Fourth Grade - American History - Lesson 17 - Thomas Jefferson

Objectives
Recall the names of the first two presidents of the United States.
Identify the man who became the third president of the United States.
Compose an epitaph for Thomas Jefferson.

Materials
White lined paper

Suggested Books
Student Titles
Greene, Carol. Thomas Jefferson: Author, Inventor, President. Chicago: Children's Press, 1991.
This Rookie Biography is written in a simple manner and contains nice accompanying photographs and illustrations.
Ferris, Jeri. What Are You Figuring Now? Minneapolis, MN: Carolrhoda, 1988.
This chapter book tells the story of Benjamin Banneker's life in an entertaining manner. The text is accompanied by simple black and white illustrations.
Pinkney, Andrea Davis. Dear Benjamin Banneker. San Diego: HBJ, 1994.
This picture book tells the story of Benjamin Banneker's life emphasizing two accomplishments: his published almanacs and his correspondence with Thomas Jefferson. Contains excerpts from Banneker's letter to Jefferson and Jefferson's reply.

Teacher Reference
Bruns, Roger. World Leaders Past & Present: Thomas Jefferson. New York: Chelsea House, 1986.
Lindop, Edmund. Presidents Who Dared: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson. New York: Henry Holt, 1995.
Morris, Jeffrey. The Jefferson Way. Minneapolis, MN: Carolrhoda, 1994.
Patterson, Charles. Thomas Jefferson: A First Book. New York: Franklin Watts, 1987.
Wilson, Ruth. Our Blood and Tears: Black Freedom Fighters. New York: Putnam, 1972.
Pages 54-56 contain information and excerpts from the letters written by Benjamin Banneker and Thomas Jefferson.

Teacher Resource
Resource packets can be ordered from the Education Department at Monticello by writing to P.O. Box 316, Charlottesville, VA 22902 or by calling (804) 984-9853. Materials are available on Jefferson's family life and his travels, as well as the architecture of Monticello.

Teacher Note
Thomas Jefferson's contributions to architecture are also noted in the art lessons this month.

Procedure
Ask the students to recall who the first two presidents of the United States were (George Washington, John Adams). Tell the students that the man who became the third president of the United States is someone we have studied before in history. Ask the students to listen to the following clues to see if they can figure out the name of the man who became the third president of the United States. Give the students the following clues:
1. He wrote the Declaration of Independence.
2. He was an advisor to President Washington.
3. He was the founder of what is today the Democratic Party.
Ask for a volunteer to identify the person the clues represent. If they are unable to identify him, tell the students that the third president was Thomas Jefferson.
Tell the students that Thomas Jefferson was a very interesting person because in addition to his being a leader of our country, Jefferson was also an inventor, musician, lawyer, and architect. Relay the following background information to the students:

After attending college in his home state of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson joined a law practice to learn to be a lawyer. At this time his home at Monticello was beginning to be built. Jefferson designed the now famous historic building himself. As well as being an architect, Jefferson had a love for music and education. He founded and designed the campus of the University of Virginia. Jefferson was also an inventor and created among other things a swivel chair and a clock that told what day it was, as well as, the time. He became interested in politics and was chosen as a delegate from Virginia to attend the Second Continental Congress at which the Declaration of Independence was written.
After the death of his wife in 1782, Jefferson spent five years in Paris. When he returned to the United States, the Constitution had been written and Washington was soon to become the country's first president. Jefferson served in Washington's cabinet as an adviser to the president. President Washington and President Adams who came after him both believed in a presidential style that was formal and full of ceremony. When Thomas Jefferson became president he acted different from the two presidents before him. He dressed informally, made himself accessible to his cabinet and Congress, and even opened the White House to the public twice a year -- on New Year's Day and the 4th of July. Anyone could come, be greeted by the president, and have punch, cake, and other snacks.

