Third Grade - Literature - Overview - October

Sayings and Phrases
Two sayings are included this month, His bark is worse than his bite and Beggars can't be choosers. You may wish to again post the sayings in the classroom or add to the list on chart paper begun last month.
Poetry
Only one poem, "By Myself" by Eloise Greenfield, is formally studied this month. Activities are provided to enhance the study of its rhythm and rhyme and a composing exercise is included, too.
Read additional poems to the students and encourage them to read (and recite) them independently. If possible, post poems in the classroom and provide poetry books. You may wish to develop a class poetry book where students can copy favorite poems to share with their classmates.

Stories
Norse mythology is read this month. Students should recognize a tie between the Norse deities and their stories and the Greek myths studied in Second Grade. Try to read a number of stories and if possible, read selections by several authors. There are slight differences in the storytellers' interpretations of the original stories and this helps to illustrate the concept that Norse myths were part of an oral tradition. Correlated activities are provided.
Be sure to relate the myths to facts about the Vikings studied in History and the Music Lesson "The Ride of the Valkyries."

Third Grade - Literature - Sayings and Phrases - His bark is worse than his bite

Objectives
Explain the saying.
Recognize the comparison in the statement.

Materials
Copy of the saying, His bark is worse than his bite, on sentence strip or chart paper

Suggested Books
Hirsch, E.D., ed. What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell, 1992.

Procedure
Ask for volunteers to tell why dogs bark (as a warning for their owners, to tell someone approaching to keep away, to be playful, to "talk" to other dogs). Ask what might happen if you were to approach a barking dog (the dog may stop barking and be playful, continue barking, or possibly bite). Does barking sound like an invitation or a warning?
Ask the students: Have you ever seen a person with a grouchy or sour look who yells a lot? Why might a person look and act that way? (might be grouchy, but also might be shy or uncomfortable around strangers, might be frightened of others, maybe no one has ever been kind to this person) Tell the students that the grouchy, sour look and the yelling are almost like the dog's barking in that they can be a warning to not come near. If you approach the person several things might happen. The person really might be a grouchy person or the person might just look and act that way and actually be very kind. In that case we would say The person's/His bark is worse than his bite. Display the saying.
Next, ask the students if they can think of any characters in stories, books, television or movies who would fit the saying His bark is worse than his bite. Remind them that the person would appear grouchy and distant, perhaps the person would even yell and tell people to keep away. Possible answers are the grandfather in Heidi, the Beast of Beauty and the Beast, the wizard in The Wizard of Oz, or the next door neighbor in Home Alone.
Finally, have the students look at the saying while you point to the word "than." Tell the students that this word is used when a comparison is being made. Give some examples like "I am older than you," "Winter is cooler than summer," "The Atlantic Ocean is larger than the Chesapeake Bay." Point out that a comparison is being made each time. Ask the students to suggest other comparisons and take time to discuss them.
Ask for a volunteer to read the saying His bark is worse than his bite aloud. Ask what is being compared (the bark and the bite). Be sure to remind the students that a dog's bark may not be worse than its bite and a grouchy looking person really might be grouchy.

Third Grade - Literature - Sayings and Phrases - Beggars can't be choosers

Objectives
Explain the meaning of the saying.
Discuss implications of the saying.

Materials
Copy of the saying, Beggars can't be choosers,on sentence strip or chart paper

Suggested Books
Hirsch, E.D., ed. What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell, 1992.

