Fourth Grade - American History - Lesson 1 - French and Indian War
 

Objective

Become familiar with the causes of the French and Indian War.
 

Suggested Books

Student Title

Carter, Alden R. The Colonial Wars. New York: Franklin Watts, 1992.
 

Teacher Reference

Hakim, Joy. A History of US: From Colonies to Country. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
 

Materials

Classroom size U. S. map
 

Teacher Note

You may wish to review the information covered in the First and Second Grade Core Sequence: exploration, colonization, colonial life.

Also, at the beginning of the school year, construct a timeline in your classroom on which to record the dates of events which will be studied in both World and American history. Start the timeline with 1000 B.C. Mark and label every 500 years, leaving plenty of room to fill in dates. Be sure to label the current year.

Since the study of history begins with American history in the 1700s, you may wish to label the events in American history above the line and events in world history below the line.
 

Procedure

Discuss with the students that when you study history, it gives you the chance to look back at the problems people had in the past, the ways they solved the problems, and what happened as a result. Explain to the students that they are going to take a look back to colonial times in the United States. Tell the students that during the 1700's the European countries of England and France, both had colonies in North America and as part of both of their North American colonies, England and France both claimed the area between the British colonies on the eastern seaboard and the Mississippi River, north to the Great Lakes and south to the Gulf of Mexico. (Show the students this region on a U. S. map.) Ask: Why would both countries want this piece of land? What are some reasons this area would be desirable? (The rivers made transportation by boat possible and facilitated trade between places. The water from the river could be used to irrigate crops. The land in the valley was fertile, good for growing crops.)

Tell the students that in addition to both the French and English wanting the land for the land itself, there was also a profitable fur trade of the skins of beavers and other small animals. The French would buy the animal skins from the Native Americans for very little money and sell them for a good profit in Europe. Explain that since neither the British nor the French were willing to give up the land, a war began between the two sides in 1754. Tell the students that the British called the war the French and Indian War because they were fighting against the French and there were Native American tribes that joined the French to fight against the British. (Explain that it was also called the Seven Years' War because the British declared war on the French in Europe in 1756 and the war ended in 1763.) Tell the students there were also Native Americans that took the side of the British; the Iroquois Confederacy, made up of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, Cayuga, and Tuscarora tribes helped the British troops.

Explain to the students that although the French treated the Native Americans fairly, (they respected their land and made fair trades with them) the Iroquois didn't like the French. Because the Iroquois held a grudge against the French for taking sides with one of their enemies, the Huron Indians, they were willing to join the British troops to fight against the French.

Tell the class they are now going to look at the following framework (write on the board):

Problem Solution

Ask: What problem started the French and Indian War? Discuss the answers in depth--What was at stake? Which two countries were involved? Why was the land in question so important to the French and the British?

Ask: What did the disagreement between the French and the British lead to? Tell the students that the French and Indian War was their attempt to find a solution to their problem.

Ask: What are the possible effects to come about as a result of the French and British going to war?
 

Tell the students that they will be learning about the outcome of the French and Indian War and the effects of this outcome on the British and the French in their next lesson.
 

Fourth Grade - American History - Lesson 2 - French and Indian War
 

Objectives

Recall the events that led to the French and Indian War.

Identify the effects of the French and Indian War on France and England.
 

Suggested Books

Student Title

Carter, Alden R. The Colonial Wars. New York: Franklin Watts, 1992.
 

Teacher Reference

Hakim, Joy. A History of US: From Colonies to Country. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
 

Materials

Classroom size U. S. map
 

Procedure

Remind the students that in the last lesson we discussed the beginnings of the French and Indian War. Ask the students to recall answers to the following questions: What problem started the French and Indian War? (dispute over land that both the British and the French claimed was theirs) Which two countries were involved? (France and England) Why was the land in question so important to the French and the British? (The rivers made transportation by boat possible and facilitated trade between places. The water from the river could be used to irrigate crops. The land in the valley was fertile, good for growing crops.) What did the disagreement between the French and the British lead to? (a war) Write Problem Solution on the board and record the students responses (leave on the board for additions at the end of the lesson).

Tell the students that at the beginning of the war the British had trouble fighting against the French and the Native Americans that helped them; the French troops used the trees as camouflage and fired at the British from hidden places in the woods. Explain that the British were used to fighting in open battlefields and the English general refused to let his troops take cover. Also, part of the uniform of a British soldier was a red coat, so the British soldiers made easy targets.

