Third Grade - Visual Arts - Overview - September

Third Grade Art begins in September with a review of the six elements of art (Lesson 1). Students are invited to recall and apply information they have learned in earlier grades regarding color, line, shape, light, texture and space. Students are asked to complete a sampler containing examples of the elements and through this exercise begin to recognize themselves as artists. They are further encouraged to explore the world around them and respond to it in their own artistic ways.
Three lessons exploring Native American art follow. Lesson 2 looks at Navajo Sand Painting and Rugs, Lesson 3 is about Kachina Dolls and Lesson 4 investigates Masks. A number of the six elements of art are referenced in each lesson and symmetry and pattern are reviewed as well. Students participate in these lessons by doing as well as looking.
The challenge in presenting these lessons will be in finding the examples of Native American art to present to the students. It is essential that the students be able to see the art in order to respond to it both as observers and artists. It is hoped that the Suggested Books and websites will provide a sufficient list of resources.

Third Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 1 - Introduction

Objectives
Recall elements of art: color, texture, shape, line, space, light.
Recognize self as an artist.

Materials
Art objects (drawings, paintings, sculpture, mobiles, stained glass, masks, weaving, quilts, masks, collages) and photographs of murals, cave paintings, architecture
Crayons, manila paper (each student may work with one 9x12" sheet of paper folded into six sections or six separate sheets of paper)

Suggested Books
Collins, Pat Lowery. I am an Artist. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1992.
An artist tells of finding beauty in nature, includes all the elements of art.
Heller, Ruth. A Cache of Jewels and other collective nouns. New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1987. Colorful drawings appropriate for discussion of line, color, shape, space, texture, and light.

Line and Shape
Ehlert, Lois. Color Zoo. New York: Lippincott, 1989.
Vibrant colors and shapes.
Hoban, Tana. Spirals, Curves, Fanshapes & Lines. New York: Greenwillow Books, 1992.
Photographs that reinforce the concept of spirals, curves, fanshapes and lines within the city.
MacAgy, Douglas and Elizabeth. Going for a Walk with a Line...a Step into the World of Modern Art. New York: Doubleday & Co., 1959.
Interesting opportunity to view lines and shapes within modern art.
Yenawine, Philip. Shapes. The Museum of Modern Art, New York: Delacorte Press, 1991.
Discusses shapes as they are incorporated in art works. Useful with mosaics, pointillism.

Color
Jonas, Ann. Color Dance. New York: Greenwillow Books, 1989.
Beautiful illustrations of how primary colors mix to make secondary colors
Spinelli, Eileen. If You Want to Find Golden. Morton Grove: Albert Whitman & Co.,1993.
Colors are viewed throughout the city. Colorful paintings enhance text.
Westray, Kathleen. A Color Sampler. New York, Ticknor & Fields, 1993.
Patchwork patterns are used to show how colors recede and advance.
Yenawine, Philip. Colors. The Museum of Modern Art, New York: Delacorte Press, 1991.
Discusses how color contributes to art by conveying the feelings and thoughts of the artist.

Texture
Bunting, Eve. Smoky Night. New York: Harcourt Brace & Co., 1994.
Collages by David Diaz make stunning visual statements.
Seidelman, James E. The Rub Book. New York: Macmillan, 1968.
Good reference for techniques for doing rubbings.

Teacher Background
This lesson is intended as a review of the elements of art learned in the earlier grades. In order to foster the student's recognition of self as artist this lesson is presented with a hands-on activity. Students are asked to draw something representative of each of the elements rather than simply review and define them. The Suggested Books provide photographs and illustrations of the elements referenced in this lesson.
Provide a variety of artworks for this lesson. If you are limited to photographs and reproductions in books try to show as many different examples as possible. Obviously the genuine item (statue, mobile, mask, weaving, etc.) is most desirable, however a book with striking illustrations (Ruth Heller's are great) is preferable to no example.

