Fourth Grade - Visual Arts - Overview - February

The Visual Arts lessons for the month of February follow the World History curriculum, continuing the unit on the study of the Middle Ages. The first lesson continues the study of Medieval religious art by taking a look at the stained glass produced for the Gothic cathedrals that the students looked at in the previous lesson.
The next three lessons concentrate on secular life in the Middle Ages and the expression of the arts in that realm. The second lesson looks at Medieval castles, their purpose and their architecture, with two optional activities. Next the students look at needlework, both in the Unicorn tapestries and in the so-called Bayeux tapestry (which is really embroidery on plain woven linen). In this lesson, they see how valuable these works of art have been as source materials to historians of the period in a way that the students may recognize as being similar to some of the quilts and paintings produced in the colonial period in America.
The final lesson this month centers on an activity related to the tradition of Medieval Bestiaries, those wonderful collections that pictured beasts real and imaginary in graphic detail, usually accompanied by a somewhat moralistic tale or poem.

Fourth Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 20 - Stained Glass

Objectives
Observe examples of stained glass in Gothic cathedrals.
Recall religious nature of Medieval art (Visual Arts Lesson 16).
Recall use of stained glass art as tool for teaching people who could not read.
Complete an activity simulating stained glass.

Materials
Illustrations of stained glass windows from Gothic cathedrals, see Suggested Books
Black construction paper, scissors, glue, and colored cellophane or colored tissue
Compass or pattern for drawing perfect circles (at least 5" diameter) on paper
String and stapler (optional for hanging in window)

Suggested Books
Teacher Reference & for showing illustrations to class
Batterberry, Michael. Art of the Middle Ages. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971.
Many beautiful examples of stained glass in unusually large color format are found on pp. 110 to 114. Batterberry also gives a good description of a rose window in that section. The facades of the 4 cathedrals shown on pp. 98 and 99 all have large rose windows; the students can clearly see the tracery and shapes, plus the fact that the color is not really visible from the outside, since no light is shining through.
Gandiol-Coppin, Brigitte. Cathedrals: Stone upon Stone. Ossining, NY: Young Discovery Library, 1989.
A good explanation of how glassmakers contributed to the building of Gothic cathedrals. The painting on p. 23 by Dominique Thibault, features lots of the "heavenly blue" so common in a typical Virgin and Child paintings of the time.
Hirsch, E. D., Jr., ed. What Your 4th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
Black-and-white photos of rose windows from two French cathedrals are on pp. 232 and 233, along with text (beginning on p. 231) explaining the use and importance of stained glass windows (rose windows in particular) and directions for making a small rose window similar to the one we suggest in this lesson.
Howarth, Sarah. Medieval People. Brookfield, CT: The Millbrook Press, 1992.
Fine examples of stained glass are on pp. 22-23 and 31.
Langley, Andrew. Medieval Life. New York: Knopf and London: Dorling Kindersley, 1996.
"The Art of Decoration," on pp. 34 and 35 tells how Medieval stained glass was made,
the materials used for various colors, and good, life-size photographs of the tools that were used.
Macdonald, Fiona. A Medieval Cathedral. New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1992.
Examples of stained glass art are found on p. 26, which is designated "The Bible of the Poor."