Explain that even though the British, with help from Native Americans and colonist soldiers, greatly outnumbered the French it looked as though the French were going to pull through and save their territory. Tell the students that this changed when the British won a battle and went on to win many more. Explain that the British finally defeated the French because they were able to capture two forts that guarded the St. Lawrence River and the Niagara River which were two main waterways into the center of French territory in what we now know as the country of Canada. (Show the students the paths of the rivers on a U. S. map.)

Tell the students that one of the last and most important battles was the Battle of Quebec. Explain that the British troops traveled up the St. Lawrence River to the city of Quebec. The British won the battle and the French in Quebec surrendered. (You may wish to read pages 51-54 in The Colonial Wars by Alden R. Carter, which portrays the drama surrounding the Battle of

Quebec.)

Ask: Since the solution to the French and British disagreement over land was to go to war, what are some of the possible effects of the war on the French and the British?

Tell the students that England got all the French territory in Canada and the United States east of the Mississippi, except New Orleans. New Orleans and everything west of the Mississippi belonged to Spain. (France had given the land to Spain so that the British wouldn't get it.) The French colonists were forced to leave the areas that the British took over.

Explain that even though the British were winners in that they won the rights to the land, the war had cost them a great deal and England was left with a large debt. England also had to keep troops in the new territories to keep these areas safe and that cost the British more money. Tell the students that the king of England thought that since the colonists gained security because the British won the war and had control of the land east of the Mississippi, they should also pay their share of the debt. Explain that the British were going to have the colonists pay by taxing the colonists. Taxing is when a person is charged a certain amount of money on something they buy or money they make. Ask: How do you think the American colonists felt about having to pay England's debts? (Possible responses could be they were happy to pay since the British helped them protect the land or they were unhappy to pay for England's debt.)

Direct the students' attention back to the chalkboard. Add a last column to the board,

Problem Solution Effect

Record the students' responses to the following questions.

Ask: What was the outcome of the war? Who won? What were the costs to each side? (land, lives, weapons, etc.) How did the British plan to solve their need to raise money to pay their large debt from the war? (make the American colonists pay)
 

Fourth Grade - American History - Lesson 3 - The Revolutionary War
 

Objective

Become familiar with the events of the American Revolution.
 

Suggested Books

Student Titles

Harness, Cheryl. Young John Quincy. New York: Bradbury, 1994.

Morris, Richard B. The First Book of the American Revolution. New York: Franklin Watts, 1956.

Rappaport, Doreen. The Boston Coffee Party. New York: Harper & Row, 1988.
 

Student Reference

Allitt, Patrick. Founders of America. Morristown, NJ: Silver Burdett, 1983.

Dolan, Edward F. The American Revolution: How We Fought the War of Independence. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1995.

Egger-Bovet, Howard and Marlene Smith-Baranzini. USKids History: Book of the American Revolution. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1994.

Grant, R. G. The American Revolution. New York: Thomson Learning, 1995.

Ingraham, Leonard W. An Album of the American Revolution. New York: Franklin Watts, 1971.
 

Teacher Reference

Adams, Russell B., ed. The Revolutionaries: The American Story. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1996.

Brenner, Barbara. If You Were There in 1776. New York: Bradbury Press, 1994.

Carter, Alden R. Colonies in Revolt: The American Revolution. New York: Franklin Watts, 1988.

Hakim, Joy. A History of US: From Colonies to Country. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Murphy, Jim. A Young Patriot: The American Revolution as Experienced by One Boy. New York: Clarion Books, 1995.

Stein, R. Conrad. The Boston Tea Party. New York: Children's Press, 1996.

Zell, Fran. A Multicultural Portrait of The American Revolution. New York: Benchmark Books, 1996.
 

Materials

Classroom size U. S. map

Letter (text included in lesson)

Construction or manila paper

Lined paper
 

Teacher Note

The American Revolution is also covered in Reading Mastery III, Lesson 139.
 

Procedure

Tell the students that before they begin their history lesson you have a letter to read to the

class from the principal. Read the letter to the class. (A sample follows, but you may wish to write your own version.)
 