Teacher Note: In the procedure, directions are given for one sheet of paper folded into six sections. If you wish to have your students use a separate sheet for each element, simply direct them in this way. Also, you may wish to have the students print the name of the element illustrated within each box, or at the bottom of each of the sheets.
Procedure
Write the words Elements of Art on the chalk board or on chart paper and tell the students that they will be your focus today. Remind the students that there are six elements and ask the students to recall as many of the elements as they can. Write their responses on the board under the heading making sure that the list includes color, light, line, shape, space and texture.
Ask the students to think of all the different categories of art they have studied. Remind them that drawings, paintings, sculpture, mobiles, stained glass, masks, weavings, quilts, murals, collages, cave paintings and architecture can all be included. If you wish, challenge the students to name as many as they can and list these on the board. Display examples from as many different categories as possible and encourage the students to recall the artworks introduced in previous grades.
Tell the students to think about how all the different categories of art contain the elements that you have listed above. Remind the students that while the pieces of artwork can be very different: some are two-dimensional and some are three-dimensional; some are large and some are small; some are simple and some are very complicated, they all share the same six elements of art.
Give each student a sheet of manila paper (or 6 sheets, using one for each element) and direct them to fold the paper in half lengthwise and then in thirds, to form six equal sections. Then tell the students to again look at the list of elements. Begin with color. (You may wish to write a brief description next to each element or draw examples.)
Color - Ask the students to tell what they know about color. They should be able to recall there are 3 primary colors: red, yellow, blue; which when combined (2 at a time) produce the secondary colors: green, orange, purple. Brown is made by mixing all the colors together. Black and white when mixed with a color, darken it or lighten it respectively. The warm colors are the reds, oranges and yellows; the cool colors are the blues, greens and purples.
Have the students hold their papers vertically and beginning in the upper left box draw a triangle very lightly with their pencils. At the triangle's top point have them color a red ball, on the right point a blue ball, and on the left point a yellow ball. On the center of the line between the red and blue balls have them color a purple ball, on the center of the line between the blue and yellow balls have them color a green ball, and on the center of the line between the yellow and the red balls color an orange ball. You may wish to have them join the secondary colors with lines to form a triangle that is the reverse of the first.

Light - Ask the students to tell why light is such an important element (without it we cannot see any of the other elements). Light can be natural (sun) or artificial (electric light, candlelight). Light can make things look very sharp, or very soft. Remind students how different our surroundings look in the light of midday compared to early evening. Tell them to think about how different an object can look when light is projected on it from above, below, in front, or behind. In a painting, lighter colors appear to come forward, while darker colors recede. Light puts shadows in our world and our art. Remind students that a picture can look bright and cheery or dark and gloomy or scary.
In the upper right box have the students draw an umbrella, telling them to either make a sunny beach umbrella or a dark stormy-day umbrella. Remind them to be sure to show the sun or rain and to use colors that are warm and sunny or cool and dark.
Line - Remind the students that a line is formed by movement. A dot moves and leaves a line. A line can be straight, wavy, zig-zag, curved, angular, thick, thin, solid, or broken. Lines can be diagonal, vertical, horizontal or spiral. Point to lines in the classroom, ask for voluteers to assist you. Have the students think of other places they have seen lines (on roads and highways, on sports fields, as fenceposts, as columns on porches). Discuss how bold straight lines in a picture cause the viewer very different feelings from those caused by gentle curving lines.
Tell the students to choose one crayon and use it to draw several lines in the center left box. Encourage them to draw several different kinds of lines and to vary their width and intensity.
Shape - Point to several shapes in the room. By tracing around one show that a shape is a line enclosing a particular space. Have the students recall that shapes can be geometric or free-form and they may be two- or three-dimensional. Ask students to name some shapes or come to the board and draw a shape. Point out that shapes may stand alone or overlap. Shapes can give us the feeling of movement (circles) or of something not easily moved (a pyramid). The way that shapes are organized can make them appear balanced or about to topple.
Have the students draw a shape (or several) in the center right box. You may want to let the students use a different color for each shape. Suggest that they try both geometric and free-form.
Space - Show the students two distinctly different sized objects. Ask them to tell which takes up more space. Point out that space has no limits. It extends in all directions. We consider space when we decide what size to make a work of art and we consider space when we decide where to display the work. Within an artwork we consider the space we use (positive) and the space we do not (negative). In a picture we can place objects so that they appear very close or very far away. Ask the students to recall some of the largest artworks they have seen. They may recall a mural or a sculpture. What do they recall as the smallest? Do they recall scrimshaw?
In the lower left box ask the students to draw a shape that takes up most of the space and within it draw an object that takes up very little space.
Texture - Name a variety of textures and ask students to give an example of each (smooth, slimy, fuzzy, rough, bumpy, prickly, etc.) or you may wish to show an item and ask the students to identify the texture. Remind the students that when we touch something we feel its texture. Sometimes a rubbing can be done that shows the texture of an item. Suggest that a sculptor may add bits of material to a sculpture just as a weaver might add beads and feathers within a weaving. An artist making a collage often takes items with many different textures and combines them (Smoky Night has great collages.).
Ask students to think about how an artist shows texture in a painting or drawing. The artist may show the scales on a fish by overlapping lines; an animal's fur may be made by using light gentle strokes, and rocks may be made with dabs of paint put on with a palette knife.
In the lower right box ask the students to draw something to show texture. Suggest that they might show waves or fish scales, snake-skin, tree bark, net, a field of grass bending with the wind.
Conclude the lesson by reading the book I Am an Artist to the class. Tell the students to look for examples of all the elements of art mentioned in the book. If you are unable to obtain the book tell the students the book says that artists are simply people who find the "stuff of art" in everyday life. The author of the book, Pat Collins says for her it happens when she follows a line, or makes a collection of objects, or sees a rainbow in a drop of water or feels the difference between something smooth and something rough.
Walk around the classroom touching various things and telling the studentswhat you are doing that makes you an artist. For example, I am an artist when I see the smooth surface of a desk top, I am an artist when I feel the cylindrical shape of a stick of chalk in my hand and roll it over my palm. I am an artist when I feel the warm sunlight coming through the window and hear children's voices on the playground.
Ask for student volunteers to do the same. Encourage the students to look around the classroom at the things they see daily. Tell them to try to really notice colors (when I see bright blue shirts), lines (when I run my hand over the curves of my chair), textures (when I bump into the rough concrete wall), shapes (when I notice that the chalkboard and my desk top are both rectangles), space (when I look up at the ceiling and it seems so far away, or hear voices that are far away) and light (when I watch the afternoon shadows make the room seem gloomy compared to the way it looks when the sun is shining in). Ask them to think what it is about each of these observations that helps make them artists.
You may wish to have the students write about the things that make them feel like artists. They may give examples for all six elements or only one or two. Reinforce the concept that each person is an artist in his or her own way. Some of us use color well, some of us can draw well, some of us put things together in interesting ways, some of us see shapes in clouds that no one else can see.
Tell the students that throughout this year they will look at artworks and think about what the artists were doing and how they were able to show us what they were thinking and feeling. They will also have many opportunities to produce their own works of art.

