Fourth Grade - Geography - Lesson 5 - Mountains and Mountain Ranges
 

Objectives

Name four types of mountains.

Recognize and locate mountain ranges and the tallest mountains on five continents.
 

Materials

Map of mountain ranges for transparency

Classroom-size world map
 

Suggested Books

Student Titles

Cobb, Vicki. This Place is High. New York: Walker, 1989.

This book provides information about the people that live in the Andes, as well as the Andes themselves. Accompanied by nice, colorful illustrations.

Davidson, Bob. Hilary and Tenzing Climb Everest. New York: Dillon Press, 1993.

This book tells about the history of expeditions to Mount Everest and about aspects of mountaineering in general--the equipment needed, the conditions, the dangers.

Kramer, S. A. To the Top! Climbing the World's Highest Mountain. New York: Random House, 1993.

Tells the exciting story of Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay's expedition to the top of Mount Everest.

Reynolds, Jan. Himalaya: Vanishing Cultures. New York: HBJ, 1991.

In this book the author describes the customs and day-to-day life of a family living in the Himalayan Mountains. The text is accompanied by beautiful color photographs.

Sauvain, Philip. Mountains. Minneapolis, MN: Carolrhoda, 1996.

Part of the Geography Detectives series this book gives information about how mountains are formed, mountain weather and climate, the natural resources some mountains provide.
 

Teacher Reference

Hirsch, E. D. What Your Fourth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell, 1992.

Jaffe, Andrew. Alaska: Southeast to McKinley. New York: Rizzoli, 1986.

An adult reference book that contains beautiful color photographs of Mount McKinley.

Willison, Bert and Shirley Bourke. People Within a Landscape. Seattle, WA: The Mountaineers, 1989.

An adult reference book that contains beautiful color photographs of Nepal.
 

Teacher Note:

The first science lesson (14) this month contains information concerning different kinds of mountains and the ways they are formed and therefore should be completed before this geography lesson. Also, Reading Mastery Lesson 56 gives information about mountains.

The information regarding mountains in What Your Fourth Grader Needs to Know (pp 102-113) is quite good, so you may wish to read sections aloud to the class.
 

Procedure

Have the students recall that mountains can be found on every continent including Antarctica. Ask students to name the four different kinds of mountains there are (volcanic, dome,

folded, and fault block mountains). Ask: How are mountains classified? (Mountains are classified according to the way they were formed.) Show the students photographs of mountains

from the Suggested Books. Ask: Why do many mountains have snow at their peaks? Explain that if you were to travel up a mountain, you would notice that as you went higher it would become

colder. Explain that at higher altitudes the air is thinner and it is therefore colder.

Explain that most mountains are part of long lines called mountain ranges. Tell the students that they are now going to take an imaginary journey around the world in search of the world's major mountain ranges. Display the overhead transparency of the mountain ranges. Point to each mountain range as it is discussed and write the height of the tallest peak on the chalk board when mentioned.

Point to the continent of South America. Tell the students their imaginary journey will begin on this continent. Ask: What continent is this? (South America) Explain that the Andes, which are located near the western shore of South America, are the longest mountain chain in the world. Point out on the world map that the Andes run all the way from the southern tip of South America to the Caribbean coast of Venezuela. The Andes Mountains are rich in mineral resources such as gold and silver and are therefore considered by some to be the most valuable mountains in the world. Platinum, copper, tin, and iron can also be found there.

Tell the students that the next mountain range they will visit is the Rocky Mountains. Ask: On which continent are the Rocky Mountains? (North America) Remind the students that the continent of North America is made up of three different countries. Ask: What countries make up the continent of North America? (Canada, The United States, and Mexico) Explain that the Rocky Mountains stretch from Mexico through the U. S. and Canada up to Alaska. Point out the mountain range on the transparency holding your finger on Alaska. Tell the students that the highest mountain in North America is Mount McKinley located in Alaska. At its summit, which is the highest point of the mountain, it reaches an altitude of 20,320 feet. Explain that Native Americans refer to Mount McKinley as Denali, which means "The Great One." The Rockies are also rich in mineral resources. Ask: Looking back in history, what was one of the metals that miners rushed out to the western United States in search of? (gold) Explain that mining in the Rockies played an important part in shaping the history of our country, since mining towns were built in areas where gold was found. The Rockies have been mined for gold, silver, copper and other metals.

