Fourth Grade - Science - Overview - February
MSPAP practice tasks are not included in this month's lessons, but will accompany the lessons in March. While knowledge of the content of March's lessons is not necessary for success in the accompanying MSPAP tasks, familiarity with concepts presented in the lessons will add dimension to the tasks and contribute to the confidence level of the students. MSPAP tasks are best used in sequence.
Fourth Grade - Science - Lesson 29 - Respiratory System
Measure breathing rates and calculate breaths per minute.
Describe the general function of lungs and their relationship to the circulatory system.
Describe the observed differences in neck muscles around the voice box when making sounds of different pitches.
Clock with second hand
Diaram of respiratory system for transparency (attached)
Markle, Sandra. Outside and Inside You. New York: Bradbury, 1991. There is a photograph on page 29 of vocal cords and a discussion of how the vocal cords make sounds.
Morgan, Sally. The Human Body. New York: Kingfisher, 1996. Includes diagram of the respiratory system and an explanation of hiccups.
Parker, Steve. Brain Surgery for Beginners and Other Major Operations for Minors. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook, 1993. Contains a large illustration of a voice box and close-ups of the vocal cords in action.
Royston, Angela. The Human Body and How It Works. New York: Random House, 1990.
Excellent illustrations and diagrams plus a good explanation of hiccups.
Stein, Sara. The Body Book. New York: Workman Publishing, 1992. Written on a middle school level, this book presents information without oversimplification and offers a fascinating look at the steamy atmosphere inside lungs.
Ask the students to imagine that they are scuba divers. They are exploring some underwater caves off the coast of a tropical island. Ask the students to describe the kind of equipment they might need for the expedition. Possible answers might include flippers, face mask, underwater lights and air tanks. Ask: Why would air tanks be an important piece of your gear. (They are necessary as an air supply while underwater.) Why do you need an air supply? (because humans need to breathe oxygen) Ask the students to estimate how many times they breathe in (inhale) every minute. Accept all answers. Have the students watch the second hand of the clock and count how many breaths they take in 30 seconds and write down the total. Have them calculate how many breaths that is in one minute. Write on the board breaths per minute while sitting. Choose a sampling of ten students and write down their breath counts. Demonstrate or have a student come up and demonstrate how to calculate the average number of breaths in a minute for that sampling.
Ask the students to imagine that they are in a boat, ready to jump into the warm, sky-blue waters above the underwater caves. Someone suggests that the divers check their air tanks to see how much air is left in them. It takes 1 minutes to swim to the caves. When the air tanks are full they contain approximately 20 minutes of underwater air supply. The gauge on the air tanks says they are 1/4 full. Ask: How many minutes of air is left in the air tanks? (5 minutes) Is there enough air to reach the caves and then swim back? (yes) Using the average number of breaths per minute, sitting, approximately how many breaths of air is that? Ask: Do you think exercising might make you breathe faster? (yes) Have the students stand up and do toe touches or some other exercise for 30 seconds and then immediately sit down and count the number of times they breathe in during 30 seconds. Have them calculate how many breaths that is in one minute. Ask: Is the number higher than it is when sitting? Do you think exercise affects breathing rate? (yes) How? (Exercise makes breathing rate increase.) Tell the students that when our muscles work harder, they need more oxygen from the blood, so we breathe faster. Ask: If swimming makes a person breathe six times faster than sitting does, how many breaths of air would you need to take from the air tanks for every minute of swimming? (6 x number of breaths per minute, sitting)
Point out that the air tanks provide an essential air supply for divers. Humans and many other animals need air and the oxygen in it to survive. Write O2 on the board and explain that this is the symbol for oxygen. The air we breathe is a mixture of several different gases including O2. Ask: When we breathe in, where does the air go? (to our lungs) Show the students the transparency of the respiratory system. Point out that when we breathe in, the air is sucked through the nose or through the mouth. It then goes down the windpipe, past the voice box and to the lungs. Remind the students that in studying the circulatory system last month, they learned about how blood from the heart was sent to the lungs. Ask: Why does the heart send blood to the lungs? (to pick up oxygen) Remind the students that blood carries oxygen to all the cells in the body. The cells use the oxygen to make a chemical reaction called respiration. Write this word on the board. Tell the students that respiration is what enables every cell in our bodies, and almost all other living cells on the planet, to change food into energy. Beneath respiration, write O2 + food energy released. Ask: Why do cells need energy? (to do their work, to repair themselves, to make new cells) How does oxygen in blood get to cells? (It passes through thin walls of tiny capillaries.) Ask: What is passed back to the blood from the cells. (waste products) Tell the students that one of the wastes that cells make is a gas called carbon dioxide. Write CO2 on the board and tell the students that this is the symbol for carbon dioxide. Remind them that this waste product, CO2, is also carried by blood vessels. It is carried to the lungs and released there. Then when we exhale or breathe out, the CO2 is forced up the windpipe, past our voice boxes, through our noses or mouths and out of our bodies. Breathe in -- fresh supply of oxygen for body cells -- breathe out -- get rid of waste products from body cells. This exchange system is called the respiratory system. Write this on the board.