Third Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 2 - Navajo Sand Painting and Rugs

Objectives
Recognize patterns and symmetry in the rugs.
Identify symbols used in sand painting.
Make a simple weaving limited to four colors (optional).
Make a sand painting (optional).
Design a geometric pattern.

Materials
Photographs and illustrations of Navajo sand painting and weaving from the Suggested Books
Grid containing a variety of shapes and designs (attached, for transparency)
Blank grid for student activity (attached)
See specific craft activity for materials needed

Suggested Books
The following books include photographs:
Bancroft-Hunt, Norman. North American Indians. Philadelphia: Courage, 1992.
Photographs and illustrations show the people and their art. Striking full-page photographs of masks, blankets, pottery, jewelry and other artifacts are included.
Ciment, James and Ronald LaFrance. Scholastic Encyclopedia of the North American Indian. New York: Scholastic, 1996. Excellent source for information on Native American tribes. Photographs and illustrations are included, but there is no color.
Doherty, Craig A. and Katherine. The Apaches and the Navajos. New York: Franklin Watts, 1989. Great photographs of sand paintings and weaving.
Glubok, Shirley. The Art of the Southwest Indians. New York: Macmillan, 1971.
Striking black-and-white photographs of Navajo sand paintings and rugs, kachina masks and dolls are interspersed with simple informative text. Wonderful color photographs on the cover of a kachina and a rug.
Haslam, Andrew and Alexandra Parsons. Make it Work! North American Indians. New York: Thomson Learning, 1995.
Craft book written for student use. Photographs of people and artifacts are interspersed with how-to crafts. Good picture of a weaving frame included.
Murdoch, David. North American Indian. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995.
This Eyewitness Book contains a wonderful full-color photograph of a Navajo blanket on a loom.
Thomson, Peggy. Katie Henio: Navajo Sheepherder. New York: Cobblehill Books, 1995. Excellent resource, photographs show sheep shearing, carding combs, spindle, loom and weaving patterns.
Yenne, Bill. The Encyclopedia of North American Indian Tribes: A Comprehensive Study of Tribes from the Abitibi to the Zuni. London: Bison Books, 1986.
Oversize book that contains wonderful photographs of Navajo looms and rugs, kachina dolls and masks from many different tribes.

The following books include illustrations:
Cohlene, Terri, written and adapted by. Turquoise Boy: A Navajo Legend. New York: Watermill Press, 1990.
Illustrations show a loom, the symbols used in artwork and sand painting. Photographs included in section that gives factual information on the Navajo, show a loom, a blanket, sand painting and masks.
Cohn, Amy L., compiled by. From Sea to Shining Sea: A Treasury of American Folklore and Folk Songs. New York: Scholastic, 1993. Wonderful illustrations on pp. 24-25 in the style of sand paintings.
Duncan, Lois, retold by. The Magic of Spider Woman. New York: Scholastic, 1996.
Navajo story of a girl who learns to keep her life in balance. Explains the pathway created in Navajo weaving.
Grossman, Virginia and Sylvia Long. Ten Little Rabbits. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1991.
Beautiful illustrations, ten different tribes are represented in this counting book. The final pages of the book show illustrations of weaving patterns.
Sneve, Virginia Driving Hawk. Dancing Teepees: Poems of American Indian Youth. New York: Scholastic, 1989.
Collection of poems with beautiful illustrations by Stephen Gammell; sand painting and rugs represented.

Teacher Resources
Baer, Gene. Paste, Pencils, Scissors and Crayons. West Nyack, NY: Parker, 1977.
Excellent resource. Easy-to-follow instructions with simple line drawings.
Hoven, Leigh. Native Americans Thematic Unit. Huntington Beach, CA: Teacher Created Materials, 1990. Contains several art projects including step-by-step directions for
weaving on a box loom; reproducible pages included.
Kennedy, Paul E. North American Indian Design Coloring Book. New York: Dover, 1971. Beautiful collection of drawings suitable for coloring.
Scholastic Integrated Theme Units "Native Americans" includes worksheets on sand painting and colors that come from nature.

