounding states in Italy and ended up in many wars with other states. Each time they won a war and therefore gained new territory, the Romans founded a colony in that new place. Explain that this meant that Roman citizens were sent to build houses, make farms, and live in the new place, which then became a Roman city. Ask: Why would it have been important for Roman citizens to live in these newly conquered areas? (The Romans could feel that they had a force of their own people living among the people who had been defeated in war. These people could help to keep the new areas loyal to Rome.)

Tell the students that by 264 B.C. (add date to the timeline), Roman territory had grown to the entire peninsula of Italy. Direct the student's attention to the world map and point to the entire peninsula. Ask: What areas do you see to the south of Italy? (the island of Sicily first and then the northern coast of Africa) Tell the students that the Italian peninsula is oftentimes referred to as a boot because of its shape. Point out that the island of Sicily is directly across from Italy's "toe," making it easy to find.

Tell the students that on the northern coast of Africa stood the city of Carthage in what is now the African country of Tunisia. Explain that Carthage was an important city and controlled the island of Sicily, half of north Africa, and the south of Spain. Point to each of these places on the world map. Ask: Which city was in control of more land, Rome or Carthage? (Carthage) Explain that because the Romans had been so successful in their conquests on the Italian peninsula, they decided to expand further to the island of Sicily. Ask: What do you think happened as a result of the Romans wanting land that already belonged to Carthage? (The two cities went to war.)

Tell the students that in three separate, long wars, Carthage and Rome fought for rule of the Mediterranean. These wars were called the Punic Wars. Give each student a map of Europe,

Asia, and northern Africa. Have the students first color in the Roman peninsula to show the land that Rome controlled before the Punic Wars. Next have them fill in the map key to correspond with the map. Explain that Rome won the first Punic War and gained the island of Sicily. Have the students next color Sicily a different color and fill in the map key to show that this was land that the Romans gained after the first Punic war.

Explain that after this war peace was declared, but neither side truly meant it. Tell the students that Carthage wanted revenge on Rome, so the Carthaginian general Hannibal led his army and thirty-seven elephants from Carthage's territory in Spain across the Alps into Italy. This was the beginning of the second Punic War. Show the students Hannibal's route into Italy on the world map, so that they can follow along on their individual maps. Ask: Keeping in mind that the Alps are very tall mountains, what difficulties do you think Hannibal encountered on his way into Italy? (snow in the mountains/the weather, getting the elephants to climb across the Alps/elephants are not usually found in Europe and do not live in the mountains)

Tell the students that Hannibal lost half his army and two-thirds of the elephants during the journey, but even so it was a close battle which Rome eventually won after suffering the loss of many lives. Explain that because Rome won this war, Spain became its territory. Have the students color the country of Spain in a third color and fill in the map key to correspond.

Tell the students that in 200 B.C., Rome went on to conquer Macedonia, in what is now the northern part of Greece, and part of Asia Minor. Have the students outline this area on their maps with dots and fill in the map key to correspond.

Explain that this was not the end of Rome's expansion of territory. Tell the students that there was a third Punic War. This time Rome attacked the city of Carthage and destroyed the city because the Romans were afraid that Hannibal might build up his army again and fight back against them. Direct the students' attention to their maps. Tell the students to draw diagonal lines through the outlined area in northern Africa. Tell the students that after the third Punic war, Rome controlled this area in northern Africa. Ask the students to also fill in the map key accordingly.

Tell the students that because of these wars Rome now controlled the Mediterranean Sea. Have the students locate the Mediterranean Sea on their maps and note that most of the land surrounding the Mediterranean Sea belonged to Rome.

 Additional Activity

Review with the students that during the second Punic War Hannibal led his troops from Spain through the Alps entering Italy through the north. Explain that this approach into their country took the Romans by surprise because the mountains were very difficult to cross and therefore they didn't expect to be attacked from this direction. Explain that they were also surprised because they had never seen an elephant until they fought Hannibal.

Have the students write two paragraphs from the viewpoint of a Roman soldier about what he saw the day Hannibal attacked. Explain to the students that they should keep in mind the size of an elephant, how unusual an elephant would look if they they had never seen one before, the sounds the elephants would make as they approached the Roman soldiers.

 Third Grade - World History - Lesson 26 - Julius Caesar

 Objective

Become familiar with Julius Caesar's rise to power in Ancient Rome.

Materials

Classroom-size world map

 Suggested Books

Student Titles

Matthews, Rupert. Julius Caesar: Great Lives. New York: Bookwright Press, 1989.

Stanley, Diane and Peter Vennema. Cleopatra. New York: Morrow, 1994.

This beautifully illustrated book tells the story of Cleopatra and her involvement with the Roman Empire.

