Fourth Grade - American History - Lesson 12 - The Constitution
 

Objectives

Identify the need for a constitution.

Appreciate the process behind the writing of the Constitution.

Participate in a reenactment (optional).
 

Suggested Books

Student Titles

Levy, Elizabeth. ...If You Were There When They Signed the Constitution. New York: Scholastic, 1987.

This informative book about the Constitution includes a section at the end about how laws are passed, the Supreme Court, and the Bill of Rights.

Maestro, Betsy and Giulio. A More Perfect Union-The Story of the Constitution. New York: Lothrop, Lee, and Shepard, 1987.
 

Student Reference

Morris, Richard B. The Constitution. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1985.

Teacher Reference

Hakim, Joy. From Colonies to Country: A History of US. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

McPhillips, Martin. The Constitutional Convention. Morristown, NJ: Silver Burdett, 1985.
 

Procedure

Review with the students that after the Revolutionary War, the former colonies were presented with the task of developing a system of government for the newly independent colonies. Have them recall that the Declaration of Independence made deciding on a new government a right of the people who lived in the former colonies. Ask: Why do societies need governments? Why does a society need laws? (Accept all reasonable responses.) Ask: What was the purpose of the Constitutional Convention? Have the students recall that it was held so that representatives from each state could come together to write the Constitution of the United States.

Tell the students that in May, 1787, leaders were called to meet in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Tell the students that George Washington was at this special convention. Ask: What role did George Washington play in the Revolutionary War? (He was a general who had led soldiers in the Revolutionary War.) While he was not yet the president of the country he was chosen to be in charge of the convention. Another famous man they might know who was there was Benjamin Franklin; already in his eighties, he was the oldest man there. James Madison might have been the most important man who was there because he was responsible for writing down everything that was said each day. At night he copied everything over so it was clear and neat. He is called the "Father of the Constitution."

Explain that at this convention many important decisions were made. One of the first decisions that had to be made was what would the new country be called. The delegates officially adopted the name the United States of America. Ask: Do you think that was an appropriate name for the new country?

If possible, read the book A More Perfect Union: The Story of Our Constitution by Betsy and Giulio Maestro. If you are able to read the book at this point in the lesson have the students listen to what the delegates did at the convention for their respective states and then re-enact the event with you. For example, on the subject of the executive branch James Wilson of Pennsylvania, John Rutledge and Charles Pinckney of South Carolina were in favor of one executive leader, whereas Edmund Jennings Randolph and George Mason of Virginia suggested that the executive branch be run by three people. This book puts the events of the time in a clear straightforward manner for children.

If not, explain to the students that the next issue that had to be decided was what shape the government would take. Discuss the plans below that were proposed at the convention. Write each of the plans on the chalkboard. Considerations were given to:

The Virginia Plan which said:

A new government that consisted of:

Representatives of the larger states liked this plan but representatives from smaller states did not. Ask: Why do you think the representatives from the larger states liked this plan, but the smaller states did not? (The larger states would get more delegates.) Tell the students that a vote was taken and the delegates agreed to a new government. They would write a constitution but they didn't agree as to how to decide on the number of people who would be part of it.
 

The New Jersey plan which said:

Each state should have the same number of delegates.
 

Explain to the students that a disagreement started because the larger states and the smaller states started to fight about the number of delegates and the fact that some states thought they needed a new government.
 

Connecticut then came up with a plan:

Tell the students this plan was called the Connecticut Compromise. Ask: What does the word compromise mean? (A settlement of differences by adjusting ideas or demands to come to an agreement.) Why would this plan be called a compromise? (It was written by combining aspects of both plans so as to please all the states.)

Tell the students that the Connecticut Compromise was a plan that the delegates agreed could work. Explain that the new government was made up of three parts that included an elected President, a Congress to make laws, and a law court to make decisions on those laws; each state was guaranteed two representatives to be part of this government and additional representation would be determined by the size of the state.

Draw a simple diagram of this on the board (see example below). At the top draw a sheet of paper and underneath it write Constitution. Draw three arrows pointing down and away from this. Under the first arrow write President, under the middle arrow write Congress, and under the right arrow write Supreme Court. If you are artistic you might also draw symbols with these words. Finally, draw two downward pointing arrows from the word Congress. Under one arrow write two representatives, under the other arrow write ? representatives (determined by size of state).