Websites that provide additional information and graphics
http://hanksville.phast.umass.edu/misc/NAresources.html - Every aspect of Native American life is available through this site.
http://www.MesaVerde.org - Mesa Verde museum

Teacher Background
In order for students to truly appreciate the art of the Navajo it is necessary for them to view Navajo artifacts. If you are unable to find the Suggested Books that contain photographs, use the books with illustrations. Consider also the books you select to complement the literature and history lessons for this month. You may find Navajo listings under the name Dine (dih-NEE) which means "the people" and is the name that they have always called themselves.
As you introduce your students to the artwork of the Navajo be sure to help them understand that the weaving, sand painting, kachina dolls and masks you will study this month are (or were) used by the Native Americans who made them. These items are (were) functional and are (were) used in religious ceremonies as well as everyday life.
Copies of many Native American art objects are commercially mass produced today. Be sure that the students are not confused into thinking that they are the same. Explain that they are
based on designs taken from objects that were used in very special ways. Also tell the students that Native Americans do make and sell some artworks today but these are not items that are used in religious ceremonies.
Because this lesson is lengthy it is divided so that parts of the lesson may be done independently. Choose only the student art projects you wish, but show pictures of the Navajo rugs and sand paintings and explain the background information.

Procedure
Navajo Weaving
Display pictures of Navajo rugs. Tell the students to look closely at the pictures and think about how the elements of art are present. Have volunteers recall the six elements (color, line, shape, texture, space, light).
Take a few moments to allow the students to comment while you show the pictures. Tell the students the Navajo first learned the skill of weaving from Pueblo weavers. Only men did the weaving in the Pueblo society. In Navajo society weaving is usually done by women. The weaver is responsible for all parts of the process from shearing the sheep to carding (a process which draws out the individual hairs) and spinning the wool to the actual weaving. This process takes about 400 hours to complete a rug of 3 feet by 5 feet. Designs that are used have been memorized and passed down within families.
Explain that a rug may be regular weave, which has the same pattern on both sides; double weave or twill, which has a design on one side and the reversed pattern on the other side; or double-sided, which has different patterns on each side. Ask the students which weave they think takes the longest (double-sided).
Tell the students that if they could carefully examine a weaving they would find one tiny mistake. That is because the Navajo believe that the inner spirit of the weaver goes into the work. If the work was perfect when completed, life would end because the spirit would be enclosed forever. (You may wish to read The Magic of Spiderwoman at this time.)
Have the students look at the colors that are used in the weaving. A variety of colors are achieved by using plants to dye the wool. The earliest Navajo rugs contained only the colors brown, black, gray and white--the natural colors of sheep. Red is favored in many rugs made later and the colors black, yellow and white are combined with it. Dyeing the wool adds another step in the lengthy weaving process. Using an upright loom, the weaving is done by hand and is slow and difficult.
Write the words pattern and symmetry on the board. Ask the students to identify the shapes that they see in a weaving. They should notice that the shapes are geometric (in most cases) and may have been repeated to make a pattern. A design is created when the shapes are woven into the rug. Students should also notice the symmetry of the design. (A design has symmetry if when folded down the center both halves match exactly.)
The students may recognize stripes, zig-zags, and diamonds within a design. Use a transparency of the grid containing shapes and patterns. Demonstrate that each of the shapes is geometric and symmetrical, and if you wish, also show that it is possible to draw diagonal lines and make arrow shapes as well. It may be helpful to have the students count the number of blocks that make up a particular shape to see if they can develop any theories about the number of blocks and the symmetry.
Distribute copies of the blank grid to the students. Tell them to try making a shape that is
geometric and symmetrical. Be sure they recognize that a continuous design (like the final one on the grid) is also symmetrical.

Third Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 2 - Navajo Sand Painting and Rugs

Weaving

Materials
Red, black, white and yellow 9x12" construction paper (1 sheet each color per student)
Ruler, scissors
Glue or tape

Tell the students that they will now get to try their hand at weaving. Explain that they will all be using the same four colors, but it is possible for their weavings to look very different and you will show them how. Tell them that the order of colors used will make a difference, as will the series in which they weave each color.
Have the students first select one color to be the warp of their weaving. Explain that the long threads make up the warp and on a Navajo loom the warp is one continuous piece. Because you are using paper to do your weaving, the framing piece of paper will form your warp.
Have the students do the following:
1. Using the ruler draw a line as wide as the ruler is wide along one of the short edges of the paper.
2. Fold the paper in half width-wise so the pencil line shows.
3. Draw a series of lines perpendicular to the first line, making each one as wide as the ruler is wide.
4. Cut on the perpendicular lines, and when the paper is opened the warp is formed.
Tell the students that the short threads (or strips of paper) are called the weft. The weft will be made from the three colors of paper that remain.
1. Draw width-wise lines as wide as the ruler is wide on each of the remaining pieces of paper.
2. Cut on these lines to form strips.
The weaving process takes place by taking the weft (the strips) in and out the warp. The design may be varied by going over (or under) two (or more) of the lines of the warp. Of course the design may also be varied by the order and quantity of the colors of the weft. Remind the students that they must use all four colors, but the combination is totally up to them. When the weavings are completed you may wish to have the students glue or staple the ends of the weft to the warp.