Procedure
Begin the class by reviewing the characteristics of Medieval art (its generally Christian and religious nature, its use as a teaching tool for the largely illiterate population, and its expression in Gothic cathedrals: in the form of architecture; sculpture in stone, wood, and ivory; wall paintings; its largely symbolic nature with little regard for time and space; its use of the Bible for subject matter). If you have some of the books suggested in Lessons 16-20, show some examples as the students note the characteristics.
Next, show some examples of Medieval stained glass. Have the students identify the elements of art in the examples they see. Color will be one of the main elements they notice and they may be interested to know the way the glass was colored, adding metal oxides to the molten glass or placing colored material between two clear sheets of glass, melting and then cooling again before cutting into puzzle-like pieces. They will be able to identify geometric shapes such as circles, squares, quatrefoils (the French term for four-leafed shapes), which they may also see on shields and banners from Medieval France, and many other curved forms. Tell them that the paintings were created on large "cartoons," or sketches and then transferred to the individual pieces of glass. Lead was used to fuse and connect the individual pieces of colored glass, and sometimes a special kind of paint known as "grisaille" was used to further define faces, and features. The stonework that they see surrounding and defining the overall shapes of stained glass windows are called tracery. Put the word on the board and have the students say it once or twice as they identify it in photographs of rose windows from the outside, where it is particularly obvious.
Tell the students that as they walk around downtown Baltimore, they will not be able to see brilliant stained glass windows, because it is the light of the sun shining through the windows that brings out the color. Tell them that light is probably the most important element in the art of stained glass windows. (They can see a rose window on the facade of the Methodist Church at Charles and Monument Streets. Again, they will see the tracery and shapes from the outside, but would have to go inside on a sunny day to see the color.) If colored illustrations of stained glass windows are large enough, you may want to identify the (usually Biblical) characters for the students and remind them that these windows were a way for illiterate people to learn about the stories of Christianity on the one hand, and a way of extending the available space and light inside Gothic cathedrals from an architectural point of view. (Rose windows most often picture Christ and/or his mother, the Virgin Mary. The students may want to comment on the differences in the portrayal of Christ as baby they have seen in paintings with the portrayal of Christ in the rose windows you show them.)

Activity - Rose Window
1. Give each student 2 pieces of black construction paper put together with a paper clip so all the edges are even. Using a pencil, have them trace around a perfect circle or create one with a compass. The circle should be as large as the size of the paper will allow.

2. Having 2 identical black circles exactly on top of one another, have the students fold them together once, in half; then again, in quarters; for a third time, in 8ths. From here on, the process is similar to making a snowflake except that they should not make any cuts in the open rounded edge, otherwise the round shape of the rose window would disappear. Encourage them to make as many cuts as possible in the folded sides. (Demonstrate for them, emphasizing how simple the cutout shapes can be so they won't be tempted to cut all the way through.)

3. Have them open their 2 circles and ask them what architectural term would name what they have so far made (tracery). Let them choose colored tissue (or colored cellophane) to create the "stained glass" whose shapes will be determined by the shapes they have created with the
tracery.

4. Have them glue the 2 identical black traceries together, making sure to match them carefully,
to enclose the pieces of color. If you wish to hang them in the windows, a piece of string can be stapled to the completed rose windows. (If the cutout, colored shapes are large enough, students may choose to define them further with black magic markers.)

Fourth Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 21 - Medieval Castles

Note for the Teacher
This lesson is designed to reinforce and supplement some material of this month's World History curriculum. It should not be taught before they have learned about feudalism and chivalry. Since there is such a wealth of titles available to youngsters about castles, knights, and related subjects, the students will be asked to divide into groups, choose a book, and do some simple research before answering some questions and proceeding to an activity. The Suggested Book list below is just a fraction of what is available at most libraries.

Objectives
Examine a book about castles and read some parts of it for information.
Recall the basic class distinctions among people in secular feudal society.
Observe the architecture of Medieval castles.
Identify Medieval castles as homes for lords, vassals, and knights.
Make a Venn diagram comparing and contrasting Medieval castles and Gothic cathedrals (optional).
Complete a simple castle-building project (optional).

Materials
Illustrations of Medieval castles, see Suggested Books
Illustrations of Gothic cathedrals, see Suggested Books for Visual Arts Lesson 19.
Scrap paper and pencils for taking notes
Paper, pencils, scissors, cardboard, tempera and brushes (optional)