Procedure
Begin the lesson by asking the meaning of the word "choose." As students explain that choose means to pick or select, ask them to name some things that we can choose (what we wear, what we eat, where we live, our friends, etc.). Take a few moments to allow the students to offer suggestions. Remind them that we choose when we have more than one option.
Next ask for the meaning of "beg." Be sure that students understand that beg means ask. When someone begs that person is asking for something to be given as a gift, as charity. Explain that the word "beggar" comes from "beg" and it means someone who begs.
Display the saying Beggars can't be choosers and read it to the class. Ask for student volunteers to explain its meaning. Ask the students who they think it was that made up this saying. Do they think it was a beggar or a person giving something to a beggar? Why? (Answers will vary and will no doubt lead to discussion.) Discuss with the students how the person giving something to a beggar might have a different view from the beggar. Could a beggar make the choice not to take something he has been offered in response to his request? Does a beggar have to take whatever he or she has been given?
Tell the students that the saying Beggars can't be choosers can be stated as a rebuff to the reaction or attitude of the beggar, or it can be said in a teasing way to a friend who asks for something from you and isn't given exactly what he or she requested. Ask the students which way they think the saying is used more frequently today.
Ask students if they have ever heard the saying used in conversation, on television, in a movie, or in a story they have read. Could they imagine a character who might be told Beggars can't be choosers? (Templeton the rat in Charlotte's Web would be one example.)

Third Grade - Literature - Poetry - By Myself
Objectives
Listen for enjoyment.
Identify rhythm and rhyme Greenfield uses.
Compose additional lines for the poem.

Materials
Copy of the poem on chart paper

Suggested Books
Greenfield, Eloise. Honey, I Love and other love poems. New York: HarperCollins, 1978.
Collection of sixteen of Greenfield's poems, imaginatively illustrated by Leo and Diane Dillon.
Teacher Reference
Kovacs, Deborah and James Preller. Meet the Authors and the Illustrators: Volume Two. New York: Scholastic, 1993.

Teacher Background
The paperback edition of the book Honey, I Love and other love poems is perfectly child-sized and Leo and Diane Dillon's illustrations blend a child-like quality, if at all possible share this book with your students. They may recall Eloise Greenfield as the author of the poems AHarriet Tubman" (read in Second Grade) and ARope Rhyme" (read in First Grade). Because of those introductions they may already be familiar with "By Myself" and the other poems in this collection.
Greenfield's aim, as stated in the author notes of Honey, I Love, is Ato give [them] words to love, to grow on." Her poems capture the innocence and wisdom of childhood with poems that express the child's own voice. You may wish to read to the students some of Greenfield's other comments about herself and her work, included in her profile in Meet the Authors and Illustrators. Do read aloud some of her other poems for the students' enjoyment and encourage them to read independently them as well.
You may wish to do the writing activity with your students or you may wish to ignore analysis and simply do poetry appreciation.

Procedure
Begin the lesson by asking students what they like to do when they are by themselves. Do they read? watch television? play games? listen to music? Do they ever just sit and daydream? Do they ever imagine themselves to be a certain person or a certain thing?
Take a few moments to allow students to share what they imagine about themselves. Tell them the poem "By Myself" by Eloise Greenfield is about the imaginings of someone. Tell the students that you would like them to listen for the kind of things the poet imagines. Read the poem.
Ask the students if the poet imagined the same kind of things they usually imagine. They may find that Eloise Greenfield's list is quite different. If so, ask them why her list is so different.
Ask the students which of the things imagined do they think is the most unusual? Does she only talk about people she would like to be? (no) If the students do not mention it, be sure to point out that Greenfield suggests sounds (a squeaky noise, a gospel song, a gong) as well as tastes and smells (a loaf of brown bread). She has a very vivid imagination.
Do any of the students recall hearing other poems by Eloise Greenfield? You may wish to mention "Harriet Tubman" and "Rope Rhyme." Does this poem sound like an adult is speaking or does it sound like a child? Why? What does that tell us about Eloise Greenfield?
Read the poem again and tell the students to listen carefully. Ask them to think about how the poet keeps the things she mentions in the poem from just sounding like a list (rhythm and rhyme). Next, display the poem and ask the students to read along with you, or ask for student volunteers to read. Ask the students if the poem has a rhythm? (yes) Does it rhyme? (yes) Have the students identify the lines that rhyme. How many lines rhyme at a time? (two) What does that remind you of when there are two lines that rhyme? (couplets) Tell the students that this poem is not really composed of couplets but there are pairs of lines that rhyme.
Have the students look at the final two lines of the poem. Is the poet unhappy being herself? (no) How do you know? (The poem says AAnd when I open my eyes what I care to be is me.") Invite any students who wish to read the poem aloud again to do so.
Remind the students that they were able to identify sounds, smells and tastes as well as sights in the poem. Ask them to think of other sounds that someone might imagine being and list them on the board. For example:
I'm a whistle of a train
I'm a loud ringing bell
I'm a beep of a horn
Then ask them to think of tastes or smells and list them as well.
I'm a drop of perfume
I'm a lemon drop
I'm a chocolate candy bar