Ask: What type of person do you get the feeling Thomas Jefferson was after listening to the things he did in his life? (generous, cared about the country, etc.) Have the students recall the Declaration of Independence. Tell the students that the opening paragraphs to the Declaration were almost entirely written by Jefferson. Ask: Does anyone remember the ideas expressed in the beginning of the Declaration of Independence? Tell the students that in the first sentence of the second paragraph Jefferson wrote "that all men are created equal."
Explain that since women weren't allowed to vote during this time, they were one group that was left out, but there were others. Tell the students that although Jefferson wrote that "all men are created equal" he was also a slave owner. Ask: How do these two things conflict? (How can someone write that all men are created equal, but then enslave a group of people?)
Tell the students that one man, Benjamin Banneker, felt the need to point this discrepancy out to Thomas Jefferson and ask him to do something about it. Explain that Benjamin Banneker was a free black man who lived in Maryland. Among his accomplishments Banneker was a successful farmer, surveyor, writer, and astronomer. Tell the students that although Banneker had never been a slave, he wanted to do something to help others. Explain that Banneker decided to write a letter to Thomas Jefferson to point out the fact that he was acting differently from what he had expressed in the words of the Declaration of Independence and to ask Jefferson to find a way to help slaves gain their freedom. Explain that Jefferson was impressed with Banneker's words and did write a reply back to him saying that he did want things to change and that he hoped in time they would. Jefferson also said that the intelligent words in Banneker's letter were proof that black people were equal and it was the awful circumstances of their lives that that held them back. If possible read excerpts of Banneker's letter and Jefferson's reply from one of the Suggested Books or another available source. Ask: Other than simply replying to Benjamin Banneker's letter, what do you think Thomas Jefferson should have done?
Ask: Has anyone ever seen a gravestone or headstone before? Tell the students that if they have then maybe they would remember that some gravestones, as well as having the person's name written on it, also have something written in memory of the person. Tell the students that a short statement written on a tomb in memory of the person buried there is called an epitaph. The epitaph might be praising the person for his/her accomplishments in life or telling about the unfortunate cause of his/her death. Give examples of what an epitaph might say. For example a man who died as a soldier during World War II, could have an epitaph that read, "Here lies John Smith, a brave American who died fighting for his country." Another example could be "Jane Miller, a loving mother and devoted wife, may she rest in peace."
Give each student a sheet of white, lined paper. Explain that they are now going to write an epitaph for Thomas Jefferson. Have them think about his accomplishments and write what they think he should be remembered for.

Fourth Grade - American History - Lesson 18 - The Louisiana Purchase

Objectives
Review the accomplishments of Thomas Jefferson.
Identify that the Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the nation and gave the United States control over the Mississippi River.
Discuss the wisdom of the Louisiana Purchase.
Speculate about U. S. relations in war between England and France.

Materials
Classroom-size map of the United States
Classroom-size world map

Suggested Books
Student Title
Fritz, Jean. The Great Little Madison. New York: Putnam, 1989.
Although a somewhat intimidating book at first glance, the information contained in the book is written in an interesting and accessible way for fourth graders.
Quackenbush, Robert. James Madison & Dolley Madison and Their Lives. New York: Pippin Press, 1992.
An entertaining account of James and Dolley Madison's life. It includes interesting tidbits about the couple and the text is accompanied by humorous illustrations.

Teacher Reference
Banfield, Susan. James Madison: A First Book. New York: Franklin Watts, 1986.
Clinton, Susan. Encyclopedia of Presidents: James Madison. Chicago, Children's Press, 1986.
Morris, Jeffrey. The Jefferson Way. Minneapolis, MN: Carolrhoda, 1994.

Teacher Note
Lessons on the War of 1812 and Dolley and James Madison were covered in Second Grade.