Suggested Books
Student Titles
Brochard, Philippe. Castles of the Middle Ages. Morristown, NJ: Silver Burdett, 1985.
Each section is illustrated by a reproduced Medieval miniature plus cartoon-like colored drawings showing aspects of everyday life in a castle plus the activities it supported (jousting, heraldry, warfare, games, the code of chivalry, and so on).
Cox, Phil Roxbee. What were castles for? London: Usborne, 1994.
One of the Usborne Starting Point series, this is organized around a series of questions a youngster might ask about life under the feudal system. The drawings are lively and it is easily read independently.
Gravett, Christopher. Knight. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1993.
Another of the Eyewitness series, this has full-color photos of 2 typical Medieval castles clearly built primarily for defense that would be useful as contrasts to cathedrals. They
are on pp. 22-25.
Unstead, R. J. See Inside a Castle. New York: Warwick Press, 1986.
Large and detailed drawings illustrate the insides and outsides of a typical late Medieval stone castle and its chief function as means of protection and defense against enemies.
Vaughan, Jenny. Castles. New York: Franklin Watts, 1984.
A small book, this has the basics and can be read independently by 4th graders. Includes both clear drawings and some colored photos of Medieval castles still standing.
Warwick, Alan R. Let's Look at Castles. Chicago: Albert Whitman, 1965.
Not a recent book, but it is a wonderful history of castle-building in England, beginning
with the first Frankish and Norman castles and including the architectural changes that were the result of the Crusades and contact with Muslim and Saracen buildings. It is well written and makes an exciting story to read aloud to fourth graders.
Books for Castle-Building Activities
Nevett, Louise, illustrator. Build Your Own Castle. New York: Watts, 1985.
A how-to book for students of Grades 3-6, this consists entirely of illustrations and
simple directions that students themselves can follow. Materials are easy to come by (plastic bottles, cardboard, milk/juice cartons, etc.) and projects include many individual parts of a castle including towers and battlements, gatehouse and drawbridge, lances, pennants, and shields. This could guide an ongoing class project over a period of several weeks.
Oliver, Victoria Prego de. Castles. London: Wayland Publishers, 1979.
Part of a Read and Build series, this is similar to the Nevett book, listed above, but more complex. In addition to detailed instructions for building all sections of a castle, shields, standards, and a particularly accessible design for a knight's helmet, there are photos of Medieval castles and explanatory texts good for reading aloud.

Procedure
Begin the class by setting out a variety of books about castles. Divide the class into groups of 4-6 students and have each group settle down with a book. Say to them: For today's lesson, you are going to be the information gatherers about our subject. You already know some things about feudalism in Europe from your History lessons, and these books will help you to learn more about Medieval castles, that is castles that were built during the Middle Ages in Western Europe.
Have the students take out scrap paper and pencils for taking notes as you write some questions on the board to guide their research. Have a student read each of the questions aloud to be sure everyone understands them.

1. Which classes of people lived in castles?
2. What material were most castles built of during the 12th and 13th centuries?
3. What are the 2 main purposes of a castle?
4. How would you describe the architecture of Medieval castles?

Give the students time to find the information and write it on scrap paper if they wish. Each group may operate differently, and they should be given as much independence as possible, as long as they are able to gather the information guided by the questions on the board. Give them 10 or 15 minutes for this as you circulate around the room to give help where needed. (You may have to repeat the questions for them if you find a group that is not on track with the assignment.)
When the students are ready, discuss the information they have gathered, based on the questions on the board, and write all the reasonable answers, by number. They might include:

1. royalty, lords, vassals, knights
2. stone
3. protection (as in a fortress) and living (as in a home); castles have to combine both
4. Answers may vary widely. Accept all that indicate the students have observed carefully the illustrations in their particular books and read some of the descriptions. They will certainly notice the thickness of walls, the elevation of the building, and the small size and number of windows. They may note the crenellations or raised and lowered sections of stonework useful as battlements in defense (element of line) in some, the presence of shapes such as cylinders, rectangles, etc., the relative lack of light, little variety in color, and so on.

Optional Activity - Venn Diagram
You could brainstorm a Venn diagram comparing and contrasting a typical castle and cathedral of the same period with the students if there is time and interest. Its content would be based on the answers they have gathered to the 4 questions. They would probably note the similarity of building material, strength of walls, verticality. Contrasts would include the tendency to include larger and larger windows in cathedrals, the use of stained glass and sculpture on the outside, whereas the only art work in castles would be found on the inside. Other important differences would be contrasting purposes (one to bring all classes of people inside) the other to protect and house particular people. Again, the objective here would be to let the students use their powers of deduction and inference as independently as possible on the basis of information they have gathered themselves. Congratulate them on these things.