Navajo Sand painting
Sand paintings are created in the home of a sick person by a medicine man or woman. Prayers or chants are spoken as the sand is poured. The sand painting is considered to be sacred and its design contains the gods and heroes whose help is requested. As in the weaving, some small mistake is included. This imperfection insures that the gods are not offended.
There are over 400 designs used in this ritual. Corn pollen, charcoal and colored powdered stones are all used to create the design. The painting is destroyed by sunset of the day it is begun, or if begun at night, it is destroyed before sunrise. As part of the ceremony, after prayers have been said, the sand is rubbed on the body of the patient. Each person present at the ceremony takes a pinch of the colored sand.
Sand paintings can be as small as 12 inches across, or as large as 20 feet. The top of the painting always faces east, because this is the direction it is believed the gods come from. The designs are very intricate and usually include symbols of nature like the clouds, sun, moon, stars, lightning, rainbows, mountains, plants and animals. Together with the picture of the god or hero they are considered to be very powerful.
As you display photographs or drawings of sand paintings have the students consider the colors that are used and the design. Do they notice anything about symmetry in a particular design? Are there particular symbols that they recognize? Are the lines straight with geometric shapes, or rounded with freeform shapes? If you are able to obtain a photograph of a sand painting being made, ask the students if they notice any particular tools being used or is the painting done by hand (by hand).
You may wish to give your students the opportunity to experience sand painting. This can be achieved by simply having them try pouring sand to make a design or systematically adding sand onto specific areas of a paper where glue has been applied.
Caution the students to outline a very simple design that requires no more than two or three colors. An area that has sand applied needs to be completely dry before another area is begun. Remind the students that their attempts are not to be confused with true Native American sand painting. This is done as a specific part of a healing ceremony and not simply as an art activity.

Materials
Sand in three different colors (commercially available, or follow directions below)
Glue
White paper
Directions for coloring sand
Fill lidded jars with clean sand and add several drops of food coloring to each. Screw the lids on tightly and shake to distribute the color.
Organize an area where the sand painting can be done with a minimum of clean-up. Cover the desks with newspaper (or a protective cloth) and provide shallow lids (one for each color used) large enough to contain the white art paper.
A student should bring the design paper with glue already applied and place the paper inside a lid. A single color of sand should be applied (by gently pouring) to the paper and the excess sand should be gently shaken off into the lid. Caution students to not use large amounts of glue or the excess sand will become contaminated easily. The excess sand should be able to be easily poured out of the lid back into the container
Tell the students do the following:
1. Draw a very simple design on the paper. Remind them that areas should be open so that the sand may be poured into them easily.
2. Apply glue in one area and pour one color sand on this area.
3. Allow the glue to dry completely before applying more glue and another color sand.
4. Repeat the process until the painting is completed.
 
 

The shapes above are geometric and symmetrical. Each one may be folded in half to form two identical halves (row 2 needs to be folded top to bottom). You may also wish to show students that diagonals may be drawn across the boxes so that arrow shapes may be made as well.
 
 

 

 

 
 

 

 


 

 


 

 


 

 


 

 


 

 


 

 


 

 


 

 


 

 


 

Third Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 3 - Kachina Dolls

Objectives
Recognize the use of the kachina dolls in Native American education.
Identify the colors and symbols frequently used on the kachinas.
Draw symbols frequently used on kachinas (optional).

Materials
Drawing paper
Crayons or markers
Kachina symbols sheet (attached) for transparency

Suggested Books
Bancroft-Hunt, Norman. North American Indians. Philadelphia: Courage, 1992.
Photographs and illustrations show the people and their art. Striking full-page photographs of masks, blankets, pottery, jewelry and other artifacts.
Behrens, June. Powwow. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1983.
Wonderful color photographs of kachina dolls.
Glubok, Shirley. The Art of the Southwest Indians. New York: Macmillan, 1971.
Wonderful black and white photographs of masks, rugs, baskets, kachina dolls and weaving, the pictures re sharp and detail is easy to see.
Hanauer, Elsie V. Dolls of the Indians: A Book of Kachina Effigies. New York: A. S. Barnes and Co., 1970.
Complete information on kachina spirits, dolls and masks; black and white illustrations.
Haslam, Andrew and Alexandra Parsons. Make it Work! North American Indians. New York: Thomson Learning, 1995.
Craft book written for student use. Photographs of people and artifacts are interspersed with how-to crafts.
Murdoch, David. North American Indian. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995.
This Eyewitness Book contains wonderful full-color photographs of kachina dolls.
Yenne, Bill. The Encyclopedia of North American Indian Tribes: A Comprehensive Study of Tribes from the Abitibi to the Zuni. London: Bison Books, 1986. (0-86124-271-8) Oversize book that contains wonderful photographs of Navajo looms and rugs, kachina dolls and masks from many different tribes.
Teacher Resource
Kennedy, Paul E. North American Indian Design Coloring Book. New York: Dover, 1971. Beautiful collection of drawings suitable for coloring.