Procedure
Ask: Who was the third president of the United States? (Thomas Jefferson) Who can recall some of the things Jefferson accomplished in his lifetime? (wrote the Declaration of Independence, was Secretary of State for president Washington, founded the University of Virginia, etc.) Remind the students that in the last lesson they wrote an epitaph for Thomas Jefferson. Tell them that you are now going to read what was actually written on his tombstone. "Here was buried Thomas Jefferson, Author of the Declaration of Independence, of the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom, and the Father of the University of Virginia." Ask the students if they think it is interesting that his epitaph doesn't mention that he was a president of the United States. Tell the students that this is what Thomas Jefferson himself wanted to be included on his tombstone. Ask: Why do you think he chose these? Explain that the statements tell us what Jefferson himself wanted to be remembered for and what he thought his great accomplishments were.
Tell the students that today they are going to learn about another thing that was accomplished during Thomas Jefferson's presidency. Explain that during the early part of Jefferson's presidency the United States was less than a third its present size. The nation went from Vermont down to what is now Georgia, and west to the Mississippi River. The land to west of the Mississippi was owned by France. Tell the students that President Jefferson wanted to purchase the port city of New Orleans because it was located at the mouth of the Mississippi River. Direct the student's attention to the map of the United States. Ask: Why do you think access to the Mississippi River and New Orleans was important to the Americans who lived in the newly formed states of Kentucky and Tennessee? (They would be able to travel by boat and it would make it easier to bring their goods to market.)
Explain that when Jefferson offered to buy New Orleans from France, Napoleon, the ruler of France at the time, offered instead to sell the United States the entire Louisiana Territory. Tell the students that the Louisiana Territory included the land that stretched from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and from the Canadian Border to the Gulf of Mexico. Show the students the area that made up the Louisiana Territory on a U. S. map. The total purchase amounted to $15 million or about four cents an acre in 1803. Write the date and Louisiana Purchase on the chalkboard. Show the students the area that made up the Louisiana Territory. Ask: Do you think the area was worth $15 million? What benefits did our country gain? Allow the students to speculate reminding them of the physical geography of the area. Tell the students that as they look at a map of the U.S. they can see that the addition of this land gave the United States control over the Mississippi River and it doubled the size of the nation. Tell the students that thirteen new states would later be carved out of this area.
Explain to the students that although France sold the land, there were many Native Americans who lived in this area and claimed the land as theirs. Ask: What problems do you think will happen as a result of this? Since Native Americans and not the French lived in the Louisiana Territory was it fair for France to sell this land?
Tell the students that Thomas Jefferson's presidency ended in March of 1809. Explain that James Madison took his place and became the fourth president of the United States. Tell the students that Madison had a tough job ahead of him. For one thing, Thomas Jefferson was a tough act to follow, since he had done so much for the nation. Second, in the last two years of Jefferson's presidency, problems arose between England and the United States.
Explain that there was a war going on between England and France and the U. S. was caught in the middle. Ask a students to locate the countries of England and France on the classroom world map. Both countries captured American ships that were trying to trade with other countries in Europe. Also, many American sailors were taken as prisoners and forced to work on British ships. This made many Americans very angry and in 1807 Congress passed a law called the Embargo Act. Write Embargo Act on the board. This act said that it was illegal for U. S. ships to sail to foreign ports; no American goods could be sent to Europe; and some goods from England were not allowed to be sold in America. Tell the students that Jefferson meant for this to take care of the conflict and avoid a war between the United States and England and France.
Unfortunately, it didn't work because neither France nor England stopped their policy of capturing American ships. Explain that what happened instead was England continued to trade with other countries and the Americans were not able to sell products to other countries, shipbuilders and sailors were unemployed, and ship owners were unable to use their boats to transport products for trade.
Ask: What do you think will happen next? Jefferson tried to avoid war by trade, but was that fair to the ship owners, sailors, and shipbuilders who made a living in the shipping trade? Do you think the Americans are going to be able to avoid a war for much longer?
Invite the students to discuss and try to come up with solutions to the problem.

 Fourth Grade - American History - Lesson 19 - The War of 1812

Objectives
Identify the causes of the War of 1812.
Recognize the city of Baltimore's importance in the War of 1812.
Become familiar with the events of the War of 1812 and the Battle of New Orleans.

Materials
Classroom-size map of the United States
Classroom-size world map
Recording of the national anthem (optional)

Suggested Books
Teacher Reference
Bosco, Peter I. The War of 1812. Brookfield, CT: The Millbrook Press, 1991.
Carter, Alden R. The War of 1812. New York: Franklin Watts, 1992.

Teacher Resources/Possible Field Trips
The original manuscript of "The Star-Spangled Banner" is housed at The Maryland Historical Society, 201 W. Monument Street, 21201 (685-3750, ext. 334).

The Flag House offers a 45 minute, off site presentation in "living history" costume for elementary students. 844 East Pratt Street, 21202 (837-1793)

Fort McHenry National Monument, East Fort Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21230 (962-4299)
Visit the fort where the Star-Spangled Banner flew.

National Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian Institution, 10th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20560 (202-357-2747) Flag that inspired F. S. Key to write "The Star Spangled Banner," on view every hour on the hour.

Teacher Note
Lessons on the War of 1812, the "Star-Spangled Banner," and the Battle of New Orleans were covered in Second Grade.