Optional Activity - Simple Castle Building
You may decide to undertake an extended class project of castle building based on one of the Suggested Books above, whose directions are extremely clear for students of this age and materials easy to gather. A relatively simple activity for individuals, easily completed in a short time, is adapted from one suggested by Linda Horn (Core Knowledge School, Parker, CO). We have made a pattern that can be photocopied for students to use, but they should be encouraged to make whatever decorations and/or modifications that would individualize the castle. The students should:

1. Cut out the pattern on all the solid lines, folding on the dotted lines.
2. Doors and windows are easier to cut after the basic castle has been cut and folded.
3. The whole structure can be glued down to a piece of cardboard and painted with tempera.
 

Fourth Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 22 - Medieval Needlework

Note to the Teacher
This lesson is designed to reinforce and supplement some of the material from World History for this month. It should not be taught before the students have learned about the Battle of Hastings.

Objectives
Learn that Medieval tapestries were woven on looms.
Observe some details from the Unicorn tapestries.
Recall the historical story depicted in the Bayeux Tapestry (from History Lesson 27).
Identify the figures on the Bayeux Tapestry as embroidered, not woven into the cloth.
Note the uses of Medieval art works as historical source materials.

Materials
Classroom-size map of Europe
Illustrations of the Unicorn tapestries and the Bayeux tapestry, see Suggested Books

Suggested Books
Student Titles
Beckett, Sister Wendy. The Duke and the Peasant: Life in the Middle Ages. New York & Munich: Prestel-Verlag, 1997.
Full-page reproductions of the calendar pages from the Duc de Berry's illuminated Book of Hours, with details decorating the facing pages. Beckett describes the 12 scenes with her inimitable blend of artistic appreciation and historical knowledge.
Giblin, James Cross. The Truth About Unicorns. New York: HarperCollins, 1991.
Six tapestries from The Hunt of the Unicorn series are presented in this book, illustrated with drawings by Michael McDermott.
Hirsch, E. D., Jr., ed. What Your 4th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
A black-and-white photo of one of the Unicorn tapestry series is on p. 131. A detail from the Bayeux tapestry and its historical background in the Battle of Hastings are found on pp. 133-135.
Howarth, Sarah. What Do We Know About the Middle Ages? New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1995.
The entire front and back endpapers are a detail in color from a German tapestry of ca. 1410 that shows men and women haying.
McGraw, Eloise. The Striped Ships. Macmillan, 1991.
This is a wonderful, historically accurate novel about an 11-yr-old girl at time of 1066. Her father is a Saxon noble, and she tells the story from the point of view of those who have been defeated and displaced by the Normans. She ends up utilizing her needlework skills by participating in the creation of the Bayeux tapestry. It is a chapter book and probably too difficult for most fourth graders to read independently, but would be an excellent choice for reading aloud to a class all during the Medieval History unit. It is based on good research and is lively and filled with details of everyday living and convincing family relationships.
Williams, Helen. Stories in Art. Brookfield, CT: The Millbrook Press, 1991.
A refreshing approach to works of art by way of the stories they tell, the art works chosen to reproduce cross cultures and centuries very freely for the sake of thematic grouping.
Especially useful for this lesson is a reproduction of the French tapestry "Lady with Lion,  Animals, and Flowers" on p. 17 and a two-page reproduction of "Harold's Oath to William" from the Bayeux tapestry on pp. 26 and 27. On pp. 8 and 9 Williams shows calendar pages from the Duke de Berry's Book of Hours with all their delightful domestic detail.
Teacher Reference & for showing illustrations to class
Batterberry, Michael, adapted by. Art of the Middle Ages. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964.
An excellent, large (2 full pages) color reproduction of a close-up of the Bayeux Tapestry clearly shows the 8 colors and the stitchery on pp. 92 and 93. Another two-page
enlargement on pp. 117-118 shows a detail from a French religious tapestry (commissioned by Duke of Anjou in the late 14th century) that includes some magnificent lions and a sun radiating brilliant red rays.
Gaffron, Norma. Unicorns. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1989.
This is part of a large series called Great Mysteries: opposing viewpoints. A few of the Cluny tapestries are reproduced in black and white. The Cloisters unicorn tapestries are illustrated and the stories they tell are discussed on pp. 76-83.