Point to the voice box on the transparency. Tell the students that inside the voice box are two flaps called vocal cords. When we make sounds, our neck muscles tighten and bring the vocal cords closer together. Air passes over them and they vibrate, making sounds. Have the students feel the outside of their necks while singing a low note and then a higher note. Ask: Can you feel the neck muscles working? Ask: What happens to neck muscles when the note is higher? (They stretch tighter or work harder) Ask the students to make a high squeaky sound while feeling the muscles in their necks. Ask: What happens to the neck muscles now? (They work even harder.) Ask: Do you usually breathe in or out when you talk? (out) Then is it a rush of O2 or CO2 that makes your vocal cords vibrate? (CO2)
Have the students do some research and write an answer to the question: What is a hiccup? What causes a hiccup?
Have students record the breathing rate (breaths per minute) and ages of friends and family members and compile the data in a chart. Ask: Does age seem to affect breathing rate?
Fourth Grade - Science - Lesson 30 - Respiratory System
Lung model activity adapted from Showy Science by Hy Kim and Science Projects About the Human Body by Robert Gardner.
Build a breathing lung model and demonstrate how the diaphragm works.
Describe how the vocal cords produce sound.
Transparency of respiratory system from last lesson
For each group of five students: Lung model directions and work sheet, a 2-liter clear plastic soda bottle (label washed off) with the bottom cut off, a balloon, a large balloon with the top cut off, a flexible drinking straw, a small and a large rubber band, large glob of modeling clay
A balloon, a mirror
Gardner, Robert. Science Projects About the Human Body. Hillside, NJ: Enslow, 1993.
Kim, Hy. Showy Science. Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1994.
Rustean, Jean. The Human Body. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1993. Good information on the diaphragm and on coughing, laughing and sneezing.
Sproule, Anna. Body Watch: Know Your Insides. New York: Facts On File, 1987. On pages 22 and 23 there is a very good discussion about how the diaphragm and chest muscles work.
Plastic bottles used in the lung model will need some preparation. The base can be removed by placing the bottle on its side and cutting with a knife or making an initial hole and using scissors to cut around the circumference.
Show the students the transparency of the respiratory system from the last lesson. Have them share their findings about hiccups. Ask: What is a hiccup? (A muscle spasm in the chest that sucks in a sudden rush of air through the windpipe) If the students have not uncovered this information, tell them that a flap that closes the windpipe when food is being swallowed snaps shut as air from the spasm rushes in. The air hits the closed flap and makes a "hic" sound. On the transparency, point out the diaphragm beneath the lungs. Tell the students that this is the strong, flat muscle whose spasm causes hiccups. Tell them that the diaphragm works to suck air into the lungs. Ask: What do you feel when you laugh? Do you feel air being pushed out of your lungs? Tell the students that when they laugh the diaphragm rises up and forces air out. Tell the students that in this lesson they will build a lung model and see how the diaphragm works to move air into and out of the lungs.
Divide the class into groups of five and distribute the materials and lung model directions. Have the groups assemble and demonstrate the lung models. When they are finished, point out that pulling down on the diaphragm makes more room inside the bottle. The air inside spreads out and there is lower air pressure inside the bottle or "chest." Ask: What happens when there is lower air pressure inside the bottle? (The balloon or lung inflates.) Why do you think the lung inflates? (Air from outside pushes in through the straw or windpipe to take up the extra room.) Ask: What happens when the diaphragm is pushed in? (There is less room for air inside
the bottle. The air goes out the straw or windpipe and the balloon or lung deflates.) Point out that this is what happens inside their chests, too. The diaphragm falls and makes more room in the chest. Air from outside rushes in through the windpipe and fills the lungs. Then the diaphragm rises and makes less room in the chest. Air is pushed out of the lungs.