To the students at ____________ Elementary,

I saw the need to make a few changes in the responsibilities and privileges of the students here at ____________ Elementary. Starting Monday, in order to make time for longer periods of math, science, history, literature, reading, and language the following changes will take place:

There will no longer be recess allowed during the school day.

You will have 10 minutes to eat lunch.

The school day will begin at 7:00 a.m. and end at 5:00 p.m.

There will no longer be any field trips allowed.
 

Also, students will be required to complete 4 hours of homework each night, including weekends.

Sincerely,

Your principal
 

Ask: How do you feel about these changes in our school? Why do you feel that way? Record their responses on the chalkboard. Tell the students that the principal didn't really write the announcement, but now they can understand the way the colonists felt about changes the King of England wanted to make--they were angry and they thought the taxes were unfair. Explain that the British king announced that the colonists would be taxed and they did not have any say in the matter. Explain that news from the king was read to the people just as you read the letter from the principal.

Explain that the British government felt it had the right to tax the American colonists because the British had defended the colonies in the French and Indian War. Review with the students the effects the French and Indian War had on the colonists. Ask: What did the British gain? (land--east of the Mississippi, except Louisiana, and French territory in Canada) What were the costs to the British? (many soldiers were killed, the high cost of the war) Explain that if the French had won the war, instead of the British, and therefore kept the land in the Ohio Valley region, the American colonists would have been forced to leave the French land.

Tell the students that the American colonists did not agree though, they did not feel as though they should have to pay taxes since they didn't have any say in the government of England. Explain that the colonies in America weren't states yet and did not have a government of their own. The colonies were simply the areas in America that the British had claimed as part of England. Show the students on a U. S. map where the British colonies and the territory gained from the French and Indian War were located (the Eastern Seaboard from Maine to Georgia and east of the Mississippi River).

Tell the students that a saying from that time is "No Taxation without Representation."

Write the saying on the chalkboard. Explain that the colonists felt that since they were not able to be elected to serve in the British government, they should not have to pay British taxes. If they

were to be taxed they wanted to be able to vote on the tax. Explain that the colonists either wanted to have a say in the English government or be more independent from England.

Tell the students that England didn't like this independent spirit among the colonists. The British wanted to make sure the colonists knew who was in control, so the King called for more taxes. Tell the students that one was a Stamp Tax and another was a tax on several different products that came from England including tea. Explain that the colonists got so angry that they decided to get even by not buying anything made in England. This ended up hurting the English people who sold the products to the colonies, so the King eventually took away all the taxes except the tax on tea. Explain that the colonists were still mad because this was another example of what they considered an unfair tax. Ask: Who can tell me the saying that expressed the colonists' thoughts about being taxed without having a say in the decisions of the government? (No taxation without representation) Have students tell you in their own words what the saying means.

Tell the students that a group of people in the city of Boston, Massachusetts (show the location of Boston on a U. S. map) decided that they were going to show the British just why they thought about the tax on tea. Explain that the group dressed up as Native Americans to confuse the British (so they couldn't testify against them later in court), climbed onboard a ship that had boxes of tea that had come from England, and dumped the tea overboard into Boston Harbor. Remind the students that a harbor is a body of water that is sheltered by land where ships can anchor safely.

Explain to the students that the Boston Harbor is much like the Inner Harbor in Baltimore. Ask the students to imagine if the Boston Tea Party had taken place in Baltimore, it would have been as if a group of people went to the Inner Harbor and climbed aboard one of the big sailing boats that are docked there and threw boxes of tea overboard into the water. (If possible, show a drawing of the Boston Tea Party. Drawings can be found in the Suggested Books listed above. For instance the cover of Colonies in Revolt by Alden R. Carter shows a drawing of the Boston Tea Party.) Ask: How do you think the king of England felt about the Boston Tea Party?

Give each student a piece of construction or manila paper and a piece of lined paper. Have the students draw a picture of the Boston Tea Party on the construction paper and have them write a description of the Boston Tea Party on the lined paper. Attach the lined paper to the bottom of the construction paper.

Tell the students that as they can probably tell, they haven't reached the end of the problems between the British and the American colonists. They will learn more about the events that occurred during the American Revolution in the next lesson.
 

Fourth Grade - American History - Lesson 4 - The Revolutionary War
 

Objective

Become familiar with major events of the American Revolution: the Boston Massacre, the First Continental Congress, Paul Revere's Ride.
 

