Fifth Grade - American History - Overview - April
 

The theme of The Civil War is continued from March. This unit contains five lessons, four on The Civil War and one on Reconstruction. The lessons follow the chronological order of the war and Reconstruction and should be used in that order. Each of Lessons 29 to 32 deals with one year of The Civil War. Lesson 29 covers the year 1862. Lesson 30 covers the year 1863. Lesson 31 covers the year 1864. Lesson 32 covers the year 1865. The twelve years of Reconstruction (1865-1877) are the subject of Lesson 33. Each lesson is followed by an activity that may be assigned as independent or group work. Also, a time-line of important events has been included in each lesson. The hope is that, if used, it will help your students keep track of the many events of The Civil War and Reconstruction periods.

The Suggested Books section of each lesson lists resources, some of which may be of interest to your independent readers. Recommend specific titles to your students as such reading is a great way to extend classroom discussions. Extensive information on The Civil War can be found on the American Civil War Information Archive at the following web site: http://www.access.digex.net/~bdboyle/cw.html

The Civil War is also the subject of two lessons in Literature this month. The Literature lessons on Lincoln's Gettysburg Address and Walt Whitman's poem "O Captain! My Captain!," which expresses the poet's grief over the assassination of the President, present opportunities for students to connect the study of Literature with historical events.

While there is not an American Geography unit this month, American History Lessons 29 to 33 include maps of the relevant cities, states, and regions.
 

Fifth Grade - American History - Lesson 29 - The Civil War (Part 3)
 

Objectives

Discuss the following events of The Civil War in 1862: the battle of the U.S S. Monitor and the C.S.S. Virginia, Union Admiral David Farragut's capture of New Orleans, Louisiana, the Battle of Antietam Creek (Sharpsburg), Maryland, Confederate General Lee's withdrawal to Virginia, and the Emancipation Proclamation.
 

Materials

Classroom-size map of the USA

Sentence strip containing time-line begun in prior American History lessons

Map of Civil War Sites, 1862, attached, (for transparency or one copy per student)

Note: You may begin a time-line to keep track of the numerous events of The Civil War.

1860

November, Lincoln is elected president of the USA

December 20, South Carolina is first to secede from the Union

1861

February, Confederate government established; Davis elected Confederate president

April 12, Attack on Fort Sumter; Fort Sumter surrenders to the Confederacy; Lincoln orders blockade of Southern ports

May, Richmond is selected as Confederate capital

July 21, First Battle of Bull Run; Union troops defeated

1862

February 16, Union General Grant captures Ft. Donnelson, Tennessee

March 9, battle between U.S.S. Monitor and C.S.S. Virginia

April 25, Union Admiral David G. Farragut captures New Orleans, Louisiana

September 16-17, Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg), Maryland; Lee withdraws to Virginia

September 23, Union President Lincoln issues the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation declaring slaves in the Confederacy free on January 1, 1863
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Kent, Zachary. Cornerstones of Freedom: The Battle of Antietam. Chicago: Children's Press, 1992. This book contains thirty-one pages of simple text and color pictures of the battle.

Read from it to your class, show them some of the pictures, and recommend it for independent reading.
 

Teacher Reference

Bailey, Ronald H. The Civil War, The Bloodiest Day, The Battle of Antietam. Alexandria: Time- Life Books, 1984. This is a detailed reference to the battle. Show some of the pictures to your students.

Hakim, Joy. A History of US: War, Terrible War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. Chapter 19 describes the battle between the U.S.S. Monitor and the C.S.S. Virginia. It also contains two pictures of the naval battle and the capture of New Orleans. Show them to your students.

Hirsch, E. D., Jr. ed. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.
The section titled American Civilization contains biographical notes on Grant and Lee.
 

Note: For information on the Antietam National Battlefield and Cemetery, write to the Superintendent, Box 158, Sharpsburg, MD 21782, or telephone (301) 432-5124.
 

Teacher Background

On April 13, 1861, the day after Union soldiers at Fort Sumter surrendered to the Confederates, President Lincoln offered command of the US Army to Lieutenant Colonel Robert E. Lee, a citizen of Virginia, who turned down the offer and resigned from the US Army. By March 1862, Lee had become commander of the Army of Northern Virginia and the Confederates were winning the war. Then, the Union found in Ulysses S. Grant what the Confederates had in Robert E. Lee; an exceptional military leader. By February, 1862, Grant had captured two forts in the Confederate state of Tennessee.

Faced with a shortage of ships, the Confederates raised a sunken Union vessel, the Merrimack, coated her sides with iron, installed five heavy guns on each side, and launched the old Merrimack as the new C.S.S. Virginia. She sank two Union frigates on the day she was launched. On March 9, 1862 the Union's ironclad, the U.S.S. Monitor, which was armed with two big rotating guns fought the C.S.S. Virginia to a draw.

In April, after bombing two Confederate forts for five days, Union Admiral David Farragut led a fleet of seventeen ships upriver through heavy fire, past a chain of hulks (old ships) sunken across the Mississippi, smashed the Confederate Navy, and captured New Orleans, the South's largest city and its busiest port.

Alarmed by these Union victories, Robert E. Lee took the war North, hoping to force the Union to make peace on the Confederate's terms. This resulted in the Battle of Antietam Creek (Sharpsburg), Maryland where on September 17, 1862, 75,000 Union troops collided with Lee's 37,000 Confederates troops, causing the single bloodiest day of the war. The Union lost 2,108 killed, 9,549 wounded, and 753 missing. The Confederates lost 2,700 killed, 9,024 wounded, and 2,000 missing. The next day, Robert E. Lee withdrew to Virginia.