Constitution

President Congress Supreme Court

two representatives ? representatives (determined

by the size of the state)
 

Ask: How was the Connecticut Compromise different from the other two plans? Explain that by September, 1787, a new Constitution was ready. Now the job would be getting the people in all the states to agree to or ratify this Constitution. After the delegates and George Washington signed it the delegates had to take it back to their states for approval by the people in their state. Nine out of the thirteen states had to agree to or ratify the Constitution in order for it to become law and in 1788 the Constitution was ratified by three-quarters of the states and became law.
 

Additional Activity

Have the students compose a classroom constitution. Remind the students that together you drew up the components of a classroom set of rules just as the men at the constitutional convention came up with their guidelines for a new government.

Display the Preamble to the Constitution and read it to the students, then model your constitution this same way (see Lesson ).
 

We the people of grade 4, room ___, in order to get along together and make the best progress we can make in fourth grade agree to do the following:

In our classroom we will:
 

Be sure that you sign the class constitution as well as the students. Remind the students that George Washington acted as the person in charge during the convention. His signature said that he affirmed or agreed with the ideas they had written just as your signature affirms the constitution your class developed. Post this constitution for all to see.
 

Fourth Grade - American History - Lesson 13 - The Constitution
 

Objectives

Discuss the three branches of government.

Become familiar with the system of checks and balances that limit government power.
 

Materials

Write the Preamble to the Constitution on a piece of chart paper or on the chalk board:

We, the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common Defense, promote the General Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to Ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
 

Suggested Books

Student Title

Spier, Peter. We the People: The Constitution of the United States. New York: Doubleday & Company, 1987.
 

Teacher Reference

Hakim, Joy. From Colonies to Country: A History of US. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Hirsch, E. D. What Your Fourth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell, 1992.

Procedure

Review the three parts of government created by the Constitution with the students: one government with three parts which includes an elected president, a congress to make laws, and a law court to make decisions on those laws; each state is guaranteed two representatives to be part of this government and additional representation is determined by the size of the state.

Explain that the three parts of the government are also called the three branches of government. Draw a tree on the chalkboard with three branches. Tell the students that an easy way to remember the branches of our government is to imagine a tree with three branches. The three branches are the legislative branch, the executive branch, and the judicial branch.

Relate the following information to the students:

Explain that since the delegates and the people they represented were afraid of the government having too much power--they didn't want another king--the delegates planned that the three branches of government would check and balance each other. To check someone means to keep someone from going too far or overstepping their authority. The government was set up so that each branch would do just that and keep the government balanced with no one branch being stronger than another. The following are examples of checks and balances stated in the Constitution: Display the Preamble to the Constitution. Direct the students' attention to the fact that the Preamble starts with We the people of the United States. Ask: Is there anything significant about the words the Preamble begins with? (The words are significant because they are saying that the people together agreed to be governed this way. The people of the new country had a say.) Discuss the phrases that follow "We the people of the United States," asking the students to interpret what the phrases mean to them in modern-day terms. For example establish justice - the laws people agree to abide by, the court system, the police force; provide for the common defense - establish a national army, navy, and air force which all males over the age of 18 may be required to serve in a time of war.

If possible read the book We the People: The Constitution of the United States of America by Peter Spier. This beautiful book shows side by side drawings of the 1700s and present day enhancing the words of the Preamble. Have the students compare and contrast the drawings.
 
 
 

Fourth Grade - American History - Lesson 14 - The Bill of Rights
 

Objectives

Define right.

Discuss the reason for the Bill of Rights.

Discuss the first ten Amendments to the Constitution.
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Fincher, E. B. The Bill of Rights: A First Book. New York: Franklin Watts, 1978.
 

Teacher Reference

Atherton, Herbert M. and J. Jackson Barlow. The Bill of Rights and Beyond: 1791-1991. Commission on the Bicentennial of the U. S. Constitution, 1991.
 

Procedure

Have the students recall that the Constitution contains the guidelines for United States government. Tell them that it also contains a list of rights and freedoms that the American people have.