Procedure
Ask: Of which famous document was Thomas Jefferson the writer? (The Declaration of Independence) As students respond, write each person's name and the accomplishment they are associated with on the board.
Tell the students that James Madison, the fourth president, is also associated with the completion of an important document. Ask: Can someone name the document with which Madison is associated? Explain that Madison is known as the Father of the Constitution because he had come up with the plan for the government of the United States that is written in the Constitution. Ask the students to recall that Madison proposed that the United States have a strong central government made up of three branches, with a president as its executive. Ask: Can someone name the three branches of the U. S. government? (executive, judicial, and legislative)
Tell the students that Madison had his hands full as he came into office as president. Ask: What problems were American ships encountering at sea a couple of years before Madison became president? Review with the students that England and France were at war and were capturing U. S. ships at sea. Have a student locate England and France on the classroom world map. Tell the students that the trade embargo was dropped just before Madison took office, making it possible for Americans to ship products for trade to other countries again. Unfortunately, the problems continued because England and France still captured American ships. British ships were also capturing American sailors and forcing them to help in their fight against France.
Explain that war was finally declared against England in 1812. If possible, have the students recall what they remember about the War of 1812 from Second Grade. Remind the students that one of the major events that occurred during the War of 1812 was that the British attacked Washington, D. C. Trace the route up the Chesapeake Bay into the Potomac River on the U. S. map. Ask: Does someone know what building they set fire to? (The White House) Madison's wife Dolley saved a portrait of a famous person from the White House. Ask: Can someone recall whom the painting was a portrait of? (George Washington)
The city of Baltimore played an important role in the War of 1812. Ask: Does anyone know what happened in Baltimore during the War of 1812? (A battle occurred at Fort McHenry after which Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star Spangled Banner.") Explain that there was a terrible battle at Fort McHenry in Baltimore as the British tried to take over Baltimore. The British sailed into Baltimore Harbor and fired at the fort from their ships. A man from Baltimore named Francis Scott Key, who had been taken hostage by the British, was so relieved and moved to see the American flag still flying over Fort McHenry the day after the battle, September 14, 1814, that he wrote the words to "The Star Spangled Banner." Tell the students that the story of "The Star-Spangled Banner" has special meaning for Marylanders not only because it was written in the state of Maryland, but also because it went on to become our national anthem. Ask the students if they know the words to "The Star Spangled Banner." You may wish to lead the students in a round of our national anthem or if you have a recording of it you may wish to play it for the class.
Explain that the British didn't stop at Baltimore, instead they moved their attack to the South. Locate the city of New Orleans on the map with the students. Tell the students that the British thought that if they could capture the city of New Orleans, in the newly acquired Louisiana Territory, they would be able to move up the Mississippi River to attack other areas. Tell the students that President Madison put Andrew Jackson in charge of the American troops in New Orleans.
Explain that when the British attacked New Orleans, Jackson's troops were ready for them. The battle did not take long. The night after the British troops arrived on land, two big attacks took place in barely one half hour and the Americans won. Tell the students that Americans were very pleased, but what they didn't know was that the war had actually already ended. Explain that a peace treaty had been signed in England two weeks before the Battle of New Orleans. Ask: Why didn't the British and American troops in New Orleans know that the war had ended? (There was no way to let people know quickly what was going on across the world or across the country.) Ask: How would a message be sent from England to the United States during this time? (by boat)
Tell the students to remember Andrew Jackson's name because he will be coming up again in our study of early presidents as the seventh president of the United States.

 Fourth Grade - American History - Lesson 20 - James Monroe and Andrew Jackson

Objectives
Recognize the purpose of the Monroe Doctrine.
Become familiar with Andrew Jackson's presidency.

Materials
Classroom-size world map

Suggested Books
Teacher Reference
Hakim, Joy. The New Nation: A History of Us. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Lindop, Edmund. Presidents Who Dared: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson. New York: Henry Holt, 1995.
Smith, Carter. Presidents of a Young Republic. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1993.

Teacher Note
A Lesson on the "Trail of Tears" was taught in Second Grade History, Lesson 12.