Tell the students to choose one of the lines, or make up a different one, and then write a second line to go along. Tell them that they have the opportunity to add to Eloise Greenfield's poem. Remind the students that the two lines would rhyme.
I'm a whistle of a train - I'm a drop of rain
I'm a loud ringing bell - I'm a well
I'm a beep of a horn - I'm an ear of corn
I'm a drop of perfume - I'm a tiny room
I'm a lemon drop - I'm a hop
I'm a chocolate candy bar - I'm a racing car
You may wish to have the class work together to write one very long version of Greenfield's poem, have students work together in groups to make several versions, or let students compose individual versions. To extend the activity you may wish to have students write to Eloise Greenfield telling her how much they enjoyed her poem and how they used it as a model. Have them enclose their poems.

Third Grade - Literature - Norse Mythology

Objectives (according to Activities provided)
Recognize that Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday are named for Norse deities.
Identify parallels between Norse mythology and Greek mythology.
Examine runes and write words using them.
Decorate a model of Thor's hammer and write examples of onomatopoeia on one side.
Match a term from Norse mythology with each letter of the alphabet.
Illustrate Odin's quests using pictures or words.
Imagine how the World Tree might look and illustrate it.
Read a story about trolls.

Materials
Selections from the Suggested Books
Drawing paper, crayons, markers, paints and brushes
Model of Thor's hammer duplicated for each student
Runes paper duplicated for each student
Alphabet duplicated for each student

Suggested Books
Climo, Shirley, retold by. Stolen Thunder: A Norse Myth. New York: Clarion Books, 1994.
Humorous tale about Thor's hammer, Mjollner.
D'Aulaire, Ingri and Edgar Parin. D'Aulaires' Norse Gods and Giants. New York: Doubleday, 1967. Collection of myths suitable for reading aloud, complete with colorful illustrations.
Hirsch, E.D., ed. What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell, 1992.
Pages 42-47 give information on Norse gods and goddesses and some myths.
Mayer, Marianna. Iduna and the Magic Apples. New York: Macmillan, 1988.
This wonderful book includes Lazlo Gal's colorful illustrations edged with an intricate page border that is repeated throughout the book.
Osborne, Mary Pope, retold by. Favorite Norse Myths. New York: Scholastic, 1996.
Collection of tales from the original medieval Norse manuscripts, beautifully illustrated by Troy Howell. Students should enjoy the primitive-style drawing scratched on top of gorgeous full-color illustrations.
Philip, Neil, retold by. Odin's Family: Myths of the Vikings. New York: Orchard Books, 1996.
Colorful illustrations highlight these tales of the Viking gods.