Tell the students that once the Constitution was approved, a new Congress was elected and courts of law were made, but some people were worried. Explain that they worried that the rights of the people that had been taken from them once, could be taken from them again. Remind the students that people had come to America to be able to practice their own religion, to make their own laws, etc. Explain that in order to make sure that their rights would be preserved, additions were added to the Constitution.

Tell the students that the first ten additions were named the Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights states the guarantees and freedoms for people to act a certain way. The people insisted on these rights being written because they were afraid that their new government could become too powerful and their rights could be taken away. Finally, for the first time the people felt that they were in control of the government. Sadly, however, this power did not belong to everyone; Native Americans, African Americans and women were not allowed to vote.

Ask: What is a right? (A guarantee or freedom to act a certain way.) Which right was so important to the people who first settled the colonies? (religion) What other rights do you think the people wanted? Which rights would you want included in the Constitution? List the students' responses on the board and have the students justify the reasons for their choices. Next, compare their responses to the first ten amendments to the Constitution.
 

1st Amendment - Emphasize that it guarantees freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom to meet together in groups, and freedom to ask the government for help with problems that need to be solved.

2nd Amendment - The right to keep and carry guns. (Ask: Why was it important for citizens to have the right to bear arms in the 18th century? The former colonists needed weapons during their fight against the British during the Revolutionary War. Do you think it is an important right today?)

3rd Amendment - Soldiers cannot be housed in your home without your permission. (Ask: Why was this an important freedom to the former colonists? What happened to the colonists that they would want this to be a law? The British king forced the colonists to house British Soldiers.)

4th Amendment - The police cannot enter and search your house unless they have a proper legal paper called a warrant. (During the British occupation of the colonies, British soldiers searched people's houses looking for any information or items they wanted.)

5th, 6th, 7th Amendments - Right to a fair trial. (Ask: What does the phrase innocent until proven guilty mean? In the U. S. everyone is considered innocent until they have been proven in a court of law to be guilty of a crime.

8th Amendment - Makes the practice of cruel and unusual punishment illegal.

9th Amendment - The listing of rights in the Constitution does not mean that rights that are not listed are given up by the people. (Ask: Why is this important? How have our needs changed?)

10th Amendment - States that the powers and rights not given to the federal government in the Constitution are given to the states or the people.

Be sure to discuss the responsibilities associated with the rights given by the Bill of Rights. For example, we have the right of free speech, but we may not say lies about people or threaten them and we may not say things that would cause danger; like yelling "Fire" in a crowded building when there is no fire.

Students should know that when something is suggested for an amendment it takes a long process to become one. At present there are only twenty-six amendments and over 10,000 have been proposed.

Have each student choose an amendment to write an essay about. In their essay they should include: the number and meaning of the amendment, how the amendment they have chosen affects their own life, what life would be like if there were no such amendment.
 

Additional Activity

Assign a particular amendment to each student. Have the student compare and contrast the importance of the amendment in the 1700s and today.
 

Fourth Grade - American History - Lesson 14 - The Bill of Rights
 

Objectives

Define right.

Discuss the reason for the Bill of Rights.

Discuss the first ten Amendments to the Constitution.
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Fincher, E. B. The Bill of Rights: A First Book. New York: Franklin Watts, 1978.
 

Teacher Reference

Atherton, Herbert M. and J. Jackson Barlow. The Bill of Rights and Beyond: 1791-1991. Commission on the Bicentennial of the U. S. Constitution, 1991.
 

Procedure

Have the students recall that the Constitution contains the guidelines for United States government. Tell them that it also contains a list of rights and freedoms that the American people have.

Tell the students that once the Constitution was approved, a new Congress was elected and courts of law were made, but some people were worried. Explain that they worried that the rights of the people that had been taken from them once, could be taken from them again. Remind the students that people had come to America to be able to practice their own religion, to make their own laws, etc. Explain that in order to make sure that their rights would be preserved, additions were added to the Constitution.

Tell the students that the first ten additions were named the Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights states the guarantees and freedoms for people to act a certain way. The people insisted on these rights being written because they were afraid that their new government could become too powerful and their rights could be taken away. Finally, for the first time the people felt that they were in control of the government. Sadly, however, this power did not belong to everyone; Native Americans, African Americans and women were not allowed to vote.