Remind the students that when they studied the brain in the third grade, they learned that the surface area of the brain is as big as a pillow case but that it is wrinkled in order to fit inside the skull. The inside of a lung also has a lot of surface space. It is like a sponge with many tiny nooks and crannies. Tell them that if the inside surface of just one of their lungs was flattened out, it would cover an area the size of a playground!
Ask: How much air do you think your lungs can hold? (Accept all answers.) Tell the students that the amount of air their lungs can hold is called lung capacity. Ask a volunteer to come up to the front to demonstrate his or her lung capacity. Have the volunteer take a deep breath and blow into a balloon until the student has emptied his or her lungs. (Actually, the lungs are never fully emptied or they would collapse.) Quickly pinch the collar of the balloon so no air escapes. Show the students the lung capacity of the volunteer. Remind the students that they learned about vocal cords in the last lesson. Ask: How do vocal cords work? (Neck muscles tighten and bring the cords close together so they vibrate when air passes through them. Tell the students that you are going to stretch the opening of the balloon so the sides of the opening are close together. Now allow the air to slowly escape from the balloon. Ask: Why do you think we hear a sound when the air rushes out of the balloon? (The movement of the air out of the balloon is making the sides of the opening vibrate and make a noise.) Demonstrate how you can change the pitch of the sound by stretching the sides of the balloon opening tighter just as the neck muscles tighten to make our vocal cords produce a higher note. Ask a student to describe what happens before a sneeze. If the student does not do so, point out that before a sneeze, the lungs suck in a lot of air. Then the air is forced out very quickly through the nose. Tell the students that scientists have measured the speed of the air rushing down and out of the nose in a sneeze. It moves at over 100 miles per hour!
Ask: What do you see when you are outside on a cold day and breathe
out? (steam) Have a student volunteer come up and breathe on a mirror.
Ask the volunteer: What happened to the mirror after you breathed on it?
(It fogged.) Have the student touch the fogged mirror. Ask: Is it wet?
(yes) Ask: Why does the mirror fog? (The air from lungs is warm and moist.
When it hits the cold glass, it cools and condenses into tiny droplets.)
Ask: What does this tell you about the atmosphere inside your lungs? (It
is warm and wet.) Tell the students that next lesson they will learn about
what happens inside the nooks and crannies of their spongy lungs.
To Make A Model of a Breathing Lung
Top part of a 2-liter plastic soda bottle
A large balloon with the top cut off
A drinking straw
A large and a small rubber band
A glob of modeling clay
1. Stretch the large balloon over the bottom of the plastic soda bottle and secure it with the large rubber band.
2. Stretch the opening of the small balloon over the end of the drinking straw. Secure it tightly with the small rubber band.
3. Carefully slip the small balloon end of the straw into the bottle but do not let go of the other end of the straw.
4. With a few inches of the straw sticking out the top, use the glob of clay to seal up the opening of the bottle all around the straw so no air will leak in or out.
5. Reach under the bottle and carefully pull the stretchy bottom down a little bit.
What happens to the balloon inside the bottle? ____________________________
What happens to the balloon when you let the stretchy part go?
Why do you think this happened?______________________________________
Draw a diagram below of the lung model you have made. Label the parts
of the model with the parts of the respiratory system they represent.
Fourth Grade - Science - Lesson 31 - Respiratory System
Write and illustrate a story describing the adventures of a dust particle who faces the formidable forces of the respiratory system's cleaning crews.
Diagram of inside of lungs for transparency (attached)
Parker, Steve. The Human Body. New York: Gloucester Press, 1993. Contains good diagrams and explanation of what goes on inside the lungs. Also discusses how artificial resuscitation works to provide oxygen to a person who is not breathing.
Peacock, Graham and Terry Hudson. The Super Science Book of Our Bodies. New York: Thomson, 1993. There is a photo of the spongy interior of a lung on page 16. This book also includes a discussion of how air pollution causes lung diseases as well as the effect of high altitudes on the amount of oxygen in the air.
Royston, Angela. The Human Body and How It Works. New York: Random House, 1990. Contains excellent illustrations of the inside of the lungs and of alveoli.