Video
Cloisters. Home Vision CLO 01, 1989. (Call number at library: VID 708.1G)
This 27 minute video shows the best of the Medieval art at the Cloisters, which is part of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. The Unicorn tapestries are at the Cloisters and shown in color in this video.

Procedure
Begin the class by having the students gather around you and showing them some colored reproductions of any part of the Bayeux tapestry from one of the Suggested Books. Ask them to identify anything they see. (It might be arrows, boats, sails, soldiers, swords, animals, birds, and so on.) Next, ask them: What do you think is happening here? (Accept any reasonable answers.) Encourage them and give them hints so they figure out that this is the story of the Battle of Hastings. Ask someone to tell the class about the Battle of Hastings, when and where it took place, and the names of some of the main characters in the story according to what they have learned in World History this month.
Ask the students: What other works of art have you seen that tell a story? (Washington Crossing the Delaware and, possibly other paintings commemorating battle from the American Revolution) Ask them: Does Leutze's painting tell the whole story of the Battle of Trenton or just one scene from the story? (1 scene) Tell the students that the Bayeux tapestry tells the whole story of the Battle of Hastings and they are looking at just one very small section of it. Say to them: This artwork is 230 feet long (estimate that length, perhaps the length of one side of their school building), and it is not a painting, but a long, continuous piece of cloth with all the pictures embroidered in needlework. (Establish what needlework is -- crocheting, handmade lace, cross stitch, etc.) It has 72 different scenes, running continuously, one after the other.
Ask the students: do you think this artwork was made by one artist? (no) Tell them it involved many, many people. Someone made a sketch of all the scenes; someone enlarged the sketches into what they called "cartoons" the actual size of the artwork, people dyed the yarns with plant materials, someone wove the background fabric on a loom, and then many skilled needleworkers -- probably women -- made the actual designs that tell the story. How many colors
do you see in this section? (There are 8 different colors in all. See whether they can give some of them names.) Ask them: How long have these designs and colors lasted? (1997-1066' 931 years)
Does that seem a long time for something made of fabric to last?
Ask the students to tell you what besides designs and pictures they see on the Bayeux tapestry (some kind of writing). Ask them: Do you think the writing is embroidered or painted? (embroidered) Can you read any of it? (If they happen to be looking at a panel with the proper name, such as Harold, they may be able to; otherwise probably not.) What language do you think this is? (Latin) Why would it be Latin when the artwork was made in England? (Latin was the language of the Church and of all well-educated people in Western Europe in the Middle Ages.)
Ask the students: What kinds of lines do you see and where? (curved, wavy lines for water and in design of ship; diagonals in decorative border, some swords and arrows, etc. let them point out the particular lines they identify) Ask them: What kinds of animals do you see in the borders that decorate this work of art? (They will be able to identify some as birds, a lion, a dog, but in general, they will find the animals are combinations of different characteristics, such as the wings of a bird and the body of a lion. Have them describe the different animal parts that they recognize.) Say to them: You can see what an excellent historical source the Bayeux tapestry is. It tells us how the soldiers in the Battle of Hastings were dressed, what their weapons were, what the Norman boats looked like, and much more. Do you think the animals in the borders are good historical source material for learning what animals looked like in 1066? (no) Tell the students that in the Middle Ages, people believed in many different mythological (refer to myth as source for the word) beasts. Some of them were reported by sailors exploring unknown seas and faraway lands. Some of them probably came from people's imaginations and stories were made up about them and passed along from generation to generation, like legends and fairy tales.
Tell the students that one of these legendary beasts was called a unicorn. Ask whether anyone has ever seen pictures of a unicorn, or a story about one. If so, let the person tell the rest of the class about it. Show them some reproductions of the Unicorn tapestries, and tell them that these tapestries were made towards the end of the Middle Ages, several hundred years after the Bayeux tapestry. Say to them: These are really tapestries, not embroidered cloth. That means that all of these figures and flowers were woven into the tapestries as the cloth was woven on the loom. Tell them that most of the Medieval tapestries that have lasted all these years were made either in France or in Belgium (have someone point them out on the map) and that very wealthy lords commissioned tapestries as artwork to hang in their castles for their colorful beauty and to help keep out the cold that seeped into the stone walls during the winter.
Tell the students that the Unicorn tapestries tell a story about hunting a unicorn, killing it, presenting it to the lord and lady of the castle, and -- in the last scene -- about the unicorn coming back to life and frolicking within a fenced off, round area in a flower-filled field. Say to them: The Unicorn tapestries are not continuous like the Bayeux tapestry. Each scene is separate and tells just one part of the story.