Ask: What is a right? (A guarantee or freedom to act a certain way.) Which right was so important to the people who first settled the colonies? (religion) What other rights do you think the people wanted? Which rights would you want included in the Constitution? List the students' responses on the board and have the students justify the reasons for their choices. Next, compare their responses to the first ten amendments to the Constitution.
 

1st Amendment - Emphasize that it guarantees freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom to meet together in groups, and freedom to ask the government for help with problems that need to be solved.

2nd Amendment - The right to keep and carry guns. (Ask: Why was it important for citizens to have the right to bear arms in the 18th century? The former colonists needed weapons during their fight against the British during the Revolutionary War. Do you think it is an important right today?)

3rd Amendment - Soldiers cannot be housed in your home without your permission. (Ask: Why was this an important freedom to the former colonists? What happened to the colonists that they would want this to be a law? The British king forced the colonists to house British Soldiers.)

4th Amendment - The police cannot enter and search your house unless they have a proper legal paper called a warrant. (During the British occupation of the colonies, British soldiers searched people's houses looking for any information or items they wanted.)

5th, 6th, 7th Amendments - Right to a fair trial. (Ask: What does the phrase innocent until proven guilty mean? In the U. S. everyone is considered innocent until they have been proven in a court of law to be guilty of a crime.

8th Amendment - Makes the practice of cruel and unusual punishment illegal.

9th Amendment - The listing of rights in the Constitution does not mean that rights that are not listed are given up by the people. (Ask: Why is this important? How have our needs changed?)

10th Amendment - States that the powers and rights not given to the federal government in the Constitution are given to the states or the people.

Be sure to discuss the responsibilities associated with the rights given by the Bill of Rights. For example, we have the right of free speech, but we may not say lies about people or threaten them and we may not say things that would cause danger; like yelling "Fire" in a crowded building when there is no fire.

Students should know that when something is suggested for an amendment it takes a long process to become one. At present there are only twenty-six amendments and over 10,000 have been proposed.

Have each student choose an amendment to write an essay about. In their essay they should include: the number and meaning of the amendment, how the amendment they have chosen affects their own life, what life would be like if there were no such amendment.
 

Additional Activity

Assign a particular amendment to each student. Have the student compare and contrast the importance of the amendment in the 1700s and today.
 

Fourth Grade - American History - Lesson 15 - The Three Levels of Government
 

Objectives

Identify responsibilities specific to each level of government.

Identify the current president, vice president, and state governor.
 

Suggested Books

Teacher Reference

Feinberg, Barbara Silberdick. State Governments. New York: Franklin Watts, 1993.
 

Procedure

Have the students recall that the Constitution contains the guidelines of the United States government and the rights and freedoms of the American people. Ask: What are the first ten amendments to the Constitution called? (the Bill of Rights) Remind the students that the tenth amendment to the Constitution states that any powers not given to the federal government by the Constitution are reserved for the individual states. The structure of the new government provided for not only the federal or national level of government, but also the state level of government.

Write the following terms on the board: Federal, State, Local. Tell the students that there are essentially three levels of government in the United States. The federal level serves the entire country. The president heads the federal government. Ask: Who is the current president? Who is the current vice president? Explain that the federal government is located in our national capital, Washington, D. C.

Next, explain that each state has its own government which is located in each state's capital. Ask: What is the capital of Maryland? (Annapolis) Explain that like the federal government, each state government has three branches. Ask the students to name the three branches of government (the executive, legislative, and judicial branch). The executive branch is headed by a governor. Ask: Who is the current governor of Maryland?

Tell the children that the third level is the local level. For example, the city of Baltimore has its own government officials, such as a mayor. Ask: Who is the current mayor of Baltimore?

Organize and write the information on the chalkboard for the students.
 
Federal

Washington DC

State

Annapolis

Local

Baltimore

Executive Branch: President/Vice President Executive Branch: Governor Executive Branch: Mayor
Legislative: National laws Legislative: State laws Legislative: Local codes
Judicial: Supreme Count Judicial: Courts Judicial: Courts

 

Explain that each level of government has responsibilities. Some of the areas of responsibility overlap. For instance, there are departments of education at both the federal and state level. One oversees education for the entire country and the other makes decisions about education for its particular state. Tell the students that the federal government is also responsible for things that the state governments cannot do. For example, only the federal government can make money. Have the students imagine what our system of money would be like if each individual state made its own money. Ask: What would a person from Maryland do if they wanted to go to Virginia and buy something if each state's money was different? What difficulties could you imagine happening if each state made its own money? Explain that you might have to exchange money just as you would if you were to travel to a foreign country. Also, only the federal government can declare war. Why is this important? What problems could you imagine occurring if this were a power that each state had? Have the students recall that during the Civil War the southern states were at war with the northern states. Ask: Could something like this happen again?