Ask: What have we learned happens inside the lungs? (an exchange of gases; blood picks up O2 to take to cells throughout the body and releases CO2, the cells' waste product.) Ask: What is the atmosphere like inside the lungs? (warm and wet) Remind the students that the lungs are like warm, wet sponges with lots of nooks and crannies. Show the students the transparency of the inside of the lungs. Tell them that they can think of the respiratory system as an upside- down tree. The main trunk is the windpipe, also called the trachea (TRAY-kee-uh). Ask: What noise maker is at the top of your trachea or windpipe? (voice box) Point to where the windpipe forms two branches. Tell them that each of the branches, called a bronchus (BRON-kus), goes into a lung. From there the air tubes branch down into smaller and smaller air tubes called bronchioles (BRON-kee-ols). At the very ends of the tiniest bronchioles are air sacs that look like bunches of grapes. These air sacs are called aveoli (ah-vee-OH-lie). There are 300 million aveoli in each lung. Point out that surrounding the aveoli are networks of capillaries. Ask: What are capillaries? (the tiniest blood vessels) The walls of the aveoli are very thin and stretch like a balloon's when they are filled with air. Oxygen and CO2 leak in and out of the aveoli's thin walls and into or out of the thin walls of the capillaries. This is how gases pass between the blood and the lungs.
Remind the students that skin surrounds the outsides of their bodies and keeps dust, dirt and germs from touching their insides. Ask: What do you think protects our lungs from the dust, dirt and germs in the air that we breathe every day? (Accept all answers.) Tell the students that the lungs have their own cleaning crews. Ask the students to take a deep breath, breathing through their noses. Tell them that their lungs' first line of defense is a crew of dirt and dust stoppers inside the nose. Tiny hairs inside their noses filter out a lot of particles in the air and keep them from getting into their lungs. Some particles are swallowed or coughed out. Others are sneezed out. Write Lung's Cleaning Crews and beneath it tiny hairs in nose on the board. Tell the students that the second line of defense is in the linings of the nose and bronchi. Special cells there make mucus, a sticky fluid that traps particles. Write mucus makers on the board. Tell the students that the third line of defense is made up of millions of hairlike sweepers that sweep the particles with the mucus up to the top of the throat to be swallowed. When there is a lot to clean up, mucus-making cells work overtime to make sure dust, dirt and germs are flushed out and swept up by the sweepers. Write sweepers on the board.
Have the students write a story from the point of view of a dust particle that is breathed in by a person. Ask them to describe what it is like inside the respiratory system and describe the dust particle's adventures with the respiratory system's clean up crew. Ask them to try to use the names they have learned for the various parts of the respiratory system and to illustrate their stories.
Fourth Grade - Science - Lesson 32 - Respiratory System
Write a dialogue between a friend and himself or herself concerning cigarette smoking.
An empty pack of cigarettes exhibiting the U.S. Surgeon General's warning or a sign displaying the warning
Bender, Lionel. Science Through the Microscope. New York: Shooting Star Press, 1995. On page 104 is a photo of a smoker's lung and of lung cancer cells.
Condon, Judith. Smoking. New York: Gloucester Press, 1989. Examines the harmful effects of smoking and why the tobacco industry continues to get new smokers.
Hyde, Margaret. Know About Smoking. New York: Walker, 1995. This book is for teens but graphically shows the effects of cigarette smoking.
Keyishian, Elizabeth. Everything You Need to Know About Smoking. New York: Rosen Group, 1993. Explains why people, including kids, start smoking and why it is so hard to quit.
Kim, Hy. Showy Science. Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1994. Contains instructions for building an automatic smoking machine to collect the tarry residue from cigarettes. Yuck!
Pringle, Laurence. Smoking: A Risky Business. New York: Morrow, 1996. While this book is for more advanced readers, the information is well presented. It focuses on the effects of the tobacco habit and introduces facts about the tobacco industry and its goals.
Stein, Sara. The Body Book. New York: Workman Publishing, 1992. Page 136 contains a sidebar on the effects of smoking. On page 137 is a photo of sweepers, cilia that sweep dust out of the lungs and bronchi on a current of mucus.
Ask: Does anyone know what is in tobacco smoke? When a person smokes a cigarette or breathes in tobacco smoke, what do you think he or she is breathing in? On the board write: what is in tobacco smoke and beneath that write the students' responses. Write tar on the board. Ask: What is tar? (black, thick, sticky goo) Ask: Has anyone ever gotten tar from the street on their shoe? Does it come off easily? (No, tar is very hard to remove.) Point out that tar is in cigarette smoke. Tell the students that cigarette smoke also contains poisonous chemicals, some of which cause lung cancer. Write this on the board. Tell them that scientists have identified at least 4,000 chemicals in cigarette smoke. Tell the students that cigarette smoke also contains a gas called carbon monoxide. When this gas gets into the lungs and into the aveoli, it is passed to the blood as if it were oxygen and gets circulated through the body. Instead of the oxygen that they need, cells get carbon monoxide which they cannot use. A person smoking a cigarette is slowly suffocating the cells in his or her body. Write carbon monoxide on the board. Tell the students that another ingredient in cigarette smoke is nicotine. Nicotine is a poisonous chemical that is used as an insecticide to kill insect pests. Write nicotine on the board.