Suggested Books

Student Titles

Adler, David A. A Picture Book of Paul Revere. New York: Holiday House. 1995.

Fritz, Jean. And Then What Happened, Paul Revere? New York: Scholastic, 1988.

Gleiter, Jan and Kathleen Thompson. Paul Revere. Austin, TX: Steck-Vaughn, 1995.

Morris, Richard B. The First Book of the American Revolution. New York: Franklin Watts, 1956.

Zadra, Dan. We the People: Paul Revere. Mankato, MN: Creative Education, 1988.
 

Student Reference

Allitt, Patrick. Founders of America. Morristown, NJ: Silver Burdett, 1983.

Dolan, Edward F. The American Revolution: How We Fought the War of Independence. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1995.

Egger-Bovet, Howard and Marlene Smith-Baranzini. USKids History: Book of the American Revolution. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1994.

Grant, R. G. The American Revolution. New York: Thomson Learning, 1995.

Ingraham, Leonard W. An Album of the American Revolution. New York: Franklin Watts, 1971.
 

Teacher Reference

Adams, Russell B., ed. The Revolutionaries: The American Story. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1996.

Brenner, Barbara. If You Were There in 1776. New York: Bradbury Press, 1994.

Carter, Alden R. Colonies in Revolt: The American Revolution. New York: Franklin Watts, 1988.

Hakim, Joy. A History of US: From Colonies to Country. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Murphy, Jim. A Young Patriot: The American Revolution as Experienced by One Boy. New York: Clarion Books, 1995.

Zell, Fran. A Multicultural Portrait of The American Revolution. New York: Benchmark Books, 1996.
 

Materials

Classroom size world map

Classroom size U. S. map
 

Teacher Note

This month the students will also be discussing Paul Revere in both literature and art. In literature, they will be studying Paul Revere's Ride by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and in Visual Arts Lesson 3, they will be looking at "Paul Revere" by John Singleton Copley.
 

Procedure

Ask: What was the Boston Tea Party? (A group of people in Boston threw boxes of tea off a ship in the Boston Harbor.) Why did they decide to have the Boston Tea Party? (They were angry that the British put a tax on the tea that was shipped from England.) Tell the students that the king of England was very unhappy with the people of Boston and what they had done, so he closed off Boston Harbor and sent more British soldiers to Boston. The colonists called what the king did The Intolerable Acts. Explain that the word intolerable means something is so terrible that you just cannot tolerate it or accept it.

Tell the students that the harbor's being closed meant that ships could not enter or leave the port of Boston and during that time, trading was very important to people who lived there. Many of them had jobs that depended on the sea trade, people received supplies from ships that came into the harbor, and people fished in harbor so they were upset by the English closing the harbor.

Explain that there were bad feelings between the people of Boston and the British soldiers even before the Boston Tea Party. Ask: Who can remember what the color of a British soldier's uniform was? (red) Because the jackets of their uniforms were red, they were called redcoats. The people of Boston were never pleased to have the redcoats in their city. A historical event called the Boston Massacre occurred three years before the Boston Tea Party in 1770. Ask: Does anyone know what the word massacre means? (a gruesome or reckless killing)

Relay the following information to the students: The Boston Massacre occurred after a colonist and a British soldier got into a fight because the colonist was teasing the British soldier. Eight other soldiers came to his rescue and the crowd on the street began to tease the soldiers. The soldiers panicked and fired into the crowd. Five Americans were killed. One was an African-American man named Crispus Attucks. He is thought of as the first American killed in the American Revolution. You may wish to read aloud to the students the description of the Boston Massacre from Joy Hakim's From Colonies to Country pp. 64-65.

Tell the students that the colonists were becoming united in the fact that they no longer wanted to be a part of England, instead they wanted to be a separate country with their own government. One colonist that put these thoughts into words was a man named Thomas Paine. He wrote a pamphlet called Common Sense in which he said three important things:

1. A monarchy or rule by a king or a queen wasn't a good form of government.

2. England was hurting the economy of the colonies by taxing them.

3. It didn't make sense for a country to try to rule a continent from 3,000 miles away. (Point to England and then to the colonies on a map to show the distance.)