From the start of the war, Lincoln was worried that the slave-holding states of Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri, which were fighting on the Union side, would join the Confederacy if he tried to end slavery. However, because the large number of casualties at the Battle of Antietam so scared Northerners that they wanted to end the war, the President was forced to issue the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation of September 23, serving notice on the Confederacy that their slaves would be set free if by January 1, 1863 they had not made peace with the North. By moving to end slavery, Lincoln hoped to ensure a Union victory.

You may use this lesson over two class periods.
 

Procedure

Read a short passage of fiction or nonfiction about one of the battles to the class, or show them a picture illustrating the human side of the war.

Ask: What were the causes of The Civil War? (Answers may vary.) Ask: Which side was winning the war at the end of 1861? (Confederacy) Ask: Which side won the attack on Fort Sumter? (Confederates) And the First Battle of Bull Run? (Confederates) Ask the students to decide which side was favored to win the war at its outset (Union).

Tell the students that in this lesson they will discuss the second year of The Civil War. Ask: What year was the second year of The Civil War? (1862) Tell the students that at the end of this lesson, they will decide which side was winning the war at the end of 1862.

Put up a classroom-size map of the USA, or a transparency of the map of Civil War Sites in 1862, or distribute copies to the students. Tell the students that at the start of the war, President Lincoln offered command of the US Army to an officer named Robert E. Lee. Ask: What qualities might Robert E. Lee have had to justify this offer? (experience) Explain that Lee was an exceptional commander who did not curse, smoke, or drink alcohol. Tell the students that Lee was a man from Virginia. Ask: Do you foresee any problems with a citizen of Virginia commanding the Union Army in a war against the South? (Answers may vary.) Tell the students that Lee so loved his Southern home state, Virginia, he turned down President Lincoln's offer.

Give the students a feel for Lee's dilemma, by asking: What do you consider your home; your town, your state, or the USA? Ask: Which side would you choose if your state went to war with the USA? (Answers may vary.)

Tell the students that Robert E. Lee had attended the US Military Academy, had been a hero of the Mexican-American War (1846-1848), and had led the federal troops who stopped John Brown's attack at Harper's Ferry in 1859. Ask: What do these achievements tell you about Lee? (able soldier) Tell the students that in Lee the Confederacy had their most able commander.

Tell the students that when President Lincoln ordered the Union to fight the Confederacy, Lee's home state, Virginia left the Union and joined the Confederacy. Tell the students that Robert E. Lee then joined the Confederate Army and was appointed a general. Explain that having Lee gave the Confederates an early advantage over the Union. Write the name of Robert E. Lee on the board and designate him a Confederate.

Remind the students that the Union already had advantages in numbers, wealth, factories, and railways, and ask: Suppose you were President Lincoln at the end of 1861, what would you have needed most of all to match the Confederates? (Answers may vary.)

Explain that the Union needed a man like Robert E. Lee, the Confederate General and got one in Ulysses S. Grant. Write "Ulysses S. Grant" on the board, describing him as "Union General." Compare Grant to Lee by telling the students that like Lee, Grant had attended the US Military Academy at West Point, and that, like Lee, Grant had fought in the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). Tell the students that General Grant led the Union to its first victories in the war when in February, 1862, he captured two forts in Tennessee. Point out Tennessee on the map. Emphasize how deep within Confederate territory it was located.

Tell the students that early on in the war, Lincoln had ordered the Union Navy (troops based on water) to blockade Southern ports on the Atlantic Coast, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Mississippi River. Point out these locations on the map. Ask: Why did the Union blockade Confederate ports? (stifle trade, prevent supplies of weapons) Tell the students that at the time the Confederates had no navy. Ask: Why? (Confederacy recently established.)

Tell the students that by 1862, the Confederates had raised a Union vessel, the Virginia that had sunken near Norfolk, Virginia, coated her sides with iron, and covered her with metal plates. Tell the students that a ship so coated was called an ironclad, meaning it was coated with iron. Write the word "ironclad" on the board. Tell the students that the old Merrimack now looked fierce. Show the students a picture of the Merrimack. Tell the students that she carried five heavy guns on each side and a new name, the C.S.S. Virginia and on the day she was launched, the C.S.S. Virginia sank two Union frigates.

Tell the students that the Union built an ironclad, the U.S.S. Monitor to match the C.S.S. Virginia. Explain the abbreviations C.S.S. and U.S.S. (Confederate States Ship, United States Ship) Write the names of both ships on the board.

Tell the students that the U.S.S. Monitor was smaller than the C.S.S. Virginia and carried two guns, eight fewer than the Virginia's ten and on Sunday March 9, 1862 the C.S.S. Virginia and the U.S.S. Monitor met at sea outside Hampton Roads, Virginia. Explain that the cannon balls bounced off their sides when either ship was hit and both ships fought for four hours to a draw.