Remind the students that they learned about the lung's cleaning crews in the last lesson. Ask: Looking at this list of ingredients, how do you think the lung's cleaning crews might handle tobacco smoke? Ask the students to imagine what happens when instead of dust particles and germs, the lung's cleaning crews are given a cleaning job that they cannot handle. Suppose the nooks and crannies of a smoker's lungs become clogged with a thick, black, gooey tar. Do you think the sweepers or the mucus makers could catch it and sweep it out? (no) The air sacs, the aveoli, would become so stiff with a coating of black goo that many of them could not hold air or pass oxygen to the person's blood. Do you think this person would have trouble breathing? (yes) Would this person be able to run or jump or play basketball? (not without losing his or her breath) Tell the students that an average adult's lungs hold 5 quarts of air. Do you think a smoker's lung capacity would be less? (probably) Point out that a smoker's body tries to clear the lungs of tar by coughing and coughing, but it will not come out. We call this coughing a smoker's hack. If available, show the students a picture of a smoker's lung from Suggested Books or other source. Point out that the inside of a healthy lung is pink. Ask: What color is the smoker's lung? (Gray or black) Point out that this is tar. Point out that without enough oxygen in the lungs, the blood cannot pick up and carry enough oxygen. The smoker's heart must pump harder and faster to get enough blood and oxygen to the body's cells. This can cause damage to the smoker's heart.
Show the students an empty package of cigarettes. Tell them that cigarette smoking is so dangerous to the lungs and the body that there is a law that says cigarette manufacturers must put a health warning on every pack of cigarettes. Have a student come up and read the warning on the package. Ask: If cigarettes are so dangerous for people to smoke, why do you think companies are allowed to sell them? (Accept all answers.) Tell the students that state governments, including our state of Maryland, are suing cigarette manufacturers to make them pay for the very expensive health care that smokers need when they become sick.
Ask the students to imagine they are talking to a friend who says he or she wants to try smoking a cigarette. Have students write a dialogue between themselves and their friend. How would the conversation go? What would they say to their friend about the effects of cigarette smoking? How might their friend respond?
Fourth Grade - Science - Lesson 33 - Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell
Identify obstacles Elizabeth Blackwell had to overcome to become a doctor.
Clapp, Patricia. Dr. Elizabeth, The Story of the First Woman Doctor. New York: Lothrop, 1974. Clapp has chosen to tell this story in the first person, in the voice of Dr. Blackwell herself.
Klingel, Cindy. Elizabeth Blackwell. Mankato, MN: Creative Education, 1987. A compact book with large type, simple text and illustrations. Emphasizes how Blackwell's early experiences in Bristol, England shaped her life's mission.
Wilson, Dorothy Clarke. I Will Be A Doctor! Nashville, TN: Abingdon
Press, 1983. This 160- page book is well written and focuses on
Blackwell's commitment and fortitude in the face of doubt and derision
from the medical community.
Ask the students to write a list of five things they like to do. Have them share their lists and compile a selected list on the board. Say: Suppose I told you that you were not allowed to do any of these things. Go down the list and begin each item with "You may not..." Ask the students to imagine what it would be like if whatever they wanted to do -- play a game, read an adventure story, play kick ball, take a walk around the neighborhood, build a fort, take a karate class, argue a point at the dinner table -- they were told, "You cannot do that. You are not smart enough. You are not strong enough. People like you are not allowed to do that." Tell the students that today they are going to hear about someone who would not take "no" for an answer. She would not listen when everyone told her: "It is impossible. You cannot do that." This person who would not give up was Elizabeth Blackwell. She was born in 1821 and grew up to become the first woman doctor.
Tell the students that when Elizabeth Blackwell was growing up in England, girls were not allowed to do many things. It wasn't considered important for a woman to have a good education because men believed women had inferior minds. They said thinking hard about ideas would make women sick. There were very few jobs women were allowed to have. Any money they earned belonged to their husbands. Remind the students that they learned about the women's movement and how women were not allowed to vote -- not in England and not in America -- so they did not have the legal power to change the way things were. Elizabeth knew women were being treated unfairly. When she came to America with her family she wanted to do something about it -- but what?
