Fourth Grade - Visual Arts - Overview - May
 

The Visual Arts lessons for the month follow the World History lessons, centering on Medieval China and developments under the T'ang and Sung dynasties. In the first lesson, the students will look at Chinese sculpture, noting especially the prevalence of animal forms in China's earliest sculpture. They will look at Chinese dragons and hear that the dragon in China is the symbol of the emperor. They will also see some figurative sculpture, of the Buddha, the goddess Kwanyin, and various Bodisattvas, brought about by the spread of Buddhism from India, its emphasis on the mind and consciousness. As an Activity, they will design animal badges for an emperor or Chinese civil servant.

In the second lesson, the students will look at the art forms of Chinese calligraphy and landscape painting, hear about the role of silk and of paper in Chinese landscapes, and recall (from Second Grade) the vertical and horizontal scrolls used for mounting the landscapes. They will note the huge number of characters in Chinese writing and the difficulties that presented for printing with movable type, which the Chinese discovered well before its use in Europe. The Activity for this lesson is to create a landscape that curves around the circular form of a Chinese coolie hat.

The last lesson looks at Chinese porcelain and lacquerware. The students note the importance of a potter's wheel in creating cylinders that are symmetrical and learn about the importance of learning to fire the fine porcelain clay found in China. They hear about the properties of lacquer as a preservative and that it is made from the resin of a tree native to China. For their final Activity, they paint a Chinese porcelain plate in the blue and white shades characteristic of the later, Ming, porcelain vessels.
 

Fourth Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 32 - Art of China, Sculpture
 

Objectives

Recall sculpture as a three-dimensional form of art.

Look at examples of animal sculpture from China.

Note the prevalence of the dragon in early Chinese sculpture.

Hear that the dragon was chosen to represent the first emperor of China.

Note that Chinese sculpture of human figures followed the arrival of Buddhism.

Design a badge for a Chinese emperor or civil servant.
 

Materials

Classroom-size map of the world or of Asia

Examples of Chinese sculpture of animals, see Suggested Books

Examples of Chinese sculpture of human figures influenced by Buddhism, see Suggested Books

One or two items such as jewelry made of jade or artificial jade (optional)

Pellon or heavy paper, 1 piece per student

Paints or markers (for use with pellon), preferably with gold and silver available
 

Suggested Books

Student Titles

Cotterell, Arthur. Ancient China. New York: Knopf, 1994.

This is another of the outstanding Eyewitness series that Dorling Kindersley has produced. The photographed materials are particularly good for our lessons this month.

Two civil service badges featuring a white crane and an egret are on p. 21. An especially striking, three-dimensional imperial dragon is on p. 17; another in gold, combined with semiprecious stones, on p. 19; and another, embroidered dragon, on p. 16.

Hirsch, E. D., Jr., ed. What Your 4th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

Material on Medieval China is on pp. 154-159.

Michaelson, Carol, ed. Ancient China. New York: Time Life, 1996.

This book serves all of the Visual Arts lessons for this month, with clear information about the dynasties of Medieval China and the social and cultural conditions of the times. Examples of dragons and of jade carvings are excellent for this lesson.

Waterlow, Julia. The Ancient Chinese. New York: Thomson Learning, 1994.

The presentation of illustrating the basic divisions of life in Ancient China makes a useful framework for this lesson. The importance of the emperor is explained, and photographs and reproductions of works of art are well chosen.

Zeman, Anne and Kate Kelly. Everything You Need to Know About World History Homework. New York: Scholastic, 1995.

Handy maps and time charts of principal Chinese dynasties are on pp. 32-34.

Teacher Reference and for showing illustrations to class

Cheney, Sheldon. Sculpture of the World: A History. New York: Viking, 1968.

Reproductions of Chinese sculpture are on pp. 184-225. Numerous dragons and other animals from early periods are represented as well as many sculptures of the human form influenced by Buddhism. Particularly useful for this lesson are the sculptures of Kuanyin and Bodhisattvas shown on pp. 214 through 217.

Speiser, Werner. The Art of China: Spirit and Society. New York: Crown, 1960.

Tigers and dragons are illustrated in colored photographs of Chinese sculpture and pottery, as well as sculpted figures inspired by Buddhist beliefs.