Teacher Reference

Cairns, Trevor. The Romans and Their Empire. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner, 1974.

Hirsch, E. D. What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell, 1992.

 Procedure

Ask: Although the lives of many Roman soldiers were lost, what did Rome gain from the Punic Wars? (more territory) Have students come up to the world map and locate and name territory that was gained by Rome during the Punic Wars? (Sicily, Spain, northern Africa, Macedonia [Greece], Asia Minor) Ask: What large body of water did Rome now control as a result of its new territories? (the Mediterranean Sea)

Tell the students that although Rome was getting larger and gaining more land, problems were arising within the republic. Explain that as the Romans conquered new territories the people who lived in these areas became Roman slaves. Explain that wealthy Romans were getting wealthier and taking over more land, but the already poor Romans were becoming poorer due to the fact that there was so much cheap slave labor and they therefore found it hard to find jobs or the jobs they could find paid very little.

Explain to the students that a Roman general and consul named Julius Caesar became a favorite among the wealthy and the poor because he was seen as a smart, brave man who could lead the republic out of trouble. Tell the students that Caesar had several things going for him. First, Caesar was born into a wealthy Roman family, so he knew many important people. Second, he made himself popular with poor Romans: he started programs to help the poor, lowered taxes, and replaced greedy governors with honest men. Third, he gained control of the army. Ask students to tell why each of these things mentioned were beneficial to Julius Caesar's becoming a leader in Rome? Have the students tell which they consider the most important.

Tell the students that Caesar was given control of an army and led troops into Gaul, which is known today as the country of France. Caesar was a brave general and conquered all of Gaul and the southern part of England, adding to the already large Roman territory. Tell the students that Caesar once described one of his victories by saying, "veni, vidi, vici" (write on the board) Tell the students that the Latin words mean I came, I saw, I conquered. Ask the students if they have ever heard the English translation of the saying used before and to describe the context in which it was used.

Tell the students that although Caesar had many friends he also had enemies. Explain that many wealthy people were uneasy about the power that Caesar was gaining. Tell the students that one general named Pompey was so jealous of Caesar's power that he persuaded the Senate to order Caesar to break up his army. Explain that Caesar refused to do so and instead declared war. After a long war Caesar defeated Pompey and was appointed as a dictator of Rome by the consuls, meaning that he was in complete control of the government and the armies of Rome.

Tell the students that another area where Caesar had fought and won battles was Egypt. Caesar had helped Cleopatra, the queen of Egypt, gain control over her country. Explain that Caesar was very taken with the beautiful and intelligent Cleopatra and he asked her to join him in Rome. Explain that many Romans became nervous that Caesar was planning to rule Rome as a king and make Cleopatra his queen, which would mean that the queen of Egypt would have some say over the governing of Rome. Ask: Do you think this upset some Romans? Why or why not?

Tell the students that a group of wealthy Romans decided they were going to kill Caesar. Explain that his enemies came up with a plan to kill Caesar. A group of Senators gathered around Caesar and stabbed him to death. Tell the students that there is a famous story that as Caesar was dying he looked sadly at a man named Brutus who he had once helped and who had been his friend and asked "Et tu, Brute?" which means, "You too, Brutus?" because he was surprised that even a trusted friend had turned on him.

Explain to the students that there were many Romans who were very angry that Caesar had been killed. Tell the students that one of these people was Caesar's adopted son Augustus. Augustus promised to catch the murderers. Explain that this hunt for Caesar's killers led to a civil war in Rome. Tell the students that eventually Augustus won the war and became the next ruler of the Roman Empire and because he ruled more like a king without much advice from the Senate, Augustus is called the first emperor of Rome.
 


Bibilography


 


 Student Titles

Cox, Phil Roxbee. Who were the Romans? Tulsa, OK: EDC, 1994. (0-7460-1339-6)

Dineen, Jacqueline. The Romans: Worlds of the Past. New York: New Discovery, 1992.(0-02-730651-8)

James, Simon. Rome: Great Civilizations. New York: Franklin Watts, 1987. (0-531-103994)

Matthews, Rupert. Julius Caesar: Great Lives. New York: Bookwright Press, 1989.(0-531-18243-6)

Stanley, Diane and Peter Vennema. Cleopatra. New York: Morrow, 1994. (0-688-10414-2)
 
 

Teacher Reference

Cairns, Trevor. The Romans and Their Empire. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner, 1974. (0-8225-0802-8)

Grant, Neil. Roman Conquests: Wars That Changed the World. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 1991. (1-85435-262)

Hinds, Kathryn. The Ancient Romans. New York: Benchmark Books, 1997. (0-7614-0090-7)

Hirsch, E. D. What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell, 1992. (0-385-31257-1)