Fourth Grade - Geography - Lesson 1 - Review of Continents, Oceans, and Hemispheres

Objectives

Locate the seven continents.

Locate the Pacific, Atlantic, Arctic, and Indian Oceans.

Review the locations of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

Locate the equator and Prime Meridian.

Define and identify the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.

Materials

Globe

Classroom size world map with lines of latitude and longitude

World map ditto

Procedure

Direct the students' attention to the classroom size world map. Remind the students that the earth is covered with large masses of land and large bodies of water. Ask: What do we call the large masses of land on Earth? (continents) Write the names of the seven continents on the chalkboard (North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, Antarctica). Have students come up to the map to locate and name each continent. Ask: What do we call large bodies of water? (oceans) Write the names of the four oceans on the board (Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Indian). Have students locate the four oceans on the map.

Give each student a copy of the world map worksheet. Have the students label the continents and the oceans, referring to the classroom size map as necessary. Students should also label the oceans on their maps, using the classroom size map as a reference.

Ask: If you are looking at a map, what direction is the top of a map? (north) What direction is opposite north? (south) What are the other two cardinal directions? (east and west) Remind the students that if they are facing north, west is to their left and east is to their right. Have the students write the four cardinal directions on the lines around the map.

Write the word equator on the board. Show the students the equator line on the map. Remind them that the equator is actually an imaginary line, but its location is shown on maps. Tell the students that the equator divides the world into two parts called hemispheres. Write the word hemisphere on the chalkboard. Hold up a globe and show the students where the equator is located. Ask: What do we call the area that is located above the equator? (Northern Hemisphere) What do we call the area that is located below the equator? (Southern Hemisphere) Direct students' attention to the world map. Have a student come up and locate the equator. Ask students to locate each continent on the map and tell whether it is in the Northern Hemisphere, the Southern Hemisphere, or both. Ask: Do we live in the Northern or Southern Hemisphere? (northern)

Give each student a world map ditto. Tell the students that the line numbered 0 across the center of the map is the equator. Recall that the equator is halfway between the North and South Pole. Explain that the equator is numbered as 0 because it is used as the beginning point to locate places north and south of it. Have the students trace the line with their pencils.

Tell the students that just as the equator goes around the middle of the earth horizontally or east-west, there is north-south line on the map called the Prime Meridian. Write Prime Meridian on the chalkboard. Tell the students that the Prime Meridian is also numbered on their maps as 0, but is the 0 north-south line. Have the students trace the Prime Meridian with their pencils. Tell the students that we know that the line of the equator is located or placed where it is because it is halfway between the North and South Poles, but the Prime Meridian line is located or placed where it is because there is an observatory, a place from which people look at stars, in a city called Greenwich, England. Mapmakers agreed to use this location for an imaginary north-south line to go through the North and South Poles. Point to Greenwich, England on the map and show that the Prime Meridian runs through that place.

Next, have the students trace the curved lines on the left and right edges of the map. Explain that both of these lines are marked 180 because they show the same place. Show the students on the globe that the 180 line is opposite the Prime Meridian (continues on the other side of the globe). Explain to the students that the Prime Meridian and the 180 line divide the world into two other hemispheres called the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. Point to the map to demonstrate as you explain. Explain that the part of the world from the Prime Meridian east to the 180 line is the Eastern Hemisphere and from the Prime Meridian west to the 180 line is the Western Hemisphere. Ask: Do we live in the Eastern or Western Hemisphere (western). Tell the students that the 180 line is also known as the International Date Line because the regions to the east of the line are counted as being one day earlier in their calendar dates than the regions to the west.

Fourth Grade - Geography - Lesson 2 - Latitude and Longitude

Adapted from Primary Social Studies Skills C. Chicago, IL: Nystrom, 1993.

Objectives

Review Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western Hemispheres.

Identify lines of latitude.

Identify lines of longitude.

Materials

Classroom size world map with lines of latitude and longitude

World map worksheet with lines of latitude and longitude

Procedure

Give each student a world map worksheet. Have students locate and trace with a pencil the line of the equator. Review with the students that the equator is located halfway between the North and South Poles. Ask: What two hemispheres does the equator divide the earth into? (Northern and Southern Hemispheres) Have the students label their maps at the equator with W for west to the left of the map and E for east to the right of the map.