Fourth Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 23 - Activity Inspired by Medieval Bestiaries

Objectives
Note that Medieval bestiaries featured animals both real and imaginary.
Note that texts for bestiaries included brief texts, rhymed and unrhymed, usually with a moral.
Create a page of a bestiary with text and illustration.

Materials
Examples of modern books in the tradition of Medieval bestiaries, see Suggested Books
Oak tag or other heavy paper, preferably off-white in color
Crayons, markers, and pens

Suggested Books
Dickey, James. Tucky the Hunter. New York: Crown, 1978.
One continuous poem about a child traveling around the world in his imagination, hunting for animals. Marie Angel's watercolor paintings of the animals he encounters are not only delicate but they incorporate decorated initials as well.
Farber, Norma. When It Snowed That Night. New York: HarperCollins, 1993.
Farber includes some surprising animals among those traveling to the Nativity. Her poems are expressively illustrated with the rich colors of Petra Mathers. Boxed initials begin each poem.
Florian, Douglas. beast feast. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1994.
These animals are all real, but Florian's poems and paintings are highly fanciful.
________. in the swim. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1997.
Delightful poems and paintings are by the author, and all the creatures live in the sea.
Gardner, John. A Child's Bestiary. New York: Knopf, 1977.
The poems are amusing as are the line drawings by Lucy, Joel, Joan & John Gardner. All the animals have expressive faces and are recognizable except the phoenix and the yeti.
Hughes, Ted. Under the North Star. New York: Viking, 1981.
Dramatic animal portraits by Leonard Baskin and 23 animal poems by British poet Ted Hughes.
Kennedy, X. J. The Beasts of Bethlehem. New York: Macmillan, 1992.
The 19 poems, each in the voice of the creature itself, are illustrated By Michael McCurdy.
Nash, Ogden. Ogden Nash's Zoo. New York: Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 1987.
A small book with Nash's witty, short poems about birds and animals, illustrated in subtly shaded black and white drawings by Etienne Delessert. All the creatures are real except for the last two -- the phoenix and the grynch.
Prelutsky, Jack, selected by. The Beauty of the Beast: Poems From the Animal Kingdom. New York: Knopf, 1997.
The poems are all about animals; some by Prelutsky, many others by a variety of well- known (mostly living) poets. The layout and wonderful watercolors by Meilo So illustrate every animal named in the poems, and it is obvious that the artist has read each poem and let it inspire her illustrations.