Point out the Confederate city of New Orleans, Louisiana on the map and explain to the students that it is located seventy miles up the Mississippi. Ask: Why would New Orleans be an important target to the Union? (port, access to the interior of the South) Ask: Why would it be difficult for the Union to capture New Orleans? (surrounded by Confederate territory)

Tell the students that for five days in April 1862 a Union Admiral named David Farragut bombed two Confederate forts off the coast of Louisiana, led his fleet of seventeen ships past a chain of hulks (old ships) that were sunken across the Mississippi, then went upriver under heavy fire to smash the Confederate Navy and capture New Orleans, the South's largest city and its busiest port. Ask: What effects would the capture of New Orleans have had on the Confederacy? (reduce trade) Show the students pictures of Farragut's campaign on the Mississippi.

Tell the students that Robert E. Lee was so worried over these Union victories deep within Confederate territory, he came up with a strategy to stop them. Ask: Had you been Robert E. Lee how would you have stopped Union advances into Confederate territory? (Answers may vary.) Tell the students that since the battles had so far taken place in the South, Lee decided to take the war North into Union towns. Ask: What effects would taking the war into the North have had on the Union Army? Explain that Lee intended it to have two effects: one, to force the Union Army already in the South in such places as Louisiana and Tennessee to leave the South, and two, to force the Union to make peace in order to avoid destruction of their towns.

Tell the students that Lee took his army North from Virginia and met with the Union Army in Maryland. Point to the map and tell the students that on September 17, 1862, at the Battle of Antietam Creek (Sharpsburg), Maryland, 75,000 Union troops collided with 37,000 Confederates under the command of General Robert E. Lee. Ask the students to decide who had the advantage of numbers in this battle (Union). Explain that September 17 was the day of the war in which the largest number of people were killed. The Union lost 2,108 killed, 9,549 wounded and 753 missing. The Confederates lost 2,700 killed, 9,024 wounded, and 2,000 missing. Write those figures on the board and designate the sides they relate to. Tell the students that the next day, Lee withdrew to Virginia.

Explain that both sides had expected the war to be over by then and no one had expected so much bloodshed. Tell the students that the heavy casualties at the Battle of Antietam worried Lincoln that the Union might be losing the war and forced him to issue the Emancipation Proclamation. Explain that a proclamation is an official statement and emancipation means freedom. Tell the students that according to the Emancipation Proclamation, if by January 1, 1863, the Confederacy had not made peace with the Union, their slaves would have been set free. Point out the irony of Lincoln issuing a proclamation affecting the Confederacy over which he had no power. Ask: Can you guess Lincoln's reason for issuing the Emancipation Proclamation after the Battle of Antietam? (Answers may vary.)

Tell the students that at the start of the war, Lincoln had insisted that the Civil War was being fought to save the Union, not to end slavery. Tell the students that this may not have been the whole truth. Explain that Lincoln insisted the war was fought to save the Union because to say otherwise would have cost him dearly. Explain that the states of Delaware, Maryland,

Kentucky, and Missouri, which were fighting on the Union side, still allowed slavery and Lincoln feared that had he tried to end slavery, these states might have joined the Confederacy.

Ask: How would the course of the war have changed had Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, and Delaware joined the Confederacy? (Answers may vary.)

Tell the students that Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation after the Battle of Antietam because he was convinced that by declaring the slaves in the Confederacy free, it would be easier for the Union to win the war. Ask: How might declaring Confederate slaves free help the Union in the war? (Answers may vary.) Explain that though news of the Proclamation brought joy to many slaves and abolitionists, it did not force the Confederacy to make peace, The Civil War would rage on for a few more years, and slavery in America would, too.

Ask: In your opinion, which side seemed to be winning The Civil War at the end of 1862? (Answers may vary.) Ask: Why? (Answers may vary.)

You may put up a time-line of The Civil War. Its presence in the classroom might help students follow the events of the war more easily.

Show the students pictures related to the lesson. The Suggested Books section above contains a list of materials that you can use with this lesson.

You may assign the attached activity as an extension of the lesson. An answer key is provided below.
 

Answer Key

You may assign the activity to students to be completed independently or to the whole class as a written or oral exercise. It is designed to give students opportunities for using information learned during the lesson.
 

Step A

This response must explain the importance of military targets in terms of their significance to their attackers or defenders.
 

Step B

This response must explain the role of trade to war.
 

Step C

This response must explain the personal reasons that cause individuals to take part in wars.
 

Step D

This response identifies what it takes to be a great military leader and one Civil War personality who exemplifies that trait.
 
 
 

Activity 1

Write at least one sentence to complete the following activities about The Civil War.
 

Step A

Name one target of Union or Confederate forces during The Civil War. Describe that target and explain why it was worth taking or defending.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 
 
 

Step B

President Lincoln ordered Union troops to prevent trade from going on at Southern ports. Explain what the president might have intended in doing so.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 
 
 

Step C

Explain why you think some people volunteered to fight in The Civil War.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 
 
 

Step D

Describe one character trait required of a great military leader, name a Civil War personality who showed that trait, and describe how he showed it.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

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Fifth Grade - American History - Lesson 30 - The Civil War (Part 4)

Note: The Literature lesson on The Gettysburg Address should be taught after this lesson.
 

Objectives

Discuss the following events of The Civil War in 1863: the Emancipation Proclamation, the the Battle of Gettysburg, the Battle of Vicksburg, and the Gettysburg Address.

Discuss some personalities of The Civil War: Union President Abraham Lincoln, Confederate General "Stonewall" Jackson, Union Colonel Shaw, and Confederate General Robert E. Lee.
 