Have students locate the Prime Meridian. Have them trace with a pencil the line. Review with the students that the Prime Meridian is a north-south line. Ask: Which hemisphere is east of the Prime Meridian? (the Eastern Hemisphere) Which hemisphere is west of the Prime Meridian? (the Western Hemisphere) Have the students label their maps at the Prime Meridian with N for north at the top of the map and S for South at the bottom of the map.

Ask the students to look at the numbers along the equator. Ask: What number do you find on the equator on the left and right sides of the map? (0) Tell the students that the equator is marked with a 0 because it is the main east-west line. Explain that the other east-west lines on the map measure the distance north or south of the equator. Tell the students that these distances are measured by degrees, the symbol for which is a degree mark. (Write 0 on the chalkboard and point to the degree mark.)

Tell the students to look at the numbers along the left side of the map. Ask: What is the first number for the line north of the equator? (30N) What is the first number of the line south of the equator? (30S) Do the same for other lines north and south of the equator. Write the word latitude on the chalkboard. Explain to the students that the east-west lines on a map are called lines of latitude. Point to lines of latitude on the map as you explain the following: lines of latitude are numbered north and south of the equator.

Next, have the students find the Prime Meridian on their maps. Ask: How is the Prime Meridian numbered at the top and bottom of the map? (0) What other lines do you see on your map? Explain that the Prime Meridian is the main north-south line. Have the students trace with their fingers the north-south line numbered 30W in the Western Hemisphere and 30E in the Eastern Hemisphere. Do the same for the 60 and 90 lines in both the Eastern and Western Hemisphere.

Write the word longitude on the board. Tell the students that north-south lines on a map are called lines of longitude. Explain that lines of longitude are numbered east and west of the Prime Meridian. Draw and label the following on the board as a reference for the students:

longitude latitude

Tell students that just a line of latitude or a line of longitude does not tell us very much about location. Explain that if we said that a particular place was at 60E, it could be anywhere along this line. (Show students on the map.) If we use lines of latitude and longitude together, though, they tell a great deal. Have the students look at their own maps and the classroom size map as you explain the following. If we say that a particular place is at 30 N and 60E, we know that this place is where 30N meets 60E. Explain that these two numbers in degrees used to describe location are called coordinates. Write coordinates on the chalkboard.

Using the map, show students several other examples of how two coordinates meet to pinpoint an exact location on the map. Next, give students these coordinates: 30S and 120E. Have students run their fingers along these two lines on their own maps to find where they meet. If necessary, model again how to do this on the map. Ask: What continent is at the intersection of these two lines? (Australia) Repeat this procedure, asking students to name the continent located at the intersection of these coordinates: 60N, 120W (North America); the equator, 60W (South America); 60N, 120E (Asia); 30S, 30E (Africa).

Fourth Grade - Geography - Lesson 3 - Geography of Canada

Objectives

Locate Canada relative to the United States.

Identify the major Canadian cities: Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, Vancouver.

Locate the Canadian Rocky Mountains.

Suggested Books

Student Titles

Parker, Lewis K. Dropping In On...Canada. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Books, 1994.

Sorensen, Lynda. Canada: The Land. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Books, 1995.

Tarsitano, Frank. Canada: On the Map. Austin, TX: Steck-Vaughn, 1993.

Taylor, Barbara. Maps and Mapping. New York: Kingfisher Books, 1993.

Teacher Reference

Chapman, Gillian and Pam Robinson. Maps & Mazes. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1993.

Materials

Classroom size map of North America with lines of latitude and longitude

Physical map of North America - classroom size or from an atlas

Topographical globe

Teacher Note:

This lesson should be completed after this month's history lessons on the French and Indian War. References are made to the information the students learned in those lessons.

Procedure

Review with the students information about the hemispheres. Ask: What divides the Northern Hemisphere from the Southern Hemisphere on a map? (the equator) What divides the Eastern Hemisphere from the Western Hemisphere on a map? (the Prime Meridian) Have students locate each on the classroom map.