Her life changed when she was visiting her friend Mary who was dying. Mary said to her, "The worst of my illness is being treated by a gruff, unfeeling doctor. If only there were women doctors. Elizabeth, you are young and strong. You could become a doctor." The more Elizabeth thought about the idea, the more determined she became to do it. She applied to 29 medical schools and they all turned her down. "We do not take women students," they wrote back. "How ridiculous." So Elizabeth borrowed medical books and studied on her own. She kept sending out letters until one day, she received a reply from a small medical school in Geneva, New York. The head of the school had read Elizabeth's application letter to the medical students there and as a joke, they voted to let her attend. They took bets on how long she would last. Elizabeth took her small savings, packed up her books and traveled to New York to start medical school. At first the other students laughed at her. When they found out she was a woman medical student, no one in town would rent her a room or even speak to her. Finally, she found a kind woman who gave her a room to sleep in. She was very lonely, but she worked hard at her medical studies. Little by little, her fellow students came to respect her. They realized that this woman was not only very determined, she was also very smart. Elizabeth graduated with the highest grades in the class. But when the other students went off to get jobs as interns in hospitals, no hospital in the U.S. would take Elizabeth because she was a woman. So Elizabeth packed up her books and went to Europe to find a hospital that would give her a chance to work. After a lot of struggle, she got a job in a hospital in Paris. But while treating a baby there, she caught a contagious eye disease from him and went blind in one eye. Her dreams of becoming a surgeon were over.
Elizabeth was not discouraged. She returned to America and, with money she collected from wealthy friends, opened a hospital for poor women in New York City. Gradually, other women who wanted to be doctors joined her. Her hospital grew into a medical school for women. Elizabeth's determination opened the door for other women to be doctors. She had proved that a woman was just as strong and just as smart as a man.
Write the word persevere on the board. Ask: Does anyone know
what this word,
persevere, means? (stick-to-it-iveness, keep at
it despite any obstacle, never give up) Ask: In what ways did Dr. Elizabeth
Blackwell persevere? What obstacles did she have to overcome? Do you think
Elizabeth Blackwell was a strong person? Why? How does it make you feel
when people say, "You cannot do it. It is too hard for you."
Bender, Lionel. Science Through the Microscope. New York: Shooting
Star Press, 1995. (1-573-35143-1)
Clapp, Patricia. Dr. Elizabeth, The Story of the First Woman Doctor. New York: Lothrop, 1974. (0-688-40052-3)
Condon, Judith. Smoking. New York: Gloucester Press, 1989. (0-531-17174-4)
Gardner, Robert. Science Projects About the Human Body. Hillside, NJ: Enslow, 1993.(0-894-90443-4)
Hyde, Margaret. Know About Smoking. New York: Walker, 1995. (0-802-78399-6)
Keyishian, Elizabeth. Everything You Need to Know About Smoking. New York: Rosen Group, 1993. (0-823-91615-4)
Kim, Hy. Showy Science. Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1994. (0-673-36091-1)
Klingel, Cindy. Elizabeth Blackwell. Mankato, MN: Creative Education, 1987. (0-886-82169-X)
Markle, Sandra. Outside and Inside You. New York: Bradbury, 1991. (0-027-62311-4)
Morgan, Sally. The Human Body. New York: Kingfisher, 1996. (0-753-45031-3)
Parker, Steve. Brain Surgery for Beginners and Other Major Operations for Minors. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook, 1993. (1-562-94604-8)
________. The Human Body. New York: Gloucester Press, 1993. (0-531-17337-2)
Peacock, Graham and Terry Hudson. The Super Science Book of Our Bodies. New York: Thomson, 1993. (1-568-47023-1)
Pringle, Laurence. Smoking: A Risky Business. New York: Morrow, 1996. (0-681-30339-9)
Royston, Angela. The Human Body and How It Works. New York: Random House, 1990.(0-679-80860-4)
Rustean, Jean. The Human Body. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1993. (1-564-58249-3)
Sproule, Anna. Body Watch: Know Your Insides. New York: Facts On File, 1987.(0-816-01782-4)
Stein, Sara. The Body Book. New York: Workman Publishing, 1992. (0-89480-805-2)
Wilson, Dorothy Clarke. I Will Be A Doctor! Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1983.(0-687-19727-9)