Sullivan, Michael. The Arts of China. (Revised ed.) Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1979.

Sullivan has some good information about the symbolic representation of the dragon in Chinese art, on pp. 178-179. Ch'en Jung's wonderful painting The Nine Dragons, from the 13th century, is reproduced on p. 179. Sculpture of tigers, horses, lions, birds, and more fantastic combinations such as lions with wings are illustrated.
 

Background For the Teacher

The students studied China in Second Grade History and Art. In Second Grade Visual Arts Lesson 5 they looked at a Chinese landscape painting from the 18th century (slide #3 in the Second Grade plastic sleeve) as an example of the energy inherent in line; in Lesson 23, they looked at the landscape again as well as illustrations of jade and lacquer pieces. In Lesson 24, they completed a class project of a horizontal scroll.

Students of the BCP/Core curriculum look at sculpture from a variety of cultures starting in Kindergarten--American, Ancient Roman and Greek, Native American, Indian, Thai, Assyrian, and European Medieval. This year, In Fourth Grade, the students saw relief sculpture in the context of their study of Gothic Cathedrals. For the present lesson, students need to be exposed to the concept that a sequence of dynasties, with an emperor as supreme head, ruled China from about 200 B.C. to 1911. The ruling dynasties during China's Medieval period are T'ang (618-906) and Sung (960-1279).
 

Procedure

Begin the class by reviewing the sequence of the Chinese dynasties with the students, writing the names and dates on the board (see Zeman for a simple outline) and pointing out that China was united first under the leadership of Zheng in about 221 B.C. His dynasty is known as Qin (CHIN) or Ch'in, depending on its spelling in English. Point out the other dynasties and their dates, emphasizing the fact that the periods when the arts flourished most in China were during the T'ang (A.D. 618-906) and Sung (A.D. 960-1279) dynasties. Ask the students: What do we call that period of time in Western Europe? (Middle Ages, Medieval)

Would you say that the arts flourished in Western Europe during the Middle Ages? (Accept any thoughtful answers.)

Where was most of the art produced in Western Europe during the Middle Ages? (churches, monasteries)

What do we call the form of art that we see as part of so many of the Gothic cathedrals that were built in Western Europe during the Middle Ages? (sculpture)

Tell the students that China has probably the oldest continuous tradition of sculpture in the world--that archaeologists have found sculpted bronze vessels from about 2,000 B.C. Say to them: By the time of the first Chinese emperor, Zheng, the Chinese had learned to carve in an extremely hard stone called jade. (Write it on the board and show illustrations from Suggested books and/or simple, modern examples if you have them.) They also produced sculpture of wood, marble, bronze, lacquer, and terra cotta (clay). Show examples of carved animals from Suggested Books and tell them that many pottery animal figures were found in ancient tombs.

Tell them that most of the oldest sculpted figures produced in Ancient China were of animals--horses, tigers, camels, birds, and--above all--dragons. Say to the students: The first emperor, Zheng, chose the dragon to symbolize his imperial power, and forever after that, the dragon was symbolic of the emperor of China. Powerful stories and myths about the dragon, especially as the divine lord of the waters were beloved by the Chinese people.

Show the students some examples of the dragon in Chinese art and ask them to identify the parts of various animals that are combined in the dragon. (Antlers of a stag, fish scales, claws of an eagle, bull's ears, and cat whiskers are some characteristics usually visible. )Ask them: In the fairy tales you have heard, is the dragon good or evil? (Accept all thoughtful opinions, and ask for evidence to support them.) Tell them that the Chinese dragon is always portrayed as a wise, good, and strong force.

Next, show them some illustrations of Bodissatvas and other sculpted figures inspired by Buddhist beliefs and ask them to identify the elements of art in the examples you show them. (The Buddha, in various poses, is found from the time Buddhism came to China from India in the first century; Kuanyin, the Buddhist goddess of mercy is the one female figure often represented.) Remind the students of the Seated Buddha from Thailand they saw in Second Grade (slide #18 in plastic sleeve) and tell them they will see a very different seated Buddha from Japan next year. Be sure they understand that Buddhism spread from India to China, then through Southeast Asia, and Japan. Show them this path on the map.
 