Materials

Classroom-size map of the USA

Sentence strip containing time-line begun in prior American History lessons

Chart paper containing the following excerpt from the Emancipation Proclamation:

"...I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, do, on this first day of January, in the year of our Lord 1863, ...order and declare that all persons held as slaves ...are, and henceforth shall be, free..."

Chart paper containing the following excerpt from The Gettysburg Address:

"...we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth."

Map of Civil War Sites, 1863, attached (for transparency, or one copy per student)

Note: You may use a time-line for your students to keep track of the numerous events of The Civil War.

1863-January 1, The Emancipation Proclamation

-July 1-3, Battle of Gettysburg; Union victory; turning point in the war

-July 4, Battle of Vicksburg; Grant besieges Vicksburg, Tennessee

-July, Colonel Shaw leads attack on Fort Wagner, South Carolina

-November 19, The Gettysburg Address
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Carter, Alden R. The Civil War. New York: Franklin Watts, 1992.

________ . The Battle of Gettysburg. New York: Franklin Watts, 1990.

This is a sixty-four-page account of the battle told in simple English and color pictures and maps. Recommend this book for independent reading and show some of the pictures to your students.

Commager, Henry Steele. The Great Proclamation. New York: Bobbs Merrill, 1960. This book should be recommended for independent reading. It is a story of the Emancipation Proclamation in simple English.

D'Aulaire, Ingri and Edgar Parin. Abraham Lincoln. Garden City: Doubleday, 1970. A classic picture book about Abraham Lincoln that every student interested in Lincoln should read.

Jacobs, William Jay. Lincoln. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1991.This is a forty-one-pageeasy-to-read book with many black-and-white pictures. Recommend this book for independent reading.

Johnson, Neil. The Battle of Gettysburg. New York: Macmillan, 1989. This book contains fifty-six pages of simple text about the historic battle and black-and-white photographs of its 125th anniversary re-enactment. Recommend the book for independent reading and show the pictures to your students.

Lincoln, Abraham. The Gettysburg Address. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1995. This is a picture book whose text is The Gettysburg Address. The illustrations are by Michael McCurdy. Read excerpts of this text to the students and show them the accompanying artwork.

McGovern, Ann. If You Grew Up With Abraham Lincoln. New York: Scholastic, 1992. This book describes life in Kentucky, Indiana, and Illinois in the 1800s. Recommend it for independent reading.

Pratt, Fletcher. The Civil War. Garden City: Doubleday, 1955. This book is a very brief history of The Civil War. It contains descriptions of the major battles. Recommend it for independent reading.

Young, Robert. Both Sides, The Emancipation Proclamation, Why Lincoln Really Freed the Slaves. New York: Dillon, 1994. This text may be too difficult for independent reading. Read some of its excerpts to the students.

Windrow, Martin. The Soldier Through The Ages: The Civil War Rifleman. New York: Franklin Watts, 1985. This book addresses such topics as weapons, camp life, and medical services in simple English and with the support of color pictures. Recommend it to the students for independent reading.

Wisler, G. Clifton. The Drummer Boy of Vicksburg. New York: Lodestar, 1997. This is a novel based on the historical drummer boy, Orion P. Howe. To spark interest in your students, tell them of the boys, some as young as thirteen, who served in The Civil War as drummers and sometimes as soldiers. Recommend this book for independent reading.

Teacher Reference

Cameron, Rita G. Let's Learn About Maryland. Baltimore: Media Materials, 1985. This book discusses the geography and history of Maryland and is intended for students on a Fourth Grade reading level. Topics include Maryland during The Civil War and famous Marylanders such as Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass. Use as a reference.

Freedman, Russell. Lincoln: A Photobiography. New York: Clarion, 1987. This book contains

black-and-white pictures from different periods in Lincoln's life. Show the students some of these pictures.

Hakim, Joy. A History of US: War, Terrible War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Chapter 21 discusses the Emancipation Proclamation. Chapter 25 contains a detailed description of the context of the address.

Hirsch, E.D., ed. What Your 5th Grader Needs To Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. The text

of The Gettysburg Address is on pages 46 and 47. A picture of Lincoln addressing the crowd at Gettysburg is in page 47. Show your students the picture.

Lester, Julius. To Be a Slave. New York: Scholastic, 1968. In the section on emancipation, slaves describe their response to the news of the Emancipation Proclamation. Read excerpts to your students.

Meltzer, Milton, ed. Lincoln: In His Own Words. New York: Harcourt Brace, and Co., 1993.

This is a source for some of Lincoln's speeches, writings, and public papers. Excerpts can be read to students to illustrate the life of Lincoln.

Murphy, Jim. The Long Road to Gettysburg. New York: Scholastic, 1992. This reference contains first-hand accounts, pictures, and maps on the preparations for the battle and the battle itself. Show the pictures and read extracts to your students.

________ . The Boys' War: Confederate and Union Soldiers Talk About The Civil War.

New York: Scholastic, 1990. This book is based on the diary entries and letters of boys ranging in age from 12 to 16 who fought in The Civil War. Read extracts to your students and show them some of the pictures.

The Editors of Time-Life Books. The Civil War, Lee Takes Command, From Seven Days to Second Bull Run. Alexandria: Time-Life Books, 1984. Pages 8 to 21 contain a color picture biography of Robert E. Lee. Read excerpts to your students and show them the pictures.

Ward, Geoffrey C. The Civil War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990. Pages 239 and 240 contain

pictures of scenes from the siege of Vicksburg. Show them to your students.
 