Teacher Background
Kachina means "spirit father." The kachinas are spirits who guided people from a previous underground, leading them through a hollow reed high up into the mountains. Students may recognize this as the "spirit hole" in pictures of Pueblo dwellings. They taught ceremonies and gave everything to their people that was needed to sustain life. They promised to return for part of the year to help in a number of ways such as planting crops, dancing for relief from a drought, or decision making.
Kachina dolls are representations of the actual kachinas. They are given to children to
help them to learn the names of the various kachinas and the powers they have. Sometimes kachina dancers give them to the children in exchange for food during the ceremonies .

Procedure
Tell the students that many Native American people of the Southwest (Pueblo, Hopi, Zuni) believe in kachinas. They believe the kachinas are spirits who guided the people from the underground (where some Native Americans believe people once lived) to life high up in the mountains.
Explain that the kachinas have many powers and return to earth to help the people, or to punish those people who break the laws. There are over 200 kachinas, each having its own name, character and costume. Some kachinas return every year while others are seldom seen. The kachinas dance for rain and ensure a good corn harvest for the Hopi and Zuni.
Kachinas are not worshiped but they are respected. The Hopi believe that when a man puts on the costume of a kachina, the spirit of the kachina enters his body and is present. His dance is the dance of that spirit. During the dance the kachinas give gifts to the people; food and baskets for the adults, and rattles, bows and arrows and bulrushes which are chewed like gum are for the children. One more gift is given, too. It is a kachina doll which is handed to a child to help that child learn about the beliefs of his people. If possible, show photographs and illustrations of kachina dances and kachina dolls.
Kachina dolls are carved from the root of the cottonwood tree. The wood is light in weight and easily carved. The dolls may be carved as one piece and have no moving parts or the arms may be carved separately and attached. Ears, eyes and noses may be added and the figure is then painted. Feathers, fur and bits of cloth are added as final touches.
There are certain symbols and colors that are part of the kachinas. If students are able to identify any from the photographs, list them on the board. Remind the students that the kachinas are associated with the growth of plants and harvests; which symbols should they expect to see? (plants, corn, rain, clouds, sun, lightning) Likewise, what colors do they associate with nature? (green, blue, yellow, red, white, black) Be sure to have them consider the part of the country where these people live.
If you are able to obtain any close-up pictures of kachinas have the students look at the symmetry of the designs on the masks. Many designs are individually symmetrical as well as instances where the entire face design is.
Students should notice that eyes are frequently rectangular or circular. Mouths are frequently triangular or circular. The facial symbols are related to the kachina's powers and purpose.
You may wish to have students draw some of the symbols used on kachina masks. Draw examples yourself or use the attached sheet to make a transparency.
As you look at the symbols together remind the students of your earlier discussion of the colors that would be used. Tell them that as well as being related to nature, the colors used are related to directions. Yellow means north because winter storms come from a yellow sky. White means east referring to the rising sun. Red means south and the warm summer. Blue means west referring to the Pacific Ocean. Green means life, blue-green the sky, and black means the underworld (the origin of the people).
Students may enjoy knowing that there is a clown kachina named Koshare who wears black and white stripes on his body, a headpiece with soft black and white striped horns and a white face with a black frowning mouth and eyes.

Third Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 4 - Masks

Objectives
Identify the uses of masks in Native American culture.
Identify the materials used in making masks.
Make a sun kachina mask (optional).

Materials
Photographs or pictures of Native American masks
Paper plates, one per student
Patterns for feathers and face (attached)
Construction paper in white, black, red, yellow and blue
Scissors, glue