Direct the students' attention to the map. Ask: Is North America in the Eastern or Western Hemisphere? (western) Is North America in the Northern Hemisphere, the Southern Hemisphere or both? (northern) What countries make up the continent of North America? (Canada, Mexico, and the United States) Tell the students that although they have learned about all three countries in previous grades, we are now going to focus on the geography of Canada. Have a student locate Canada on the map. Ask: What direction is Canada from the United States? (north)

Tell the students that Canada is the largest country in North America and the second largest country in the world. Explain to the students that because Canada was first colonized by France and later taken over by England after the French and Indian War, both French and English are considered the official languages of Canada. Tell the students that in the city of Quebec (point to Quebec on the map) almost one third of the people speak French.

Explain to the students that in the same way the United States is divided into states, the country of Canada is divided into much larger areas of land called provinces. Each province is an area of the country that has its own local government. There are ten provinces in Canada.

Point to each of the following cities on the map as you discuss. Tell the students that although the city of Ottawa is the country's capital, the city of Toronto is the largest city in Canada. Other major cities include Montreal and Vancouver. Ask: When we were studying the French and Indian War, what was the main thing that the French bought from the Native Americans to sell to people in Europe? (fur, animal skins) Tell the students that the city of Montreal was the center of France's fur trade during that time.

Tell the students that because Canada is a large country, a variety of habitats can be found there. Ask: Who can name an example of a habitat? (forest, desert, mountain, prairie, river, etc.) A few of the habitats you can find in Canada are forests, prairies, and mountains. Tell the students that the Rocky Mountains that we have in the western United States continue up into the western part of Canada. (On the map show the students the Rocky Mountains. Starting in the United States the Rockies go through New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, into Canada through Alberta, British Columbia, and up into the Yukon.) Direct the students attention to the classroom size political map of North America. Ask: Is this map marked to show us where the Rockies are located in the United States or Canada? (no)

Tell the students that there are different kinds of maps. Explain that this map doesn't show where the mountain is located, but there is a type of map that is called a relief map that would. Explain that a relief map shows the elevations, which are high places--mountains for instance--or depressions, which are low places on the earth's surface. Write the words elevation and depression on the chalkboard.

Explain that since mountains are higher than the land surrounding them, the elevation of a mountain can be measured and shown on a map. Elevation can be shown in a variety of ways; one way is by using color codes. For example, a higher point on a map could be shown using a darker color and a lower point using a lighter shade of that same color. Tell the students that on some relief maps you can feel the elevations and depressions with your fingers because the surface of the map is raised to show where mountains are located or indented to show depressions.

Show the students an example of a relief map of North America from an atlas, globe, or if possible, a classroom size map. Tell the students that they will notice that the map is marked to show elevations and depressions. Explain the way the map shows elevation--using color, shading, symbols, etc. (Give the students an example from the physical map you are using. For example, 10,000 feet and over is represented by dark orange.)

Have students locate on the map and name the oceans that surround Canada. (the Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic oceans) Tell the students that Canada borders four of the Great Lakes that the United States also borders. Ask students to identify the four (Lake Huron, Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, and Lake Superior). Explain that one of Canada's rivers, the St. Lawrence River, connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. Trace the path of the St. Lawrence River to the Atlantic Ocean on the map. Tell the students that there is another body of water that at first looks like a lake, but as can be seen on the map, is a bay because it has an opening into the ocean. It is called the Hudson Bay. Have a student locate the Hudson Bay on the map.

If possible, you may wish to read selections about the land and culture of Canada from the Suggested Books, which also contain beautiful color photographs of the Canadian landscape.

Additional Activity

Materials

One of the following

Salt dough or clay

Elbow macaroni

1 per student

Map of Canada

Procedure

Have the students make their own relief maps of Canada in one of the following ways:

1. Use symbols to represent the mountain ranges in Canada.

2. Use clay or salt dough to make a relief map. Have the students spread the clay or dough into the shape of Canada, using the photocopied map as an outline. Then have the students shape dough into mountain ranges (adding dough where necessary) in the appropriate places.

3. Use elbow macaroni to make a relief map. Have the students glue elbow macaroni onto the photocopied maps to represent the Canadian mountain ranges.