Procedure
Write the word bestiary on the board and ask the students to guess at the meaning of the
word (according to the dictionary : "a Medieval allegorical or moralizing work on the appearance and habits of real or imaginary animals" [Webster's Collegiate, 10th ed.]) Write the word beast on the board as well and show them the connection. Tell them that bestiaries were collections of
tales about all kinds of beasts -- birds, reptiles, and mammals -- that people in the Middle Ages made. They had illustrations as well as the little stories, and they were about real beasts and also beasts that were imaginary or mythical. They might be beasts that combined different parts of humans and birds, or that combined parts of several different kinds of beasts.
Ask the students: Who remembers the mythical beast we saw last time that was in some famous French Medieval tapestries? (unicorn) What did the unicorn look like? (Accept any reasonable answers.) Some of the fanciful beasts (especially the sea creatures) were described by sailors exploring unknown waters who came upon creatures they had never seen before and -- since they saw only parts of them above the water and found them frightening and unfamiliar -- they imagined the parts they couldn't see or didn't recognize. Often the little tales or stories that described each creature were in the form of poems and had some kind of a lesson or moral for the people reading them.
This would be a good time to share one or more of the Suggested Books with the class. Point out the special qualities the writer and illustrator have given to the animals and discuss with the class instances of humor, of magic, and/or of morals (as they read in Aesop's Fables) that may be included.
Tell the students that they will be creating a page for a class Bestiary, providing an illustration and either a poem or a few paragraphs telling about the animal they have chosen to portray. Brainstorm with them about what they might name an imaginary beast (for example, a rippo might combine the head of a rhinoceros and body of a hippopotamus). Have them think hard about what particular feature of a real animal they think is funniest, most noteworthy, or gives the animal some special powers or qualities they would enjoy writing about.
Have them work out their little poems or paragraphs on scrap paper first, then pass out the heavy paper, markers, crayons and pens. Once they have plotted where the creature will be placed and where the text will go in relation to it, have them copy their texts in pen or marker, then draw their animal, real or imaginary, with its name in bold as title. They may want another chance to decorate an initial as they did in their illuminated manuscript activity. Let them each read their texts aloud to the rest of the class and hold up the drawing for the rest to see before hanging them up in the classroom.

Bibliography

Student Titles
Batterberry, Michael, adapted by. Art of the Middle Ages. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964.
Beckett, Sister Wendy. The Duke and the Peasant: Life in the Middle Ages. New York & Munich: Prestel-Verlag, 1997. (3-7913-1813-6)
Brochard, Philippe. Castles of the Middle Ages. Morristown, NJ: Silver Burdett, 1985. (0-382-06610-3)
Cox, Phil Roxbee. What were castles for? London: Usborne, 1994. (0-88110-729-8)
de Oliver, Victoria Prego. Castles. London: Wayland Publishers, 1979. (0-85340-634-0)
Dickey, James. Tucky the Hunter. New York: Crown, 1978. (0-517-53258-1)
Farber, Norma. When It Snowed That Night. New York: HarperCollins, 1993. (0-06-021707-3)
Florian, Douglas. beast feast. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1994. (0-15-295178-4)
________. in the swim: poems and paintings. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1997. (0-15-201307-5)
Gaffron, Norma. Unicorns. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1989. (0-89908-063-4)
Gandiol-Coppin, Brigitte. Cathedrals: Stone upon Stone. Ossining, NY: Young Discovery Library, 1989. (0-944589-24-3)
Gardner, John. A Child's Bestiary. New York: Knopf, 1977. (0-394-93483-0)
Giblin, James Cross. The Truth About Unicorns. New York: HarperCollins, 1991. (0-06-022479-7)
Gravett, Christopher. Knight. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1993. (0-679-93882-6)
Hirsch, E. D., Jr., ed. What Your 4th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
Howarth, Sarah. Medieval People. Brookfield, CT: The Millbrook Press, 1992. (1-56294-153-4)
________. What Do We Know About the Middle Ages? New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1995.(0-87226-384-3)
Hughes, Ted. Under the North Star. New York: Viking, 1981. (0-670-73942-1)
Kennedy, X. J. The Beasts of Bethlehem. New York: Macmillan, 1992. (0-689-50561-2)
King, Penny & Clare Roundhill. Stories. New York: Crabtree, 1996. (0-86505-852-0)
Langley, Andrew. Medieval Life. New York: Knopf and London: Dorling Kindersley, 1996. (0-679-98077-8)
Macdonald, Fiona. A Medieval Cathedral. New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1992. (0-87226-350-9)
McGraw, Eloise. The Striped Ships. Macmillan, 1991. (0-689-50532-9)
Nash, Ogden. Ogden Nash's Zoo. New York: Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 1987. (0-941434-95-8)
Nevett, Louise, illustrator. Build Your Own Castle. New York: Watts, 1985. (0-531-04902-7)
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