Student Reference
Chisholm, Jane and Struan Reid. Who Were the Vikings? Tulsa, OK: EDC, 1995.
Student-friendly question and answer book, part of the AUsborne Starting Point History," contains the story AThe Night in the Forest."
Ganeri, Anita. Focus on Vikings. New York: Gloucester Press, 1992.
The topics of runes, gods and religion are addressed as well as many other aspects of Viking life.
Margeson, Susan. Eyewitness Books: Viking. New York: Knopf, 1994.
Contains excellent photographs.
Nicholson, Robert and Claire Watts. The Vikings. New York: Scholastic, 1991.
Basic introductory book that contains information on runes and the story "Thor visits the Land of the Giants."
Pearson, Anne. The Vikings. New York: Penguin, 1993.
Students should enjoy the four lift-and-see pages of Viking life; information on runes and gods are included.
Thomson, Ruth. The Vikings. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1995.
Information and crafts presented in an easy-to-read format.

Teacher Reference
Daly, Kathleen. Norse Mythology A to Z: A Young Reader's Companion. NY: Facts for File, 1991.

Teacher Background
In Second Grade, students studied Greek mythology. They were introduced to the major gods and goddesses and many of the Greek myths. Hopefully they will see parallels to the Norse myths and recognize some similarities in the ways these two groups of people explained the origins of the Earth and all creation. Later this year they will study Roman myths and be able to draw more parallels.
Third Grade students study the Vikings in History this month and "The Ride of the Valkyries" is included in a Music lesson. Whenever possible try to relate the three subject areas to one another.
You may approach this unit in several ways. You can read the myths to the students or have groups of students responsible for reading and sharing specific information with the rest of the class in the form of a story, skit or play. Students can participate in a panel where they introduce themselves to the class as one of the mythical characters. You may introduce the characters and stories in any order or format that you choose, making sure to include the characters listed in this lesson and the origins of the names of the days of the week.
There are several activities provided and you may use any or all. You may assign one activity to a particular group and another activity to a different group. You may want to have students work independently on activities during any free time they have.
As you read some of the selections you will notice that the names of the deities may have several spellings. Remind students that the Viking myths were part of an oral tradition--they were told not read--therefore when they were finally written, the spellings became subject to that particular author.

Procedure
Begin the lesson by telling the students that a long time ago (around 840 AD) there lived a group of people called the Norse which means "People of the North." The Norse are today called the Scandinavians, the people who live in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Iceland. Tell the students that the Norse are the Vikings they have been learning about in history. Have a student come up to the map and locate each of the countries mentioned. Ask: Which continent are these countries part of? (Europe) Which bodies of water are close? (Atlantic Ocean, North Sea) What is the climate for this land so close to the North Pole? (very cold) What happens to the bodies of water when it is so cold? (They freeze.)
Tell the students that the Norse believed that the universe was formed from ice, mist and fire. Ask why it is not difficult to believe that the Norse believed that the universe came from ice