Teacher Background

This lesson describes some decisive events in the third year of The Civil War, 1863.

In Fifth Grade American History Lesson 26, students read biographical notes on Lincoln. In Lessons 24 and 25, they discussed the divisions between North and South. In Second Grade American History, students were introduced to Abraham Lincoln in the context of the Civil War. The Gettysburg Address is the subject of an upcoming Literature lesson this month in which students read and analyze the address. Colonel Shaw and the 54th Massachusetts Regiment are the subject of Art Lesson 29 this month.

You may use this lesson over two class periods.

Procedure

Put up the chart paper containing the following excerpt from the Emancipation Proclamation: "...I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, do, on this first day of January, in the year of our Lord 1863, ...order and declare that all persons held as slaves ...are, and henceforth shall be, free..." Designate a student to read the excerpt. Explain that "declare" means state clearly and "henceforth" means from now on. Ask the class to suppose they were slaves in 1863 and give their personal responses to this document.

Emphasize that the Emancipation Proclamation applied only to slaves held in the Confederate states. Ask: Why? (to force the Confederacy to make peace with the Union, to not anger the slave holders in Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri, and Maryland) Ask the students to identify some of the eleven states of the Confederacy (South Carolina, North Carolina, Louisiana, Mississippi, Virginia, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Arkansas, Texas, Tennessee) Emphasize that slaves held in Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri, and Maryland were not affected by the Emancipation Proclamation. Ask: Why? (These states were fighting on the Union side.)

Explain that by promising to free the slaves in the Confederacy, the Union President hoped to give the war a noble purpose. Ask: How would freeing the slaves accomplish this? (change the war from a struggle to save the Union to a war aimed at freeing the slaves) Ask: How could the Emancipation Proclamation have helped the Union in the war? (rally blacks to the side of the Union)

Tell the students that the Confederates did not make peace and Lincoln signed the document on January 1, 1863. Explain that the Proclamation had two important effects on the war. First, it did help give the war a clear and noble purpose. Second, it allowed blacks to join the Union forces as soldiers, something they had previously been barred from doing.

Explain that later that year, the Confederacy lost a beloved officer, General T. J. Jackson. Write the name on the board and designate him a Confederate General. Tell the students that in

1861 Jackson had earned the nickname "Stonewall" during a battle in Virginia. Ask: What Civil War battle took place in Virginia in 1861? (First Battle of Bull Run) Tell the students that a Confederate officer saw Jackson standing up under enemy fire and said, "There is Jackson standing like a stone wall." Ask: What does the expression "standing like a stone wall" mean? (strength, courage, fearlessness) Ask: How did the soldier who made this statement feel about Jackson? (admiration)

Tell the students that in May, during a Confederate victory in Virginia, Jackson was shot in error by his own men and had his left arm amputated, that he got pneumonia as a result, and died. Tell the students that many Civil War deaths were due to infections and medical procedures, such as amputations, that were poorly done compared to present standards. Explain that Robert E. Lee considered "Stonewall" Jackson his "right arm." Ask: What does the expression "right arm" mean? (strength, help) Emphasize that "Stonewall" Jackson's death was yet another blow to the Confederacy.

Explain that Confederate General Lee's attempt to take the war north brought the Confederate army to Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Point out Gettysburg, Pennsylvania on the map. Explain that in 1863, Gettysburg was a small town of 2,400, but that it was at the center of a network of roads, some leading to the west, others to the south. Ask: How would the capture of Gettysburg have helped the Confederate Army during the war? (made it easier to attack other Union targets, forced Union Army to withdraw from the South)

Explain that for three days from July 1 to July 3, 170,000 troops (65,000 Confederates and 85,000 Union troops) fought as Lee failed to seize the high ground from Union positions. Ask: How would the high grounds have helped General Lee's forces? (offered better defense from the Union troops and exposed the Union soldiers to Confederate fire) Tell the students that the Confederates lost 28,000 men and the Union lost 23,000 men at Gettysburg. Explain that Lee lost nearly a quarter of his army at Gettysburg.

Explain that General Robert E. Lee had been unable to take his dead when he withdrew from Gettysburg, and that the governor of Pennsylvania, fearing the spread of disease, had forbidden the various states of the Union from taking their dead back home for burial. Explain that for weeks after the battle, the dead remained on the ground and 16,000 wounded soldiers had turned every house, barn, and building into hospitals. Explain that the battlefield would later be turned to a cemetery. Tell them that Gettysburg was the beginning of the end for Robert E. Lee and the Confederacy. Show the students pictures of the battle and its aftermath.

Remind the students of Ulysses S. Grant's capture of two Tennessee forts in 1862 and tell them that in 1863, he was asked to attack Vicksburg, Mississippi. Explain that, because of its location, capturing the town of Vicksburg, Mississippi would have given the Union full control of the Mississippi River. Point out the Mississippi on the map. Tell the students that on Independence Day, July 4 1863, one day after Lee's withdrawal from Gettysburg, Grant seized Vicksburg, Mississippi.

Tell the students that Grant's troops had surrounded the town of Vicksburg, thus cutting off the Confederate Army there from its supplies. Tell them that next, the Union Army bombed the town, destroying houses and forcing the people to flee into caves. Finally, after days without food and supplies, the people of Vicksburg surrendered.

Explain that the Union victory at Vicksburg was even more important than Gettysburg.