Procedure
Explain to the students that so far the two presidents we have studied have been remembered for their great accomplishments in the development of the United States government -- Thomas Jefferson for The Declaration of Independence and James Madison for The Constitution.
Tell the students that the next president was James Monroe. As the fifth president of the United States, James Monroe also played an important role in forming the policies of American government. Explain to the students that during the time of Monroe's presidency there were Spanish colonies in Central and South America that were trying to break away from Spain in the same way that the United States had broken away from England. Ask: How do you think the Americans felt about other colonies trying to break away from their European rulers?
Explain that Monroe wrote a message to countries in Europe which had colonies in North or South America telling them to leave former colonies in Central and South America alone and in return America would not get involved in European wars or politics. Ask: Do you think the Europeans thought this was a fair plan? This message written by Monroe is called the Monroe Doctrine (write the name on the board). Tell the students that a doctrine is a policy or principle that someone encourages others to believe in or follow.
Ask: Why do you think Monroe sent the message that he did to the European countries? Remind the students that it had not been so long since Americans were under the rule of England and they could relate to the situations of other colonies. Direct the student's attention to the classroom world map. Ask the students to speculate where European countries might find other lands to colonize now that North and South America were off limits.
Ask: Who was the second president of the United States? (John Adams) Tell the students that his son John Quincy Adams became the sixth president of the United States. Explain to the students that up until now all the presidents of the United States were well-educated men who came from wealthy families. Explain that the seventh president, Andrew Jackson, changed this trend. Andrew Jackson came from a poor family that lived on the border between North and South Carolina. Ask: Does anyone remember the name of the battle that took place during the War of 1812 in which he fought? (The Battle of New Orleans) Explain that Jackson was a hero to many American people because he was a common man who made it all the way to become president of the United States.
Explain to the students that Andrew Jackson was also unlike the presidents that came before him because he did not like the formalities of government; instead he did things his own way. For example, Jackson didn't like attending regular cabinet meetings to consult with its members for advice. He instead discussed politics nightly in the kitchen with his advisors. Explain that the people who attended these nightly meetings became known as Jackson's "kitchen cabinet."
Tell the students that although Jackson was considered the "people's president," not all of Jackson's decisions pleased all Americans. Explain that during that time of Jackson's presidency many Americans dreamed of expanding the country westward. One of the obstacles they were met with was the Native Americans who already lived on this land. Explain that the solution that the president came up with was to simply move the Native Americans off their land. Ask: Do you think that was a fair way to resolve the problem?
Tell the students that in 1830 Jackson urged the U. S. Congress to pass the Indian Removal Act (write on the chalkboard). Explain that this act would force the Native Americans to leave their land and relocate to areas west of the Mississippi River. Tell the students that the act was passed and one group of Native Americans that it affected were the Cherokee Indians who lived in the southeastern United States, in the area that is now Georgia and South Carolina.
Tell the students that the leaders of the Cherokee Nation did not want to leave their land, but they were given five months to begin the journey to the Oklahoma Territory. Many Americans did not agree with this decision to make Native Americans leave land that had been previously promised to them in treaties with the United States. Explain that soldiers came and forced the Cherokee to leave their homes. Sometimes the people were allowed to take only the clothes they were wearing. The Cherokee houses were robbed and everything these people had was taken from them.
Tell the students that the Cherokee people were forced to walk over 800 miles to the area that is now the state of Oklahoma. Have children locate Georgia and Oklahoma on the map. Have a child trace the route that the people would have taken, from Georgia, up through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois and Missouri; down through Arkansas, over to Oklahoma.
Explain that it took more than one year for the Indians to travel to the new land. They were forced to travel over the Appalachian mountains, to walk without shoes in the snow and freezing mud, and to cross the Mississippi River. One out of every four Cherokee died during the trip. The Cherokee people called the route that they followed "The place where they cried." Today we call this route the "Trail of Tears."
When the Cherokee people got to Oklahoma, the government promised that they could live there "as long as the grass shall grow and the streams shall run." Ask: Do you think that is what happened? Allow students to speculate and explain why they feel or believe as they do. Explain that unfortunately the government did not keep its promise.
Ask the students to think about the following statement made by President Jackson "Any man is good enough to hold office." Ask: Do you agree with his statement? Ask: Who was able to vote during this time? (white males) Considering that at this time only white males were allowed to vote, is it possible for every good man to hold office? (Remind the students that neither women, Native Americans, nor black men could vote.) What statements would be better? For example how is the statement different if it reads, Any qualified man is good enough to hold office? Any qualified person is good enough to hold office? Have the students give their own suggestions.

Fourth Grade - American History - Lesson 21 - The Abolitionists

Objectives
Identify William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass as abolitionists.
Become familiar with their contributions to the fight against slavery.

Materials
Classroom-size map of the United States
1 per student
Student worksheets (included)

Suggested Book
Student Title
Keenan, Sheila. Frederick Douglass: Portrait of a Freedom Fighter. New York: Scholastic, 1995.

Teacher Reference
Hakim, Joy. The New Nation: A History of Us. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Jacobs, William Jay. Great Lives: Human Rights. New York: Charles Scribner's, 1990.
Short biographies of both William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass can be found in this collection.
Katz, William Loren. The Westward Movement and Abolitionism: A History of Multicultural America. Austin, TX: Steck-Vaughn, 1993.

Procedure
Tell the students that every person believes that certain goals are worth fighting for and certain causes or movements are worth supporting. For example, in the state of Maryland many people want to make sure that the Chesapeake Bay is protected from pollution, so their cause is saving the Chesapeake Bay. (Give examples of some of the other causes that people support and tell why people support them: animal rights, endangered animals, anti-drugs, public safety, human rights.) Ask the students what causes are important to them and why.
Explain that during the late 1800s many people supported causes that were important to them. Tell the students that they are going to be exploring the lives of some of the people who have made history because of their fight for social change.
Tell the students that before the Civil War there were many people who spoke out against slavery. These people were called abolitionists because they wanted to abolish or do away with the practice of slavery. Explain that two great figures they are going to learn about are Frederick Douglass and William Lloyd Garrison. Write the two men's names on the chalkboard. As you discuss each, record important facts about them. Tell the students that although these men both fought against slavery they led very different lives. Show the students pictures of both William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass from the above Suggested Books.
Explain that William Lloyd Garrison was a white man from Massachusetts. Have a student locate Massachusetts on a map of the United States. Ask: In which part of the United States is Massachusetts located? (northeast) Was slavery as common in the North as it was in the south? Explain that Garrison felt that slavery was such an evil practice that it affected every human being not just those who were slaves. Garrison once said, "Enslave but a single human being and the liberty of the world is in peril." Explain that the word "peril" means danger. Ask: What do you think he meant by this statement. Why would the liberty of people who weren't slaves also be in danger?
Tell the students that William Lloyd Garrison began publishing a newspaper called The Liberator. The Liberator was an abolitionist newspaper to spread the word about the wrongs of slavery. Explain that Frederick Douglass about whom we will be learning next, said this about the newspaper:

It became my meat and drink. My soul was set on fire. Its sympathy for my brethren in bonds -- its scathing denunciations of slaveholders -- its faithful exposures of slavery -- its powerful attacks upon the upholders of the institution -- sent a thrill of joy through my soul, such as I had never felt before!
Ask: Do you get the impression that Frederick Douglass agreed or disagreed with what was written in the newspaper? (agreed) Tell the students that Garrison published The Liberator until the 13th Amendment to the Constitution ended slavery. He is said to have closed its office saying The Liberator's mission had been accomplished. If possible read excerpts from the chapter on William Lloyd Garrison (pp 80-90) in Great Lives: Human Rights by William Jay Jacobs
Tell the students that Frederick Douglass was another man who spoke out fearlessly against slavery. Explain that Douglass led a life that was much different than Garrison. He knew first-hand what it was like to be a slave. Douglass was born a slave in Maryland and remained a slave until he was able to escape to New York City. Tell the students that Douglass lived for some time in Baltimore before escaping to freedom -- first as a slave for a family in the city and later he was hired out to work on ships being built in Baltimore Harbor.
Explain that in the northeast he became known as an excellent speaker and was asked to speak as a representative of a group called the Anti-Slavery Society. He traveled around the country speaking out against the cruelty of slave life. Douglass also edited an abolitionist newspaper which was titled The North Star. Ask: Why do you think he entitled his paper The North Star? (It was named after the fact that slaves oftentimes used the North Star to guide them as they escaped to the North.)
If possible, read Frederick Douglass: Portrait of a Freedom Fighter by Sheila Keenan or chapter 31 in The New Nation by Joy Hakim aloud to the class, as they both provide a clear overview of the life of Frederick Douglass.
Give each student a copy of the "People Who Have Made a Difference" worksheet. Ask the students to first chose either William Lloyd Garrison or Frederick Douglass to write about. Have the students complete the worksheet by doing the following things: write the historical figure's name on the line provided, record the personal history, write a sentence describing what the person was trying to change or affect under cause supported, and draw a picture of the person in the space provided on the right side.

Additional Activity
Compare and contrast the life and accomplishments of William Lloyd Garrison to that of Frederick Douglass. Construct a Venn diagram with the students on the chalkboard.
 
 

Fourth Grade - American History

Name ________________________________________________

People Who Have Made a Difference
 

Name of Historical Figure:

Cause supported:

 

Personal History:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fourth Grade - American History - Lesson 22 - The Reformers

Objectives
Identify the contributions of women reformers during the women's rights movement.
Identify Horace Mann's contributions to public education.

Suggested Books
Student Titles
Brill, Marlene Targ. Let Women Vote! Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1996.
Ferris, Jeri. Walking the Road to Freedom. Minneapolis, MN: Carolrhoda, 1988.
Gleiter, Jan and Kathleen Thompson. Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Milwaukee: Raintree, 1988.
Macht, Norman L. Sojourner Truth. New York: Chelsea Books, 1992.
Marzollo, Jean. My First Book of Biographies: Great Men and Women Every Child Should Know. New York: Scholastic, 1994.
McCully, Emily Arnold. The Ballot Box Battle. New York: Knopf, 1996.
McKissack, Patricia and Fredrick. Sojourner Truth: A Voice for Freedom. Hillside, NJ: Enslow, 1992.
________. Sojourner Truth: Ain't I a Woman? New York: Scholastic, 1992.
Shumate, Jane. Sojourner Truth and the Voice of Freedom. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1991.
Swain, Gwenyth. The Road to Seneca Falls: A Story About Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda, 1996.
Tolan, Mary and Susan Taylor-Boyd. Sojourner Truth: People Who Made a Difference. Milwaukee: Gareth Stevens, 1990.

Teacher Reference
Hakim, Joy. Liberty for All?: A History of Us. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Jacobs, William Jay. Great Lives: Human Rights. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1990.
Katz, William Loren. The Westward Movement and Abolitionism: A History of Multicultural America. Austin, TX: Steck-Vaughn, 1993.
Steinem, Gloria. Herstory: Women Who Changed the World. New York: Viking, 1995.
Washington, Margaret. Narrative of Sojourner Truth. New York: Random House, 1993.