Activity

Tell the students that in China, up until the 20th century, government officials wore long kimonos, many of them of silk and beautifully embroidered with flowers and designs. In order to tell which rank of office a government official held, embroidered badges were made that would be sewed onto the kimono or its sash. (Remind them of the kinds of merit badges boy scouts and girl scouts earn that get sewed to their uniforms.) The main feature that distinguished one rank of office from another was the particular bird or animal that was in the center of the embroidered badge. (If you have the Cotterell book, there are some wonderful illustrations of these on pp. 20 and 21.) The bird might be a black cormorant or a white crane or egret. The surroundings might be of a rich sea blue, of stars made with gold threads, or of brilliantly colored flowers and plants. Say to them: The emperor's kimonos were also decorated with richly embroidered badges. What animal do you suppose was featured on the emperor's kimono? (imperial dragon)

Pass out paper and paints or pellon and markers, and say to the students: Pretend that you are an artist in the Chinese imperial court several hundred years ago. Your assignment is to design a new badge that is to decorate a kimono either of the emperor himself or one of the high civil servants in the court. Try to combine some of the characteristics you have so far observed in the examples shown in class. Make sure that the dragon or the bird is in the center of the badge, which could be any geometric shape--circle, square, oval, or anything that you think contributes to the beauty of the design you are creating.
 

Fourth Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 33 - Art of China, Calligraphy and Landscapes
 

Objectives

Look carefully at Chinese landscape paintings with calligraphy.

Observe that many Chinese landscape paintings are painted on silk in the form of scrolls.

Comment on the element of space in Chinese landscape painting.

Note the number and complexity of Chinese characters for writing.

Note early Chinese achievements in papermaking and printing.

Make a traditional Chinese hat decorated with a landscape.
 

Materials

Examples of Chinese landscape paintings, see Suggested Books

Examples of Chinese calligraphy and calligraphic tools, see Suggested Books

Chart paper large enough for each student to cut an 18" circle

Crayons, colored pencils, or watercolors and scissors for each student
 

Suggested Books

Student Titles

Cotterell, Arthur. Ancient China. New York: Knopf, 1994.

Paper, printing, and books are illustrated and described on pp. 24-25. Calligraphy tools are shown and described from page 30 to 33 with an example of an ink landscape painted on silk on p. 33.

Holme, Bryan. Enchanted World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.

A Chinese landscape is compared with one from Japan on its facing page (76-77).

Knox, Bob. The Great Art Adventure. New York: Rizzoli, 1993.

A lovely Chinese landscape painting with seals and calligraphy are shown on one of the unnumbered pages of this book, with a modern rendition "in the style of" on the facing page.

McLenighan, Valjean. China: A History to 1949. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1983.

A good photograph of Chinese movable type made of wood blocks is on p. 67 with an example of a Sung landscape on the facing page. Another landscape done in ink on paper is on p. 78 and papermaking done in the ancient Chinese tradition is pictured on p. 41.

Michaelson, Carol, ed. Ancient China. New York: Time Life, 1996.

The examples of calligraphy and landscape painting are recommended for this lesson.

Waterlow, Julia. The Ancient Chinese. New York: Thomson Learning, 1994.

Pages 18 and 19 picture and describe Chinese writing, showing equivalent characters in Ancient and Modern Chinese with the meanings given in English. A landscape on silk with calligraphy is pictured on page 21.

*Zhensun, Zheng and Alice Low. A Young Painter. New York: Scholastic, 1991.

A wonderful story of the life and work of a very young Chinese painter, named Wang Yani, born in 1975 and exhibiting since she was four years old. The book is built around excellent reproductions of her paintings, which are mostly of animals and landscapes in the ancient Chinese tradition.

Teacher Reference & for showing illustrations to class

Speiser, Werner. The Art of China: Spirit and Society. New York: Crown, 1960.

A landscape painted on silk is on p. 179; a landscape on paper (6 ft. tall) signed in *particularly useful for this lesson calligraphy is on p. 197. A page of calligraphy is reproduced on p. 210 with a landscape on the facing page and another on p. 218. A wide landscape painting on a fan and sprinkled with gold dust is cut out and opened into its actual shape on pp. 200 and 201.

Sullivan, Michael. The Arts of China. (Revised ed.) Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1979.