Third Grade - Literature - Norse Mythology

and fire (they lived in a very cold climate). They believed that an enormous tree called Yggdrasill (EGG-drah-sil) or the World Tree, held the universe. The universe consisted of nine worlds that were spread through and connected to the tree. They believed that powerful gods and goddesses lived in the uppermost branches of the tree in a walled city called Asgard (AHZ-gahrd), ordinary people lived in the center of the tree in a place called Midgard (MEED-gahrd), and dwarfs who made wonderful treasures from gold and silver, lived beneath the earth. Asgard was invisible to the human eye and the only way to travel between it and Midgard was by way of a rainbow called Bifrost (BEE-frost). They also believed that far off at the end of the branches were frozen cliffs called Jotunheim (YOH-tun-hame) which was the land of the giants.
Write the following on the board, or on chart paper (you may leave out the pronunciation):
Yggdrasill - The World Tree
Alfheim (AHLF-hame) - The world of the light elves
Asgard - The world of the Aesir gods and goddesses
Jotunheim - The world of the frost-giants
Muspell (MOOS-pel) - The world of fire
Niflheim (NIFF-el-hame) - The world of the mist and the dead
Nidavellir (NEED-ah-vel-eer) - The world of the dwarves
Midgard - The world of humans
Svartalfheim (svart-ALF-hame) - The world of the dark elves
Vanaheim (VAH-nah-hame) - The world of the Vanir gods
Tell the students that this is a list of the names of the World Tree and its worlds. We are not sure exactly where each world was located except that we know they were separated from each other and that Asgard was above Midgard. Ask the students if they remember another group of people they have studied who believed in powerful gods and goddesses who lived in a place high above the ordinary people? (the Greeks, gods and goddesses lived on Mt. Olympus) Tell the students to keep the Greek myths in mind as they listen to Norse Mythology, because they will hear some similarities in their beliefs and stories.
Ask for a volunteer to tell what myths are (stories that explain mysteries; the cause or reason for things that happen in nature like lightning, the sun, thunder, fire, the origin of people, plants animals, etc.). Explain that the Norse believed as fiercely in their myths as the Greeks had done. Myths were not told for entertainment, but because the people were looking for explanations. Myths told the struggle of good and evil, of creation itself.
Remind the students that the Greeks worshiped their gods and goddesses and it was also true for the Vikings, or Norsemen. For over one hundred years they made statues, held services outdoors and gave offerings to these deities. They believed that the gods and goddesses controlled their lives and so the people prayed for their help and asked for their kindness.
Read several of the Norse myths to the class (or have students share--see Teacher Background). Be sure to include the origin of the universe, Odin's quests, an introduction to the gods and goddesses, Idun(na) and the apples, Sleipnir, Odin's eight legged horse, Loki's children, how Thor got his hammer and the story that tells when Thrym stole Thor's hammer.

Names to Know

Odin (O-din) - Woden (German spelling) - All-Father - Odin was the god of wisdom and poetry, war and death. He was one-eyed because he gave up an eye to Mimir (MEE-mir) for the privilege of drinking from the sacred well that gave knowledge. He gained the power of the runes (ROONZ) and the Mead of Poetry. Odin knew that there would someday be a battle and so he tried to build his army in Asgard by having the Valkyries (VAHL-kure-reez) select strong, fierce heroes to live in his guest hall.

Thor (THOR) - God of thunder - Thor was the strongest of the gods, he wore a magic belt and iron gauntlets and carried a hammer named Mjollner.

Freya (FRAY-ah) - Freya was twin sister to Frey the god of rain and harvest. She was goddess of fertility, was very beautiful and loved gold. She had a magic falcon suit that allowed her to fly and she drove a chariot pulled by cats.

Valhalla (vahl- HAHL-lah) - Hall of the Slain (in Asgard) where the Valkyries (warrior maidens) brought the warriors (heroes specially selected and slain in battle).

Loki (LOH-kee) - The trickster god, mischief maker, the father of lies and deceit, the shape-changer. People often blamed Loki when things went wrong.

Tyr (TEER) - Tyr was willing to place his hand in the wolf Fenrir's mouth when the gods tried to bind him. Tyr lost his hand when Fenrir bit it off. He was honored by all for his sacrifice.
Hel - The underground, so named for Hel, the daughter of Loki, who dwells there and welcomes souls. The underground is also known as Niflheim (NIFF-el-hame), world of mist and the dead.

Similarities to Greek Myths
Olympus (home of the gods) sat high above the mortals just as Asgard sat high above the humans.
Odin's quests are similar the trials of Heracles.
Golden apples are included in both sets of myths, as part of Atalanta's race in Greek mythology and to hold the secret of youth in Norse mythology.
Chariots are driven across the heavens by gods in both sets of myths.
Idunna is carried off from Asgard and everyone starts to age; Persephone is carried to the underworld and the Earth begins to die.
The gods and goddesses have similar powers, wisdom, war, fertility, knowledge, etc.
Frey and Freya are twin brother and sister as are Apollo and Artemis.
Loki can change appearance as can Zeus.
Days of the Week
Tell the students that there are remnants of Norse mythology still with us today; in fact some of the words we use every day come from the language of the Vikings. Tell the students that four days of the week are named after Norse gods. Ask the students to predict which of the days these might be. Suggest that they take Aday" from each of the words and see what is left. Do any of the remaining word parts sound like Norse names?