Direct the students' attention from the west coast of the United States to the east coast; there they will find another large mountain range in North America called the Appalachian Mountains. If you were to compare the Appalachian Mountains to the Rocky Mountains they would seem like hills in comparison because the Appalachians are older and its peaks have been eroded or worn away over time. Compare that the Appalachian Mountains were formed 280 million years ago compared to the Rocky Mountains being formed about 130 million years ago. Tell the students that the Appalachian mountains extend from Alabama to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, passing right through our state of Maryland.

Tell the students that they are next going to cross the ocean to Europe. Ask: What ocean would you have to cross to reach Europe? (the Atlantic Ocean) Ask: Can someone name the mountain range in Europe which is a popular destination for skiers and hikers? (The Alps) Tell the students that the Alps extend from Yugoslavia to France. There are very few mineral resources in the Alps, but tourists come from all around the world to visit these beautiful mountains. Explain that Mont Blanc, which means "white mountain" in French, is the highest peak in Europe with an altitude at its highest point of 15,771 feet. Ask: Why do you think the mountain is referred to as white mountain? (Because there is snow on the top year round.)

Heading east toward Asia there is a natural border that divides Europe from Asia, the Ural Mountains. Point to the Urals on the transparency. Ask the students to notice how straight the Ural mountain range is, forming a natural border between the two continents.

Tell the students that if we continue to travel east and then south we will next find the Himalayan Mountains. The Himalayas which are located in the country of Tibet in Asia are known for their height and beauty. Tell the students that the Himalayas are the tallest mountains on land. Locate Nepal and the Himalayas on the mountain ranges transparency. Mount Everest, which is part of the Himalayas, is not only the tallest mountain in the Himalayas, it is the tallest mountain in the world with an altitude of 29,028 feet.

Direct the students' attention to the world map. Tell the students that the last continent they are going to visit is Africa. In the northern part of Africa the Atlas Mountains stretch along the north African coast from Morocco to Tunisia. Ask the students to look for the country of Tanzania further south in Africa. Located in Tanzania, the highest mountain in Africa at 19,340 feet is Mount Kilimanjaro. Ask the students to notice how far south this mountain is. Tell the students that even though the mountain is located so close to the equator there is still snow and ice at the top year round. Ask: Why is there snow and ice at the top year round? (Because the temperature is colder at the higher altitudes.) Have the students rank the three highest mountains out of the mountain peaks that are listed on the chalk board.
 

Optional Activity - Relief Map

Materials

Outlines of continents (included)

Salt dough or clay
 

Procedure

Divide the students into groups of four or five. Assign a continent and mountain range to each group. Tell the groups to use the following directions:

1. Trace the outline of the continent onto poster board.

2. Draw the mountain range with the highest peak on the continent

3. Label bordering countries and major rivers.

You may wish to have the students create a relief map of the mountain ranges and the highest peak on the continent out of clay or salt dough.
 

Fourth Grade - Geography - Project
 

Objectives

Recognize and locate mountain ranges and tallest mountains on the continents.

Create a travel guide.
 

Materials

Student checklist (included)
 

Suggested Books

The following are a sampling of books found in the county and city public libraries that would be appropriate for student research. You will also want to encourage students to use magazines, encyclopedias, and video tapes to gather information.

Student Reference

Bullen, Susan. The Alps and their People. New York: Thomson Learning, 1994.

Cobb, Vicki. This Place is High. New York: Walker, 1989.

This book provides information about the people that live in the Andes, as well as the Andes themselves. Accompanied by nice, colorful illustrations.

Davidson, Bob. Hilary and Tenzing Climb Everest. New York: Dillon Press, 1993.

This book tells about the history of expeditions to Mount Everest and about aspects of mountaineering in general--the equipment needed, the conditions, the dangers.

De Bruycker, Daniel and Martine Noblet. Tibet: Tintin's Travel Diaries. New York: Barron's, 1995.

This series provides information on many aspects of culture, everyday life, history, geography, and government for each country.

Deltenre, Chantal and Martine Noblet. Peru and the Andean Countries: Tintin's Travel Diaries. New York: Barron's, 1995.

This series provides information on many aspects of culture, everyday life, history, geography, and government for each country.

Reynolds, Jan. Himalaya: Vanishing Cultures. New York: HBJ, 1991.

In this book the author describes the customs and day-to-day life of a family living in the Himalaya mountains. The text is accompanied by beautiful color photographs.

Sauvain, Philip. Mountains. Minneapolis, MN: Carolrhoda, 1996.

Part of the Geography Detectives series this book gives information about how mountains are formed, mountain weather and climate, the natural resources some mountains provide.
 