A landscape with calligraphy painted on silk with ink, part of a hanging scroll done during the Sung Dynasty is on p. 162. Examples of fine calligraphy are on pp. 194 -195, and a smaller landscape on paper, part of a handscroll with a lot of calligraphy, is on p. 196.

Tregear, Mary. Chinese Art. London: Thames and Hudson, 1980.

Landscapes and calligraphy from the Sung dynasty are on pp. 109-115.
 

Procedure

If you have Zhensun's book about Wang Yani, the young Chinese painter (see Suggested Books), reading it aloud would be an ideal way to present this class. Its text is wonderful for any budding artist, the artworks are very much in the tradition of ancient Chinese landscape painting, and an Appendix called "Traditional Chinese Painting" includes color photographs of all the tools, explanations for the various brushstrokes and kinds of inks, the use of seals and calligraphic inscriptions, and the particular aims artists strive for in traditional Chinese painting.

Without the book, begin the class by showing examples of Chinese landscape paintings and calligraphy, especially from the period of the T'ang and Sung dynasties. Review with the students the time period of those dynasties, reminding them again that it is congruent with the Medieval period they have studied in Europe. They should know that China had already perfected papermaking by the second century A.D.; wood blockprinting, by the 9th century; and printing by wooden movable type during the Sung dynasty. (Be sure they realize how far ahead of Western Europe these inventions were and how that affected literacy and book production in China.) Say to them: The only problem with movable type in China was that the Chinese language at the time was based on words represented by 80,000 separate symbols; these were too many for efficient printing. In the West, by comparison, there were alphabets with less than 30 symbols that could be combined in thousands of ways over and over again: so movable type, when Europeans began using it in the 16th century, was a dramatic change from the use of whole-page wood blocks for printing.

If you have the Cotterell book, show them the photos of the various paraphernalia for calligraphy and painting with ink and brushes, telling them that ink was ground each day by the artist from cakes or sticks of black, sooty material and mixed with water to the preferred thicknesses. Beautiful containers and toolcases were themselves works of art, often of wood inlaid with minerals and rare woods, lacquer, or enamel (which will be explained in the next lesson). Point out the complexity of the Ancient Chinese characters, and be sure the students realize that calligraphy in Medieval China was a real art form.

If you have chosen some examples of landscapes painted on silk, remind them about the importance of the production of silk to China, that its production was a secret for hundreds of years and a valuable item for export as soon as trade with the West was begun. Tell them about the scrolls, both horizontal and vertical, that made the landscapes portable and easy both to store and to show. Point out the inscriptions on many of the landscapes, done in fine calligraphy, that might be a wise saying or a poem, and that calligraphy, poetry, and painting were known as "the three perfections," the highest ideal of educated people at the time of the Sung dynasty.

End the class by asking the students to comment on the elements of art in the landscapes you are showing them. If they notice that the element of space does not make any effort to show depth in the painting, tell them that traditional Chinese painting is not at all concerned with what we call perspective--leading our eyes from foreground, through middle ground, to background. Their concern with space is to create a pleasing balance or rhythm between the white or empty spaces in the painting with the spaces that are covered with brush strokes. Ask them what they remember about time and space in Medieval paintings in Europe--in illuminated manuscripts, for example. (Accept any thoughtful ideas that can be backed by evidence of something they've seen.)
 

Activity - Chinese Coolie Hat
 

Note for the Teacher

You will need to make beforehand and copy patterns for 18" circles for each student. If you make the pattern for half of the circle, with the fold indicated, the students will have a guide for the cut they need to make through of the circle after they have made their landscapes. Tell them they are going to make Chinese coolie hats decorated with traditional chinese landscapes. They will need to know that Chinese men and women who farm, and others who work outdoors wear these hats to protect them from both heavy sun and rain (similar to the way we might use parasols or umbrellas, except the coolie hats keep both hands free).
 

1. Pass out chart paper, circle pattern, and scissors for each student. Make sure they lightly mark the chart paper along the fold line with a pencil, then flip the half circle over to trace around the other side of the circle.
 

2. Have the students cut out the circle, then make a cut half way through each circle along the light pencil line they have drawn, which marks the beginning and end of the scene they create; then draw Chinese style landscapes following the shape of the circle, using colored pencil, water colors, or crayons and ending the scene a finger's length away from the cut.
 