If students are unable to tell, explain the following:
Thursday is named for Thor, or Thor's day.
Thor was the god of thunder whose hammer always returned to him when thrown.
Tuesday is named for Tyr, or Tyr's day.
Tyr was the god who lost his hand to the wolf Fenrir, he is sometimes called the god of war.
Friday is named for Freya, or Freya's day.
Freya was the goddess of fertility or growth, she had a magic falcon suit and drove a chariot pulled by cats. She was very beautiful and loved gold.
Wednesday is named for Woden, or Wooden's day.
Woden is the German word for Odin, the greatest god, god of wisdom and poetry, war and death.

Runes
Remind the students that Odin hung for nine days from the World Tree in order to earn the runes. His sword pierced his side and he went without food or drink while he hung there.
The runes gave Odin many powers, including the ability to calm storms, predict the future, talk to the dead and heal the sick. Odin shared these secrets with mankind by carving the runes at the end of the rainbow. While the runes were originally sixteen symbols called the Futhark (after the first six letters), the symbols have been increased to match the twenty-six letters of our alphabet.
Allow students to practice making the symbols called runes before attempting to write the symbols for the words at the bottom of the page. Students can also spell out other words of your choosing.

Thor's Hammer
Thor's hammer provided the sound of thunder and the flash of lightning. Have the students make designs or draw runes on the front of the hammer and then color it. On the back side have them print words that are the sounds associated with thunder, lightning and the crash of a hammer. Tell the students that onomatopoeia is the name we give to words that sound like what they describe.
Words the students might use are: CRASH, CLANG, BANG, FLASH, ZING, CLANK, CLATTER, CRACK, WHACK, ROAR, BOOM, SMACK, CRUNCH and THUMP.

Norse Mythology Alphabet
You may use this alphabet in several ways. Students may work alone or in pairs, or groups. They can easily fill in the names of the gods and goddesses and the nine worlds. Encourage them to come up with some creative words for some of the letters that don't have an obvious term. A key is provided.
The students can be given the blank alphabet sheets at the beginning of the unit and encouraged to add to the list as new names and terms are introduced. An alphabet book can be developed with one term and its illustration on each page.

Third Grade - Literature - Norse Mythology

Odin's Quests
Odin goes in search of wisdom and memory, the runes and poetry. He is forced to perform deeds and suffer great pain and personal loss in order to gain these gifts. After reading about the three quests have students divide a large piece of paper into three sections and illustrate each of Odin's three adventures.
If you would prefer to make this a writing assignment have the students write three paragraphs, each one about a different quest. Students could also discuss whether they think the gift he received was worth the cost he paid.

The World Tree
Ask the students to imagine how such a tree might look. Can they recall the long-trunked creations of Dr. Seuss? Did the World Tree have an extremely long trunk like one of these and far reaching branches and very tangled roots?
Direct the students to draw their interpretation of the tree and the nine worlds. They may work individually or you can divide the class into nine groups and have each group draw one. You and the students can assemble the tree together.

Trolls
In Norse mythology, trolls are giants who were formed at the beginning of the universe. They were huge in size and some had as many as six heads. Trolls when spoken about today are very different creatures. They are small in size and generally harmless. Bring in some of the books listed below and let the students read about trolls and how they have changed in folklore.

Brett, Jan. Christmas Trolls. New York: Putnam, 1993.
________. Trouble with Trolls. New York: Putnam, 1992.
dePaola, Tomie. Helga's Diary: A Troll Love Story. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Jovanovich, 1977.
Jewell, Nancy. Two Silly Trolls. New York: Harper Collins, 1992.
Lindgren, Astrid. The Tomten. New York: Cowan, McCann & Geoghegan, 1968.
Marshall, Ed. Troll Country. New York: Dial, 1980.
Mayer, Mercer. East of the Sun and West of the Moon: Old Tales from the North. New York: Four Winds, 1980.
 