Suggested Books
Bancroft-Hunt, Norman. North American Indians. Philadelphia: Courage, 1992.
Photographs and illustrations show the people and their art. Striking full-page photographs of masks, blankets, pottery, jewelry and other artifacts.
Baylor, Byrd. They Put on Masks. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1974.
Baylor's words are lyrical like the songs and dances she tells about; with illustrations by Jerry Ingram, this book shows masks from many tribes.
Cohlene, Terri, written and adapted by. Turquoise Boy: A Navajo Legend. Mahwah, NJ: Watermill Press, 1990. Section at the end of book shows photographs of various masks.
________. Dancing Drum: A Cherokee Legend. Mahwah, NJ: Watermill Press, 1990.
Section at end of book contains a photograph of a woodchuck fur mask.
Haslam, Andrew and Alexandra Parsons. Make it Work! North American Indians. New York: Thomson Learning, 1995.
Craft book written for student use. Photographs of people and artifacts are interspersed with how-to crafts.
Murdoch, David. North American Indian. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995.
This Eyewitness Book contains wonderful full-color photographs of masks used throughout North America.
Yenne, Bill. The Encyclopedia of North American Indian Tribes: A Comprehensive Study of Tribes from the Abitibi to the Zuni. London: Bison Books, 1986. (0-86124-271-8) Oversize book that contains wonderful photographs of Navajo looms and rugs, kachina dolls and masks from many different tribes.
Teacher Resource
Strohl, Mary and Susan Scheck. Native Americans: Cooperative Learning Activities. New York: Scholastic, 1991. Art activities with reproducible pages for students.
Terzan, Alexandra. The Kid's Multicultural Art Book: Art and Craft Experiences from Around the World. Charlotte, VT: Williamson, 1993. Step-by-step directions for making several different Native American masks.

Teacher Background
Native American masks (a Seneca cornhusk mask and an Inuit mask) were viewed in Kindergarten and students may also be familiar with them from illustrations in books read as part of literature.

Third Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 4 - Masks

The Plains Indians were studied briefly in Second Grade and students may recall seeing masks in some of the books used during the study.

Procedure
Remind the students of the kachina dancers presented in lesson 3. Each of the dancers wore a mask to represent a particular kachina. When a dancer wore the mask and the rest of the costume, the people of that tribe believed that the kachina was really there. The masks held great religious importance.
Other groups of Native Americans use masks as part of their ceremonies as well. Students may recall the cornhusk mask and the fur masks they saw in kindergarten. If possible, read Byrd Baylor's They Put on Masks to see a variety of masks and their uses.
Students may recall seeing Native American masks in books used for history this month or when they studied the Plains Indians in Second Grade. They should recognize that masks are used as part of many religious ceremonies as well as dances. Dancers may wear masks to represent animals or they may represent spirits. In some tribes not everyone is permitted to wear a mask. It is considered an honor and one that the dancer studies and prepares for.
Have the students recall some of the reasons the kachinas danced (to pray for success in planting, for rain, to end a drought, for wisdom). Tell the students that there are similar dances in other Native American tribes. Dancers in mask and costume may dance for success in an animal hunt or in fishing, as part of a healing ceremony, and as part of a ceremony for giving thanks. The medicine man or woman may wear a mask each time a healing is done and masks may be worn in celebration for the birth of a child or to send off the spirit of someone who has died.
Sometimes a mask is made according to a design that has been repeated over the centuries and sometimes it is as individual as the artist who created it. In fact some masks are kept hidden while they are being made and are only revealed during the ceremony for which they were created. Those artists have had the designs revealed to them in dreams.
Tell students that masks are made from a variety of materials and ask them to recall any that they may have seen. Usually the materials are those found in nature and include plant parts and animal parts. The colors are created from natural dyes. Feathers are often an integral part of a mask and students may be interested to know that Native Americans are the only people in the United States who are permitted to gather and use Bald Eagle feathers. It is against federal law to possess them otherwise. Show photographs of a variety of masks, and if possible show them as they are being worn during ceremonies.
Tell the students that when they looked at the kachina dolls they noticed that color and symmetry were very important elements. Do they see those elements in the masks they have seen? (sometimes) What other element of art should be considered when looking at masks? (texture) What does adding texture to the mask often do? (makes the mask more realistic) Does the mask seem more powerful with the skin or horns of an animal included? (usually) Do the actual items seem more impressive than just a drawing of them? (yes, they can be touched) In what other form(s) of Native American art was texture important? (rugs, sand painting)
If you wish to have students make a mask there are directions and suggestions in some of the Suggested Books. A mask that would tie-in nicely with the kachina doll study of Lesson 3 is the Sun Kachina mask. Directions are provided below.

Sun Kachina Mask
Each student should have a paper plate, markers or crayons, a ruler, scissors, construction
paper in various colors and patterns for the face and feathers (these may be shared).
Have the students recall the symbol for sun from the last lesson. This will form the face of the mask and from it the feathers will radiate. The face should be a circle that fits in the center of the plate. Add to or trim the pattern provided according to the size plate you use. 1. Students should use this pattern to trace a face from construction paper. Ideally, the sun kachina face has a red and yellow forehead while the lower half is blue. If it is possible to follow this guide the mask will look more realistic.
2. Students will then need to cut rectangles for eyes and a triangle for the mouth. These will be placed in the lower half of the circle below the horizontal line. Students may attach the features and draw the lines on the face but should not attach the face to the plate at this point in the process.
3. Some students may be tracing the feathers while others are completing the face. The feathers should be traced on white construction paper. It is possible to fold a sheet of 9x12" paper lengthwise and trace the feathers so that cutting the paper produces two at a time. The white "feathers" should be given a light center vein and black tips.
4. The completed feathers should be arranged around the plate so that they are radiating out. Approximately fourteen feathers are needed around a nine-inch plate. They should be glued down to the plate and then place and glue the face on top.
Tell the students that the mask is not dimensionally proportionate with an actual sun kachina mask. A genuine mask would be much larger and would cover the head of the person wearing the mask. You may wish to display the masks or allow students to take their masks and visit other classes, telling what they have learned about kachinas and kachina masks.