3. As they finish their landscapes, direct the students to overlap the two sides of the paper to form the shape of a shallow cone, making the scene more or less continuous. Circulate among the students and use a stapler to secure the paper.
 
 
 

Fourth Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 34 - Art of China, Porcelain and Lacquer Ware

The Activity in this lesson is adapted from King & Roundhill, Stories (Crabtree, 1996).
 

Objectives

Look at Chinese pottery of porcelain and boxes painted with lacquer.

Note the origins of our word china, referring to plates, bowls, cups and saucers.

Identify a potter's wheel as responsible for the perfect symmetry of pottery cylinders.

Describe the element of color in Chinese porcelain.

Identify pottery as a three-dimensional form of art.

Identify stylized plant and insect forms in Chinese art such as chrysanthemums, peonies, narcissus, and butterflies.

Paint a paper plate in the style of Chinese porcelain.
 

Materials

Illustrations of Chinese porcelain pieces, see Suggested Books

Illustration of a potter's wheel (attached)

Illustrations of Chinese lacquer boxes, see Suggested Books

White paper plates and paint brushes, 1 for each student

Blue paint and white paint plus small metal saucers for mixing them for each student
 

Suggested Books

Student Titles

Cotterell, Arthur. Ancient China. New York: Knopf, 1994.

A particularly large and striking example of a jar made of blue-and-white-painted porcelain from the 14th century is pictured on 58; a later, painted porcelain dish is on p. 9. Lacquer boxes, carved with flower and fruit forms, are pictured on pp. 54 and 55.

McLenighan, Valjean. China: A History to 1949. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1983.

A porcelain bowl with red underglaze is on p. 81; a carved and glazed porcelain vessel from the Sung dynasty is on p. 65.

Michaelson, Carol, ed. Ancient China. New York: Time Life, 1996.

Examples of the fine blue and white porcelain brought to perfection under the Ming dynasty would be especially good to illustrate the activity for today's lesson.

Williams, Helen. Stories in Art. Brookfield, Connecticut: Millbrook Press, 1992.

The photograph of blue and white Ming porcelain would be helpful for the students to see when they are identifying typical patterns and motifs for their activities.
 

Teacher Reference and for showing illustrations to class

Speiser, Werner. The Art of China: Spirit and Society. New York: Crown, 1960.

A beautiful porcelain jar painted with cobalt blue, yellow, and green is pictured on p. 204; a porcelain plate with underglaze decoration of cobalt blue is on p. 216. Lacquer-painted boxes are on pp. 76, 99, and 202.

Sullivan, Michael. The Arts of China. (Revised ed.) Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1979.

Photographs of porcelain vessels are on pp. 203-205, 224-228.

Tregear, Mary. Chinese Art. London: Thames and Hudson, 1980.

Some particularly beautiful 14th-century porcelain, a vase and a sculpture of Kuanyin, are photographed on pp. 146 and 147 respectively.
 

Procedure

Begin the class by showing the students some illustrations of Chinese pottery--bowls, vases, any vessels, and tell the students that the Chinese have been making pottery for thousands of years. As you show more examples, ask the students:

Are these pieces of art two- or three-dimensional? (three)

Are they symmetrical? (yes)

Remind the students that they needed to use a pattern to make a perfect circle yesterday. Say to them: Think how hard it is to make a cylinder that is perfectly symmetrical inside and outside. Ask them: How do potters make sure the three-dimensional pieces they make are symmetrical? (potter's wheel) Show them a picture from a book or use the one below.
 

Explain that the potter sits at the table and uses one foot to set in motion the wheel under the table and keep it steadily turning while holding the mass of clay firmly on the horizontal wheel above the table. By pressing downward with the two thumbs as the wheel continues to turn, the pot soon acquires an inside (under the thumbs) and an outside (under the rest of the fingers). If one of the students has used a potter's wheel for throwing pots, he or she can describe the experience for the rest of the class. Tell them that the Chinese began using a potter's wheel to make their pottery about 2,000 B.C.