Third Grade - Literature - Norse Mythology

Norse Alphabet (key)
 
A - Asgard, Alfheim, apples 
B - Bifrost
C - chariot
D - dwarves, Denmark
E - elves, eight legs
F - Freya, Friday, frost giant, falcon, Frigg
G - giants, Greenland
H - Hel, hammer
I - Iceland, Idun(na)
J - Jotunheim
K - keeper of the apples
L - Loki
M - Midgard, Mjollner, Muspell, Mimir
N - Norse, Norway, Niflheim, Nidavellir
O - Odin
P - poetry
Q - questions, quake
R - runes
S - Sweden, Svartalfheim, Sleipnir
T - Tuesday, Thursday, Thor, Tyr, trolls, Thrym
U - underworld 
V - Vikings, Vanaheim, Valkyries, Valhalla 
W - Woden, Wednesday 
X -
Y - Ymir, Yggdrasil
Z - zing--the sound of Thor's hammer

 

Bibliography

Brett, Jan. Christmas Trolls. New York: Putnam, 1993. (0-399-22507-2)
________. Trouble with Trolls. New York: Putnam, 1992.
Climo, Shirley, retold by. Stolen Thunder: A Norse Myth. New York: Clarion Books, 1994. (0-395-64368-6)
D'Aulaire, Ingri and Edgar Parin. D'Aulaires' Norse Gods and Giants. New York: Doubleday, 1967. (0-385-23692-1)
dePaola, Tomie. Helga's Diary: A Troll Love Story. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Jovanovich, 1977. (0-152-33701-6)
Greenfield, Eloise. Honey, I Love and other love poems. New York: HarperCollins, 1978.(0-690-03845-3)
Hirsch, E.D., ed. What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell, 1992. (0-385-31257-1)
Jewell, Nancy. Two Silly Trolls. New York: Harper Collins, 1992. (0-060-22830-X)
Lindgren, Astrid. The Tomten. New York: Cowan,McCann & Geoghegan, 1968.
Marshall, Ed. Troll Country. New York: Dial, 1980. (0-803-76211-9)
Mayer, Marianna. Iduna and the Magic Apples. New York: Macmillan, 1988. (0-02-765120-7)
Mayer, Mercer. East of the Sun and West of the Moon: Old Tales from the North. New York: Four Winds, 1980. (0-590-07538-1)
Osborne, Mary Pope, retold by. Favorite Norse Myths. New York: Scholastic, 1996. (0-590-48046-4)
Philip, Neil, retold by. Odin's Family: Myths of the Vikings. New York: Orchard Books, 1996. (0-531-09531-2)
Sutherland, Zena and Myra Cohn Livingston. The Scott, Foresman Anthology of Children's Literature. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Co., 1984. (0-673-15527-7)
Student Reference
Chisholm, Jane and Struan Reid. Who Were the Vikings? Tulsa, OK: EDC, 1995.(0-7460-2038-4)
Ganeri, Anita. Focus on Vikings. New York: Gloucester Press, 1992. (0-531-17388-7)
Margeson, Susan. Eyewitness Books:Viking. New York: Knopf, 1994. (0-679-96002-3)
Nicholson, Robert and Claire Watts. The Vikings. New York: Scholastic, 1991. (0-590-73880-1)
Pearson, Anne. The Vikings. New York: Penguin, 1993. (0-670-85834-X)
Thomson, Ruth. The Vikings. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1995. (0-516-08059-8)

Teacher Reference
Daly, Kathleen. Norse Mythology A to Z: A Young Reader's Companion. NY: Facts for File, 1991. (0-8160-2150-3)
Kovacs, Deborah and James Preller. Meet the Authors and the Illustrators: Volume Two. New
York: Scholastic, 1993. (0-590-49237-3)