Bibliography

Read Alouds
*Collins, Pat Lowery. I am an Artist. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1992. (1-56294-082-1)
*Duncan, Lois, retold by. The Magic of Spider Woman. New York: Scholastic, 1996. (0-590-46155-9)

Student Reference
Ancoma, George. Earth Daughter: Alicia of Ácoma Pueblo. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995. (0-689-80322-2)
Bancroft-Hunt, Norman. North American Indians. Philadelphia: Courage, 1992. (1-56138-123-3)
*Baylor, Byrd. They Put on Masks. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1974. (684-13767-4)
Behrens, June. Powwow. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1983. (0-516-02387-X)
Bunting, Eve. Smoky Night. New York: Harcourt Brace & Co., 1994. (0-15-269954-6)
Ciment, James and Ronald LaFrance. Scholastic Encyclopedia of the North American Indian. New York: Scholastic, 1996. (0-590-22790-4)
Cohlene, Terri, written and adapted by. Turquoise Boy: A Navajo Legend. Mahwah, NJ: Watermill Press, 1990. (0-8167-2360-5)
________. Dancing Drum: A Cherokee Legend. Mahwah, NJ: Watermill Press, 1990. (0-86593-007-4)
Cohn, Amy L., compiled by. From Sea to Shining Sea: A Treasury of American Folklore and Folk Songs. New York: Scholastic, 1993. (0-590-42868-3)
Doherty, Craig A. and Katherine. The Apaches and the Navajos. New York: Franklin Watts, 1989. (0-531-10743-4)
Ehlert, Lois. Color Zoo. New York: Lippincott, 1989. (0-39732260-7)
*Glubok, Shirley. The Art of the Southwest Indians. New York: Macmillan, 1971.
Grossman, Virginia and Sylvia Long. Ten Little Rabbits. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1991.
(0-87701-552-X)
Hanauer, Elsie V. Dolls of the Indians: A Book of Kachina Effigies. New York: A. S. Barnes and Co., 1970. (498-07536-2)
Haslam, Andrew and Alexandra Parsons. Make it Work! North American Indians. New York: Thomson Learning, 1995. (1-56847-137-8)
Heller, Ruth. A Cache of Jewels and other collective nouns. New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1987. (0-44819211-X)
Hoban, Tana. Spirals, Curves, Fanshapes & Lines. New York: Greenwillow Books, 1992. (0-688-11228-5)
________. Of Colors and Things. New York: Greenwillow, 1989. (0-688-07535-5)
Jonas, Ann. Color Dance. New York: Greenwillow Books, 1989. (0-688-05991-0)
Kennedy, Paul E. North American Indian Design Coloring Book. New York: Dover, 1971.(0-486-21125-8)
MacAgy, Douglas and Elizabeth. Going for a Walk with a Line...a Step into the World of Modern Art. New York: Doubleday & Co., 1959.
Murdoch, David. North American Indian. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995. (0-679-96169-0)
Seidelman, James E. The Rub Book. New York: Macmillan, 1968.
Third Grade - Visual Arts - September

Spinelli, Eileen. If You Want to Find Golden. Morton Grove: Albert Whitman & Co., 1993. (080753850)
*Thomson, Peggy. Katie Henio: Navajo Sheepherder. New York: Cobblehill Books, 1995.(0-525-65160-8)
Westray, Kathleen. A Color Sampler. New York, Ticknor & Fields, 1993. (0-39565940-X)
Yenawine, Philip. Colors. The Museum of Modern Art, New York: Delacorte Press, 1991.(0-385-30314-9)
________. Shapes. The Museum of Modern Art, New York: Delacorte Press, 1991.(0-385-30315-7)
Yenne, Bill. The Encyclopedia of North American Indian Tribes: A Comprehensive Study of Tribes from the Abitibi to the Zuni. London: Bison Books, 1986. (0-86124-271-8)

Teacher Resources
Baer, Gene. Paste, Pencils, Scissors and Crayons. West Nyack, NY: Parker, 1977. (0-13-335571-3)
Hoven, Leigh. Native Americans Thematic Unit. Huntington Beach, CA: Teacher Created Materials, 1990. (1-55734-285-7)
Strohl, Mary and Susan Scheck. Native Americans: Cooperative Learning Activities. New York: Scholastic, 1991. (0-590-49151-2)
Terzan, Alexandra. The Kid's Multicultural Art Book: Art and Craft Experiences from Around the World. Charlotte, VT: Williamson, 1993. (0-913589-72-1)

*Required or strongly recommended in lessons