Ask: Why was Vicksburg, Mississippi so important? Explain that there were few railroads in the South and because of Vicksburg, wheat could be shipped from the Western territories of the

Union down the river and onto Europe, thus earning money for the Union.

Explain that on the other hand, the capture of Vicksburg meant that Lee's army based in Virginia could not get supplies from across the river. Ask: What effects could this have had on Lee's army? (hunger, reduced effectiveness) Emphasize that together, Gettysburg and Vicksburg turned the war around in the Union's favor.

Explain that while the Confederacy was suffering these defeats, the Emancipation Proclamation was having its desired effect on the war. Explain that from the start of The Civil War, blacks had wanted to fight on the Union side. Ask: Why would blacks have wanted to fight on the Union side? (They believed the war was about slavery.) Tell the students that the Union had refused to have blacks fighting among their ranks. Ask: Why? (Northerners believed that blacks could not fight in organized battles.) Ask the students to discuss the fact that the North seemed willing to go to war to end slavery in the South but at the same time it wouldn't allow Northern blacks to join the Union Army to fight for their own freedom.

Explain that after the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863, blacks were allowed to fight in the Union Army and that the state of Massachusetts organized the first black regiment of Union freedmen, the 54th Massachusetts Regiment.

Tell the students that a Maryland-born abolitionist had helped to recruit men for that regiment. Ask: Who was this man? Tell the students that Frederick Douglass, who had settled in Massachusetts and married after his escape from slavery in Maryland was the one and explain that his own sons were among the first volunteers of the regiment.

Tell the students that the 54th's commander was a young white Bostonian, Colonel Robert Gould Shaw. Write the name on the board and designate him as a Union Colonel. Explain that in July 1863, the 54th Massachusetts Regiment led a bayonet attack on Fort Wagner in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, one of the strongest forts in the Confederate defenses. Explain that a bayonet is a dagger-like steel weapon that is attached to the muzzle of a gun and is used in close combat. Point out the brutality of this kind of warfare.

Point out Fort Wagner on the map. Explain that although it was a Confederate victory and almost half of Shaw's regiment, including Colonel Shaw were killed, there was now little doubt that blacks could fight an organized war.

Tell the students the war continued to take a great toll on life and that by November 1863, when President Lincoln attended the dedication of Gettysburg cemetery, Northerners wanted to forget about slavery and make peace with the Confederacy.

Put up the chart paper bearing the excerpt from The Gettysburg Address. Explain that on the day of the dedication, November 19, 1863, up to 15,000 people gathered and that President Lincoln's now famous Gettysburg Address concluded in this way: "...we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth." Explain that "resolve" means decide, "in vain" means to no purpose, "perish" means disappear, and the expression "government of the people, by the people, for the people" refers to the democratic form of government. Explain to the students that Lincoln was asking America to recommit herself to democracy and the equality of all peoples.

Emphasize that with The Gettysburg Address, Lincoln succeeded in doing what he had begun with the Emancipation Proclamation, that is, portray The Civil War, not just as a war between North and South, but a noble effort to end slavery. Explain that through the Emancipation Proclamation and The Gettysburg Address, Lincoln hoped to rally the Union to a

decisive victory against the Confederacy.

Ask: In your opinion, which side seemed to be winning the war at the end of 1863? (Union) Ask: Why? (Answers may vary.) Ask: What effect do you think The Gettysburg Address and the Emancipation Proclamation had on the course of the war after 1863? (Answers may vary.)

You may put up a time-line of The Civil War in the classroom to help your students follow the events of the war more easily.

Show the students pictures related to this lesson. The Suggested Books section above contains a list of materials that you can use with the lesson.

You may assign the attached activity as an extension of the lesson. An Answer Key is provided below.
 

Answer Key

You may assign the activity as independent work or have the whole class participate in a written or oral exercise. It is designed to give students opportunities for using information learned during the lesson.
 

Step A

This response must explain the strategic importance of the Mississippi River as a shipping lane from the western Union states to the Gulf Coast.
 

Step B

This response must explain that The Gettysburg Address changed the perception of the war from a war between North and South to a war against slavery.
 

Step C

This response must contain a description of the character of the personality chosen and relate that description to the personality's achievements during The Civil War.
 

Step D

This response must create a nickname that is related to an event of The Civil War.

Fifth Grade - American History - Lesson 30 - The Civil War (Part 4)
 

Activity 1

Write at least one sentence in response to the following.
 

Step A

Describe how controlling the Mississippi River could have helped the Union in The Civil War.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Step B

Explain how The Gettysburg Address helped change the meaning of the Civil War.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Step C

Select one of the following personalities of The Civil War, describe his character, and use

examples from history to illustrate your opinion of him.

A. Confederate General Robert E. Lee B. Union Colonel Robert Gould Shaw

C. Confederate General T. J. "Stonewall" Jackson. D. Union President Abraham Lincoln
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Step D

Confederate General T. J. Jackson was nicknamed "Stonewall" because he stood as firmly as a stone wall during the First Battle of Bull Run. Propose a nickname for one of the soldiers below and explain why you think it would be fitting.

A. Confederate General Robert E. Lee B. Union Colonel Robert Gould Shaw

C. Confederate General T. J. "Stonewall" Jackson
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Fifth Grade - American History - Lesson 31 - The Civil War (Part 5)
 

Objectives

Discuss the following events of The Civil War in 1864: Union Admiral Farragut at the Battle of Mobile Bay, Alabama, Union General Sherman's occupation of Atlanta and his march to the sea, and Lincoln's re-election as Union President.
 