Say to the students: In Medieval times, under the T'ang dynasty (589-906) the Chinese perfected a way of firing a special kind of fine, white clay that was found in abundance in China. It is called porcelain (write it on the board) and it could be shaped into vessels so thin that they were actually translucent (allowing light to pass through). Show examples of porcelain and say: All pottery has to be baked-- fired is the term potters use--in kilns (ovens) in which fires burn for an extended period of time. This dries and hardens the pottery, and makes sure that the liquid paints and glazes used to decorate and color the pottery fuse permanently with the clay. The Chinese learned they had to fire their porcelain ware at extremely high temperatures. When China began to trade with Europe and the Near East, porcelain was one of its chief exports, and the exact recipe for making porcelain was kept secret from Europe for hundreds of years, until the eighteenth century. In fact, so many bowls, cups and saucers, and plates were bought by the Europeans, that the term china has been used ever since as the English word for dinnerware.

Allow the students to identify the colors they see on examples of Chinese porcelain, and tell them that some of the colors (especially the pervasive blue) are underglazes and that there may be more than one firing, with glazes and paints added on top of them for the final firing.

Next, show the students some examples of lacquer ware, especially the boxes that may be carved with stylized flowers, birds, and insects. Tell them that lacquer comes from the resin (liquid inside) of a tree that is indigenous to China, called the lac tree (write it on the board). Say to them: Lacquer is not only a beautiful finish for finely crafted works of art; it is also nearly indestructible, so wooden boxes that were coated with many thin layers of lacquer over a thousand years ago are still well preserved. If possible, identify some of the stylized flowers decorating the lacquerware that are symbolic to the Chinese: usually chrysanthemums, peonies, and narcissus, plus butterflies, which the Ancient Chinese thought of as birds.
 

Activity

Tell the students they are going to make plates that look like the blue and white Chinese porcelain they have seen. Show them some examples again to remind them, and identify some of the decorations the plates may have. (The slightly later Ming porcelains in blue and white, which are most commonly illustrated, often have stylized willow trees, pagodas, bamboo trees, and bridges in addition to the flower motifs mentioned above.)

Pass out white paper plates to each student, plus containers of blue and of white paint. Encourage them to put some straight blue in a small saucer, then to mix small amounts of white into the blue to make four or more shades of blue, saving each resulting mixture in a small saucer. They now have a variety of shades of blue. They can make borders on the plates if they wish. (Most paper plates have raised portions that demarcate a border area that can be utilized to start a design.) Remind them that Chinese artists draw and design with their brushes, rather than sketch with pencils or fine tools beforehand. Say to them: Try to make your designs and decorations the way the Chinese do--with nice, free sweeps of your brushes.
 


Bibliography


 


Cotterell, Arthur. Ancient China. New York: Knopf, 1994. (0-679-96167-4)

Hirsch, E. D., Jr., ed. What Your 4th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.(0-385-31260-1)

Holme, Bryan. Enchanted World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980. (0-19-520130-2)

Knox, Bob. The Great Art Adventure. New York: Rizzoli, 1993. (0-8478-1688-5)

Macdonald, Fiona. The Middle Ages. New York: Facts on File, 1993. (0-8160-2788-9)

McLenighan, Valjean. China: A History to 1949. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1983. (0-516-02754-9)

Michaelson, Carol, ed. Ancient China. New York: Time Life, 1996. (0-8094-9248-2)

Waterlow, Julia. The Ancient Chinese. New York: Thomson Learning, 1994. (1-56847-169-6)

Williams, Helen. Stories in Art. Brookfield, Connecticut: Millbrook Press, 1992.(1-56294-174-7)

Zeman, Anne and Kate Kelly. Everything You Need to Know About World History Homework. New York: Scholastic, 1995. (0-590-49365-5)

*Zhensun, Zheng and Alice Low. A Young Painter. New York: Scholastic, 1991. (0-590-44906-0)

Teacher Reference and for showing illustrations to class

Cheney, Sheldon. Sculpture of the World: A History. New York: Viking, 1968.

Speiser, Werner. The Art of China: Spirit and Society. New York: Crown, 1960.

Sullivan, Michael. The Arts of China. (Revised ed.) Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1979.(0-520-03367-1)

Tregear, Mary. Chinese Art. London: Thames and Hudson, 1980. (0-500-20178-1)

*Required or strongly recommended for lessons.