Procedure

Read the following paragraph adapted from What Your Fourth Grader Needs to Know by E. D. Hirsch.

Ask: Why do people climb a mountain? Many climbers answer this question with the words of a man who tried to scale Mount Everest: "Because it is there." Imagine spending days pushing your body to its limits, finally pulling yourself over that last ledge to stand at the peak of the highest mountain around. Ask: How would you feel?

Introduce the geography project to the class. Tell the students that they are going to apply the knowledge they gained regarding the major mountain ranges of the world to complete a project. Explain that they are going to pretend that they are a member of a mountain explorers' club and the club has asked them to take on the assignment of writing a travel guide for people interested in exploring a particular mountain or mountain range. Each student will collect information about a particular mountain range or individual mountain in order to produce the travel guide. Ask: Who would this guide be useful to? (A person planning to take a mountain climbing trip.) What kind of information would a person need to plan a trip to the mountains? (hiking boots, warm clothes, gloves, food, water)

Give each student a project checklist. Post the list of mountain ranges or individual mountains from which the students may choose:
Mountain Ranges

The Andes Mountains 

The Rocky Mountains 

The Himalayas 

The Alps

Individual Mountains

Mount McKinley 

Mount Everest 


 
 
 

Discuss each of the steps the students have to complete, answering any questions the students may have. Set due dates for each step. Once the students have completed their projects ask for volunteers to name the mountain or mountain range they chose, locate it on the classroom world map, and read an excerpt from their travel guides.
 

Fourth Grade - Geography - Project
 
 

Project Checklist


 
 

Put a check in the box when you have completed that part of the long term project.
 

Part 1 Due Date __________
 

Choose a mountain range or individual mountain that you would like to learn more about. Go to the public library in your town.
 
Mountain Ranges

The Andes Mountains 

The Rocky Mountains 

The Himalayas 

The Alps

Individual Mountains

Mount McKinley 

Mount Everest 


 

Part 2 Due Date __________
 

On a separate piece of paper or index cards, answer the following questions about the mountain or mountain range you have chosen.

1. Where is the mountain range or individual mountain located? What continent? What countries?

2. What languages do the people speak who live in the area?

3. What is the weather like during the different seasons of the year?

4. What is the land like? Is there snow? What types of plants would you find on the mountain?

5. What type of mountain is it? How was it formed?

6. What types of animals would you find on the mountain?

7. What clothes and equipment would you need to bring to go on a mountain climbing trip?

8. What are some of the dangers of mountain climbing and how can you avoid them?
 

Part 3 Due Date __________
 

Organize the information you have gathered to fit each of the following topics. Using at least half a page for each topic, write the appropriate information under each topic. Each topic will become a section in your guide.

Where in the World is.......

Geographic Features

Mountain Weather

Mountain Climbing Equipment Needed

Safety Tips
 

Part 4 Due Date __________
 

Include a map that shows where the mountain or mountain range is located. Label the mountain and the country or countries of which the mountain is a part.
 

Part 5 Due Date __________
 

Design and make a cover for your travel guide.
 

Part 6 Due Date __________
 

Bind the guide together with the cover as the first pages
 


Bibliography


 
 

Student Titles

Davidson, Bob. Hilary and Tenzing Climb Everest. New York: Dillon Press, 1993.(0-87518-534-7)

Kramer, S. A. To the Top! Climbing the World's Highest Mountain. New York: Random House, 1993. (0-679-93885-0)

Reynolds, Jan. Himalaya: Vanishing Cultures. New York: HBJ, 1991. (0-15-234465-9)

Sauvain, Philip. Mountains. Minneapolis, MN: Carolrhoda, 1996. (0-87614-999-9)
 

Student Reference

Bullen, Susan. The Alps and their people. New York: Thomson Learning, 1994. (1568471653)

Cobb, Vicki. This Place is High. New York: Walker, 1989. (0802768822)

De Bruycker, Daniel and Martine Noblet. Tibet: Tintin's Travel Diaries. New York: Barron's, 1995. (0-8120-6504-2)

Deltenre, Chantal and Martine Noblet. Peru and the Andean Countries: Tintin's Travel Diaries. New York: Barron's, 1995. (0-8120-6490-9)
 

Teacher Reference

Hirsch, E. D. What Your Fourth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell, 1992. (0-385-31260-1)

Jaffe, Andrew. Alaska: Southeast to McKinley. New York: Rizzoli, 1986. (0-8478-0690-1)

Sauvain, Philip. Mountains. Minneapolis, MN: Carolrhoda, 1996. (0-89886-328-7)