Materials

Classroom-size map of the USA

Sentence strip containing time-line begun in prior American History lessons

Sentence strip containing Admiral Farragut's words, "Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!"

Map of Civil War Sites, 1864, attached (for transparency, or one copy per student)

Note: You may use a time-line for your students to keep track of the numerous events of The Civil War.

1864-March 9, Grant becomes General-in-Chief of Union Armies

-August 5, Union Admiral Farragut leads naval Battle of Mobile Bay, Alabama

-September 2, Union General Sherman occupies Atlanta

-November 8, Lincoln re-elected Union president

-November 15, Sherman begins his march to the sea

-December 21, Sherman occupies Savannah, Georgia
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Carter, Alden R. The Civil War. New York: Franklin Watts, 1992.

D'Aulaire, Ingri and Edgar Parin. Abraham Lincoln. Garden City: Doubleday, 1970.

McGovern, Ann. If You Grew Up With Abraham Lincoln. New York: Scholastic, 1992.

Pratt, Fletcher. The Civil War. Garden City: Doubleday, 1955.
 

Teacher Reference

Canon, Jill. Civil War Heroines. Santa Barbara: Bellerophon Books, 1993. This is a coloring book containing sketches and biographical notes about women heroines of The Civil War. The notes are an interesting resource in themselves. The book may be used with additional historical background, such as Civil War colors and uniforms, to create art exercises for students.

Hakim, Joy. A History of US: War, Terrible War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Chapter 30 is a lively account of Lincoln's assassination.

Hirsch, E.D., ed. What Your 5th Grader Needs To Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

Smith, Carter, ed. A Sourcebook on The Civil War: The Road To Appomattox. Brookfield: The

Millbrook Press, 1993. This book contains brief accounts of Sherman's march and the Battle at Mobile Bay and accompanying color pictures. Show your students the pictures.

The Editors of Time-Life Books. The Civil War, Lee Takes Command, From Seven Days to Second Bull Run. Alexandria: Time-Life Books, 1984. Pages 8 to 21 contain a color picture biography of Robert E. Lee. Show your students the pictures.
 

Teacher Background

This lesson describes some events and personalities associated with the fourth year of The

Civil War, 1864. In Fifth Grade American History Lesson 26, students read biographical notes on Lincoln. In American History Lessons 24 and 25, they discussed the divisions between North and South. American History Lessons 27 to 30 have been discussions of the progress of the war.

By the end of 1863, the Union seemed poised to win the war. Recent battles had cost both sides many of their troops, but the Union seemed to fare better than the Confederacy. Then, in August 1864, Union Admiral Farragut won a brilliant victory at the Battle of Mobile Bay, Alabama deep within Confederate territory. Then, from September to December, Union General Sherman occupied and burned everything of military value in Atlanta, including warehouses and factories, before marching towards Savannah, Georgia. The Union managed to conduct an election in November 1864, and Lincoln was re-elected president. He would push for a Union victory.

You may use this lesson over two class periods.

Procedure

Read a short extract of fiction or nonfiction about the war that captures the human side or some other aspect of interest to students. Then ask the students to recall which side seemed to be winning the war at the end of 1863 (Union). Ask: What were the signs that a Union victory was at hand? (Lee's retreat after Gettysburg, Union capture of Vicksburg) Tell the students that this lesson is about the fourth year of the war, 1864.

Distribute copies of the map showing Civil War Sites. Put up the sentence strip containing the quotation from Admiral Farragut, "Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!" Remind the students that Union President Lincoln had ordered a blockade of Southern ports. Ask: Why? (to stop the import and export trade) Explain that in 1864, the port of Mobile Bay, Alabama was still open to Confederate shipping. Point out Mobile Bay, Alabama on the map.

Tell the students that it would require a naval operation to shut down Mobile Bay, Alabama. Ask: Why would it require the navy and not the army to shut down Mobile Bay? (located on the coast, within Confederate territory) Ask the students to recall the name of the Union naval hero whom they would have assigned to this dangerous mission had they been commander of Union forces in 1864 (Admiral Farragut). Ask: Why? (Admiral David Farragut had captured New Orleans, Louisiana under similar circumstances.) Explain that the operation required sailing past three forts and then engaging the Confederate Army.

Tell the students that Admiral Farragut led a fleet of eighteen ships past three forts, that a torpedo sank the lead ship and his captains panicked at the sight of more torpedoes. Explain that torpedoes are explosives that are not propelled as are many present-day bombs, but submerged just beneath the water's surface, lying in wait until an unsuspecting ship collides with them, and then exploding. Tell the students that on seeing his captains panic, Admiral Farragut shouted "Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!" Tell the students that his men did advance but the torpedoes bounced off the boats and failed to go off, and Farragut forced the Confederate fleet, including the Tennessee, the largest ironclad afloat, to surrender.

Tell the students that one Union General, William T. Sherman, was eager to break the Confederate Army in early 1864. Ask: Why did General Sherman feel a sense of urgency about weakening the Confederacy in 1864? Ask the students to bear this question in mind because the answer will soon come up in this lesson. Tell the students that General William T. Sherman described war as hell. Ask the students to cite events from The Civil War to justify Sherman's statement (50,000 casualties at Antietam and Gettysburg, starvation at Vicksburg). Write the name of William T. Sherman on the board and designate him a Union General.