Explain to the students that in their own communities there are services that are provided by their state or local governments that affect their daily lives, such as police departments, fire departments, public schools, and some of the hospitals in their communities.

Tell the students that the many services provided to them by the government are funded by taxes that are paid by individuals and businesses. A tax is an amount of money that is collected by the government on income, property, sales, etc. For example, the sales tax in Maryland is five percent, so if you go to the store to buy a new pair of shoes and the price of the shoes is $30.00 the amount you would actually pay is $31.50 because the tax that goes to the government is $1.50.

Review with the students the three levels of government (national/federal, state, and local). Discuss the fact that each level has responsibilities--the federal government is responsible for services that affect the country as a whole, each state government is responsible for services that affect only that particular state, and the local government is responsible for services in a particular community.

Tell the students that as a citizen of the United States, we all have the responsibility to be informed participants at every level of our government. Explain that there are many ways we can participate in our government. The following are examples of some of the ways:

Vote for representatives at all levels of government - Remember the person elected represents you in the government and makes sure that issues that are important to the people he or she represents are heard.

Volunteer on a political campaign for a person you feel should be elected to a position in the government.

Write to a politician at the federal, state or local level to tell him or her about an issue that you feel should be given attention. At the federal level you can write to the president, at the state level you can write to a Congressman, and at the local level you can write to a representative of the city or county council.

Ask the students to volunteer their ideas for other ways they can participate in the government. Ask: Why is it important that each of us participate in our government.

You may wish to have the students write to their representative in the House of Representatives or the Senate regarding an important issue in their community. Have students recall if they have ever written such a letter to a government official before and review with the class the steps they would have to take: find out the name of the representative, obtain his/her address, write the letter and send the letter. Review the format of a letter, reminding the students that this would be a persuasive letter. Explain if necessary that the purpose of a persuasive letter is to convince a person to do something you have asked them to do regarding your particular cause. The address for both are as follows:
 
For representative in Congress: 

The Honorable ____________ 

U. S. House of Representatives 

Washington, D. C. 20515 

For U. S. Senator: 

The Honorable ____________ 

U. S. Senate 

Washington, D. C. 20510


 
 
 

Fourth Grade - American History - Lesson 16 - Early Presidents and Political Parties
 

Objectives

Identify the first and second presidents of the United States.

Identify our nation's capital as Washington, D. C.
 

Materials

Classroom-size U. S. map
 

Suggested Books

Student Titles

The following books are written on a fourth grade level providing interesting facts about Washington, D. C. and beautiful color photographs of the Capital's monuments and historical buildings.

Santella, Andrew. The Capitol. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1995.

Steins, Richard. Our National Capital. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994.

Thompson, Kathleen. Washington, D. C. Austin, TX: Steck-Vaughn, 1996.
 

Student Reference

Lindop, Edmund. Presidents Who Dared. New York: Henry Holt, 1995.
 

Teacher Reference

Hakim, Joy. The New Nation: A History of US. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
 

Procedure

Ask: Where is our nation's capital located? (Washington, D. C.) Tell the students that although the capital is currently in Washington, D. C., when the first president came into office the location for the new capital of the United States had not been decided.

Ask: Who was the first president of the United States? (George Washington) Tell the students that after the Constitution was approved, elections were held to select a president, vice president, and members of Congress. The senators and representatives in Congress unanimously voted for George Washington to be president and chose John Adams to be vice president. Explain that the first presidential inauguration took place in New York City, which became the nation's first capital.

Direct the students' attention to a map of the United States. Point to New York City on the map. Tell the students that it was decided that the permanent capital would be built in the area that is now called Washington, D. C. Point to Washington on the map. Ask: Considering the states that made up the United States at this time, why was Washington a good location for the newly formed United States? (It was a central location.) Who was the capital named after? (George Washington) Tell the students that the when the capital city was built it was originally called Federal City and was renamed Washington after George Washington's death.