Explain that Thomas Paine was basically trying to say that America should break away from England and a great many Americans agreed with him. Tell the students that in 1774 representatives from each of the thirteen colonies, except Georgia met in Philadelphia for a meeting that was called the First Continental Congress. Tell the students that although all the representatives agreed there was a problem with England, they had a variety of ideas on how to solve the problem. Some representatives thought that they should find a way to get along with England and others thought that they should break away from England and form their own government even if this meant going to war.

Tell the students that the group decided they would tell the colonists in each of their

colonies to stop buying goods from England and to gather weapons and form troops who would be willing to fight for American independence. The representatives also wrote a letter to the British king listing their complaints, which the king ignored.

Tell the students that the British later learned of the colonist's supply of guns, so the British troops were sent from Boston to Lexington and Concord to take the weapons away. (Show where Boston is located in relation to Lexington and Concord on a U. S. map.) The colonists heard of the British troops and a man named Paul Revere arranged to ride on horseback to spread the word when the troops were seen leaving Boston. Explain that Revere had arranged it so that someone would signal from a church steeple in Boston. The signal was that if the British went by water, two lanterns would be hung and if they went by land one lantern would be hung: one if by land, two if by sea. Tell the students that two lanterns were hung in the steeple, so Paul Revere knew that the British were traveling by boat. He then rode through the countryside calling out to warn people "the British are coming."

Ask: What do you imagine is going to happen next? Do you think the colonists are going to cooperate and hand over their weapons?
 

Additional Activities

1. Have the students take on the role of a reporter that is either reporting on the Boston Tea Party or the Boston Massacre. Ask the students to gather information about the event they chose and write an article for a newspaper. Tell the students to make sure they explain who was involved, what happened, and when and where the event took place.
 

2. Have the students reenact the events of the Boston Massacre. A play based on the event can be found on pages 28-31 in USKids History: Book of the American Revolution by Howard Egger-Bovet and Marlene Smith-Baranzini.
 
 

Bibliography


 
 

Student Titles

Adler, David A. A Picture Book of Paul Revere. New York: Holiday House. 1995. (0-8234-1144-3)

Carter, Alden R. The Colonial Wars. New York: Franklin Watts, 1992. (0-531-20079-5)

Gleiter, Jan and Kathleen Thompson. Paul Revere. Austin, TX: Steck-Vaughn, 1995. (0-8114-8452-1)

Fritz, Jean. And Then What Happened, Paul Revere? New York: Scholastic, 1988. (0-590-41204-3)

Harness, Cheryl. Young John Quincy. New York: Bradbury, 1994. (0-02-742644-0)

Morris, Richard B. The First Book of the American Revolution. New York: Franklin Watts, 1956. (531-00459-7)

Rappaport, Doreen. The Boston Coffee Party. New York: Harper & Row, 1988. (0-06-024824-6)

Zadra, Dan. We the People: Paul Revere. Mankato, MN: Creative Education, 1988. (0-88682-186-X)
 

Student Reference

Allitt, Patrick. Founders of America. Morristown, NJ: Silver Burdett, 1983. (0-382-06641-3)

Dolan, Edward F. The American Revolution: How We Fought the War of Independence. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1995. (1-56294-521-1)

Egger-Bovet, Howard and Marlene Smith-Baranzini. USKids History: Book of the American Revolution. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1994. (0-316-96922-2)

Grant, R. G. The American Revolution. New York: Thomson Learning, 1995. (1-56847-393-1)

Ingraham, Leonard W. An Album of the American Revolution. New York: Franklin Watts, 1971. (531-01511-4)
 

Teacher Reference

Adams, Russell B., ed. The Revolutionaries: The American Story. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1996. (0-7835-6250-0)

Brenner, Barbara. If You Were There in 1776. New York: Bradbury Press, 1994. (0-02-712322-7)

Carter, Alden R. Colonies in Revolt: The American Revolution. New York: Franklin Watts, 1988. (0-531-10576-8)

Hakim, Joy. A History of US: From Colonies to Country. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. (0-19-507749-0)

Murphy, Jim. A Young Patriot: The American Revolution as Experienced by One Boy. New York: Clarion Books, 1995. (0-395-60523-7)

Stein, R. Conrad. The Boston Tea Party. New York: Children's Press, 1996. (0-516-20005-4)

Zell, Fran. A Multicultural Portrait of The American Revolution. New York: Benchmark Books, 1996. (0-7614-0051-6)