Teacher Note
This month's Literature lesson on Sojourner Truth's "Ain't I a Woman" speech should be completed before this lesson.

Procedure
Ask: What were the people who spoke out against slavery prior to the Civil War called? (abolitionists) Tell the students that just as there were people who spoke out against slavery, there were many other causes that people believed were worth supporting.
Explain that one man believed that the way to make a positive change in our society would be to improve schools, especially public schools. That man was named Horace Mann (Write his name on the board). Explain that Horace Mann believed that the democracy of the United States depended on good, free, public schools. Ask: What is a democracy? (government
by the people) Remind the students that in a democracy the people elect their representatives and those people who govern them. Ask: What is important about people who live in a being educated? (If the people are making decisions that affect the government they should be educated.) Remind the students that during this time reading was the way that people had access to information. There were not any televisions or radios during this time, so for a person to stay informed about important issues they had to be able to read.
Tell the students that Mr. Mann himself had not been able to attend school because he was so poor that he had to work instead. Explain that Mann knew that in order for him to get others to believe in his ideas, he would have to get an education and learn to express himself well. He studied on his own and later was accepted to Brown University. Going on to become the Secretary of Education for the state of Massachusetts, other states called upon him for advice on how to improve their schools. Tell the students that Mann has been called the "Father of American Education." Ask the students to respond to the statement that a free, required public education is the greatest American invention. Ask: Do you agree? Disagree? Why?
Tell the students that men were not the only ones who supported causes in which they believed -- many women also spoke against injustices. One cause that was of particular interest to women was that of women's rights. Ask: Why do you think this was a cause that was important to women? (It affected them directly.)
Explain that women from many different backgrounds -- poor women; wealthy, well-educated women; white women; black women, supported the women's rights movement. Explain that just as many ingredients are needed to make the perfect meal, the contributions of many different women made the women's movement work. Ask the students to think of the contribution of each woman as an ingredient that adds to a recipe. As they are discussed, write the name of each women and the contribution she made to the women's rights movement on the board.
Tell the students that as with other women's rights reformers, Elizabeth Cady Stanton started as an abolitionist. Explain that Stanton felt that not only should blacks have the same rights as whites, but that women and men should also be treated as equals. Stanton met another female abolitionist named Lucretia Mott at an abolitionist meeting. Tell the students that at one meeting they both attended, men wouldn't let women sit with them. Explain that this made Mott and Stanton very angry, so they decided to organize the first women's conference, which was held in Seneca Falls, New York in July of 1848.
Tell the students that at the conference Stanton read a speech known as the Seneca Falls Declaration (write this title on the board). Explain that it was like Thomas Jefferson's Declaration of Independence except Stanton added two important words. Read the following excerpt to the students and ask them to listen for the words that are different.

We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

Ask: What words are different in Elizabeth Cady Stanton's address from those in the original Declaration of Independence? (and women) Explain that at the convention the women also decided on a list of demands that needed to be met in order to achieve equality with men. Included on the list were the right for women to attend college, own property, and to vote.
Explain that these rights were denied to women at this time, so the success of the Seneca Falls Convention was encouraging for women across the country.

Tell the students that in addition to the demands that were decided at the convention, there were other things that women felt needed to be changed. Explain that one woman, Amelia Bloomer, also thought that what was considered acceptable for women to wear should be changed. She felt that it wasn't fair that the only acceptable dress for women were uncomfortable skirts and dresses. Tell the students that during this time women were expected to wear skirts and dresses that were very uncomfortable -- waists laced very tightly, sometimes so tightly women could hardly breathe, and layers of skirts that were heavy and long enough to touch the floor. Explain that Bloomer had been shown an outfit that was being worn by women in England. The outfit was a pair of baggy pants gathered at the ankle with a knee-length skirt and long jacket covering the top of the pants. Bloomer liked them so much that she made an outfit for herself and the pants were from then on known as "bloomers."
Tell the students that the women they have heard about so far have been alike in that they were all well-educated, white women. Explain that the next woman they are going to learn about lived a very different life. Sojourner Truth not only was denied rights as a woman, but she was also denied rights as a person of color and former slave. Tell the students that Sojourner was born a slave in New York State. In 1826 Sojourner ran away; a year before New York freed its slaves. She dedicated her life to speaking out for truth and justice. Sojourner did not have the benefit of an education, she therefore did not know how to read or write, but became well known as a moving speaker. Tell the students that the most famous of Sojourner's speeches is her "Ain't I a Woman" speech, which she delivered at  women's rights convention in Ohio in 1851. Read the following excerpt from Sojourner Truth's speech aloud to the class:

Ain't I a woman? Look at me. Look at my arm. [And she showed powerful muscles.] I have ploughed, and planted, and gathered into barns, and no man could head me! And ain't I a woman? I could work as much and eat as much as a man -- when I could get it -- and bear the lash as well! And ain't I a woman? I have borne thirteen children, and seen them most all sold off to slavery, and when I cried out with my mother's grief, none but Jesus heard me! And ain't I a woman?
Ask: What point is she trying to get across to her audience by speaking about the hardships she has endured? (She is giving examples from her life to show that women are equal to men in many ways.) In what way is she saying women are equal to men in this excerpt? (Women are as strong as men.) If possible read aloud Chapter 23, "A Woman Named Truth," from Liberty for All? by Joy Hakim. Sojourner Truth overcame many obstacles and went on to contribute a great deal to the reform movement. Ask: How was Sojourner Truth's life different from the other women reformers we have learned about? (She was a black women. She was a slave. She was not educated. She was not wealthy)

Bibliography

Student Titles
Brill, Marlene Targ. Let Women Vote! Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1996. (1-56294-589-0)
Ferris, Jeri. Walking the Road to Freedom. Minneapolis, MN: Carolrhoda, 1988.(0-87614-318-4)
Ferris, Jeri. What Are You Figuring Now? Minneapolis, MN: Carolrhoda, 1988. (0-87614-331-1)
Fritz, Jean. The Great Little Madison. New York: Putnam, 1989. (0-399-21768-1)
Gleiter, Jan and Kathleen Thompson. Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Milwaukee: Raintree, 1988.(0-8172-2677-X)
Greene, Carol. Thomas Jefferson: Author, Inventor, President. Chicago: Children's Press, 1991. (0-516-44224-4)
Keenan, Sheila. Frederick Douglass: Portrait of a Freedom Fighter. New York: Scholastic, 1995. (0-590-48356-0)
Macht, Norman L. Sojourner Truth. New York: Chelsea Books, 1992. (0-7910-1754-0)
Marzollo, Jean. My First Book of Biographies: Great Men and Women Every Child Should Know. New York: Scholastic, 1994. (0-590-45014-X)
McCully, Emily Arnold. The Ballot Box Battle. New York: Knopf, 1996. (0-679-97938-7)
McKissack, Patricia and Fredrick. Sojourner Truth: A Voice for Freedom. Hillside, NJ: Enslow, 1992. (0-89490-313-6)
________. Sojourner Truth: Ain't I a Woman? New York: Scholastic, 1992. (0-590-44691-6)
Pinkney, Andrea Davis. Dear Benjamin Banneker. San Diego: HBJ, 1994. (0-15-200417-3)
Quackenbush, Robert. James Madison & Dolley Madison and Their Lives. New York: Pippin Press, 1992. (0-945912-18-8)
Shumate, Jane. Sojourner Truth and the Voice of Freedom. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1991. (1-56294-041-4)
Swain, Gwenyth. The Road to Seneca Falls: A Story About Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Minneapolis:Carolrhoda, 1996. (0-87614-947-6)

Teacher Reference
Banfield, Susan. James Madison: A First Book. New York: Franklin Watts, 1986.(0-531-10217-3)
Bruns, Roger. World Leaders Past & Present: Thomas Jefferson. New York: Chelsea House, 1986. (0-87754-583-9)
Carter, Alden R. The War of 1812. New York: Franklin Watts, 1992. (0-531-20080-9)
Clinton, Susan. Encyclopedia of Presidents: James Madison. Chicago, Children's Press, 1986.(0-516-01382-3)
Hakim, Joy. Liberty for All?: A History of Us. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. (0-669-36836-9)
Hakim, Joy. The New Nation: A History of Us. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. (0-669-36835-0)
Jacobs, William Jay. Great Lives: Human Rights. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1990. (0-684-19036-2)
Katz, William Loren. The Westward Movement and Abolitionism: A History of Multicultural America. Austin, TX: Steck-Vaughn, 1993. (0-8114-6276-5)

 Bibliography

Teacher Reference
Lindop, Edmund. Presidents Who Dared: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson. New York: Henry Holt, 1995. (0-8050-3401-3)
Morris, Jeffrey. The Jefferson Way. Minneapolis, MN: Carolrhoda, 1994. (0-8225-2926-2)
Patterson, Charles. Thomas Jefferson: A First Book. New York: Franklin Watts, 1987.(0-531-10306-4)
Smith, Carter. Presidents of a Young Republic. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1993.(1-56294-359-6)
Steinem, Gloria. Herstory: Women Who Changed the World. New York: Viking, 1995. (0-670-85434-4)
Washington, Margaret. Narrative of Sojourner Truth. New York: Random House, 1993.(0-679-74035-X)
Wilson, Ruth. Our Blood and Tears: Black Freedom Fighters. New York: Putnam, 1972.