You may wish to read aloud to the class Chapter 2 - "About Being President" from The New Nation by Joy Hakim. The chapter contains a wonderful account of the beginning of George Washington's presidency.

Tell the students that after coming to office, Washington appointed a group of advisors to help him make decisions as the head of the country. This group of advisors that the president chose became known as the president's cabinet. Two of the people Washington chose to be his advisors were Thomas Jefferson, to help with foreign affairs, and Alexander Hamilton, to help with the nation's system of money. Unfortunately, these two advisors didn't get along with one another. Explain that Jefferson and Hamilton disagreed on what was best for their new country and interestingly enough this was the beginning of the two political parties that are now present in the United States--Democrats and Republicans.

Explain that Thomas Jefferson was afraid that the government could become too powerful; he believed that freedom and justice for each individual was important. He was a strong believer in public education, so that all people could be educated participants in the government. Alexander Hamilton, on the other hand believed that the government should be strong. He thought the government should be run only by wealthy, well-educated leaders. Explain that many Americans agreed with Hamilton and many Americans agreed with Jefferson and this was the beginning of the political parties. Jefferson's followers developed into what is today called the Democratic Party and Hamilton's followers developed into what is today called the Republican Party.

Tell the students that George Washington served two four-year terms (eight years) as president. At the end of his second term to he refused to stay on for a third. This started the tradition, which later became a law, that a president only serve for two four-year terms. A congressman from Virginia once said about Washington, "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of the countrymen. Ask: What does this quote mean? Washington is also called the Father of our Country. Why is this an appropriate name for him?

Ask: Who became the second president of the United States? (John Adams) Tell the students that after serving for eight years as vice president, John Adams became the second president of the United States. He and his wife Abigail were the first to live in the White House. Adams believed in Alexander Hamilton's view that the government should be headed by educated, wealthy people. Ask: How do you think people felt about this?(Adams' views made him unpopular with many Americans.) Ask: Why do you think his point of view made him unpopular with many Americans? Tell the students that John Adams did not get reelected for a second term, but the Adams name comes up again in history when his son, John Quincy Adams, becomes the sixth president of the United States of America.
 
 

Bibliography


 
 

Student Titles

Levy, Elizabeth. ...If You Were There When They Signed the Constitution. New York: Scholastic, 1987. (0-590-45159-6)

Maestro, Betsy and Giulio. A More Perfect Union-The Story of the Constitution. New York: Lothrop, Lee, and Shepard, 1987.

Quackenbush, Robert. James Madison & Dolley Madison and Their Lives. New York: Pippin Press, 1992. (0-945912-18-8)

Santella, Andrew. The Capitol. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1995. (0-516-06626-9)

Spier, Peter. We the People: The Constitution of the United States. New York: Doubleday & Company, 1987.

Steins, Richard. Our National Capital. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994. (1-56294-439-8)

Thompson, Kathleen. Washington, D. C. Austin, TX: Steck-Vaughn, 1996. (0-8114-7475-5)
 

Student Reference

Fincher, E. B. The Bill of Rights: A First Book. New York: Franklin Watts, 1978. (0-531-01347-2)

Johnson, Linda Carlson. Our Constitution: I Know America. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1992. (1562940902)

Lindop, Edmund. Presidents Who Dared. New York: Henry Holt, 1995. (0-8050-3401-3)

Morris, Richard B. The First Book of the Constitution. New York: Franklin Watts, 1958. (0822517027)

Teacher Reference

Atherton, Herbert M. and J. Jackson Barlow. The Bill of Rights and Beyond: 1791-1991. Commission on the Bicentennial of the U. S. Constitution, 1991. (91-076382)

Feinberg, Barbara Silberdick. State Governments. New York: Franklin Watts, 1993. (0-531-20154-6)

Hakim, Joy. From Colonies to Country: A History of US. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. (0-19-507749-0)

Hakim, Joy. The New Nation: A History of US. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. (0-669-36835-0)

Hirsch, E. D. What Your Fourth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell, 1992. (0-385-31260-1)

McPhillips, Martin. The Constitutional Convention. Morristown, NJ: Silver Burdett, 1985. (0-382-06827-0)