Tell the students that General Sherman intended to use the horrors of war to force the civilians and soldiers of the Confederacy to make peace. Explain that to do this, Sherman intended to divide Confederate territory into two, and keep the two sides from communicating with each other. Ask: Why? (to weaken the Confederate Army by cutting off supplies)

Tell the students that Union General William T. Sherman's troops fought their way from Tennessee towards Atlanta, Georgia, one of the Confederacy's largest cities. Point out Atlanta and Savannah, Georgia on the map.

Explain that by the end of the summer, and because of Sherman's attacks, Confederate troops had abandoned their defenses at Atlanta leaving only the civilians there. Tell them that Sherman's troops entered Atlanta and forced all its citizens out. Two months later, they left, setting fires to warehouses and factories. Ask: Why did Sherman do this? (to prevent Confederate soldiers from using them in the war)

Tell the students that by then, the Confederacy had lost all its territory in the east, except the states of Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Point out these areas on the map. Show the students that the location of South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia east of the Appalachians and north of Georgia meant these states were almost surrounded by the Union Army to the west, the Union Navy to the east, with Georgia as their only link to the southern states of the Confederacy such as Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.

Next, tell the students that understanding that Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina depended on communication with the southern Confederate states for food and other supplies, Sherman's troops spread out along a line sixty miles wide and destroyed houses and crops, burned bridges, and tore up railroad tracks in their march from Atlanta to Savannah. Ask: Why did they do this? (to disrupt communication between either side of the now-divided Confederate territory) Explain that this march left men, women, and children starving in their wake and did cut the Confederacy into two. Tell the students that after this, trains could no longer cross Georgia to bring food and other supplies from the other Southern states to Lee's army in Richmond, Virginia. Ask the students to describe the impact of Sherman's actions on Lee's troops in Virginia (hunger).

Ask: How long does an American president's term of office last? (four years) Ask: When did Lincoln get elected? (1860) Ask: When would Lincoln become due for re-election? (1864) Tell them the Confederacy hoped the Union would have voted Lincoln out of office. Ask: Why did the Confederacy hope for a new president? (A new president might have made peace with the Confederacy.) Explain that by then, Lincoln's defeat at the polls was the Confederates' only hope of winning the war. Remind them of Sherman's eagerness to weaken the Confederate Army in early 1864 and explain that doing so would have ensured Lincoln's re-election and the Confederacy's defeat in the war.

Explain that on November 8, 1864, Union President Lincoln was elected to a second term of office and Lincoln was now more confident than ever that the Union could win the war and believed it was only a matter of time before this happened. Ask the students to cite the events in The Civil War that justified Lincoln's new confidence in a Union victory over the Confederacy

(Union victory at Vicksburg, the capture of Mobile Bay, Alabama, Sherman's occupation of Atlanta).

You may put up a time-line of The Civil War in the classroom to help your students follow the events of the war more easily.

Show the students pictures related to this lesson. The Suggested Books section above contains a list of materials that you can use with the lesson.

You may assign the attached activity. An Answer Key is provided below.
 

Fifth Grade - American History - Lesson 31 - The Civil War (Part 5)
 

Answer Key

You may assign the activity as independent work or have the whole class participate in a written or oral exercise. It is designed to give students opportunities for using information learned during the lesson.
 

Step A

This response must describe General Sherman's character and support it with appropriate actions from The Civil War.
 

Step B

This response must describe Admiral Farragut's character and support it with appropriate events from The Civil War.
 

Step C

This response must explain the role of communication in war and cite appropriate events from The Civil War to support it.
 

Step D

This response must interpret what it means to win an election and relate it to the issue of pursuing or abandoning The Civil War.
 

Fifth Grade - American History - Lesson 31 - The Civil War (Part 5)
 

Activity 1

Write at least one sentence in response to the following.
 

Step A

Describe the character of Union General Sherman and cite events from The Civil War to support your answer.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Step B

Describe the character of Union Admiral Farragut and cite events from The Civil War to support your answer.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Step C

Explain how railroad tracks, roads, and bridges help in times of war and cite examples from The Civil War to support your answer.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Step D

Abraham Lincoln was re-elected president of the Union in 1864. What message do you think the voters were sending to Mr. Lincoln about The Civil War? Explain your answer.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Fifth Grade - American History - Lesson 32 - The Civil War (Part 6)

Note: The Literature lesson on "O Captain! My Captain!" should be taught after this lesson.
 

Objectives

Discuss the following events of The Civil War in 1865: Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address, the fall of Richmond, Virginia, Confederate capital, the Confederate surrender at Appomattox, and the assassination of President Lincoln.
 

Materials

Classroom-size map of the USA

Sentence strip containing time-line begun in prior American History lessons

Sentence strip containing an excerpt from Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address, "With malice toward none, with charity for all..."

Sentence strip containing General Grant's words, "The war is over. The rebels are your countrymen again..."

Chart paper containing General Lee's words, "Go home now, and if you make good citizens as you have soldiers, you will do well, and I shall always be proud of you."

Map showing Civil War Sites, 1865, attached (for transparency, or one copy per student)

Note: You may use a time-line for your students to keep track of the numerous events of The Civil War.

1865-February 6, Robert E. Lee becomes General-in-Chief of Confederate Armies

-March, Union President Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address

-April 2, Confederates retreat from Confederate capital, Richmond, Virginia

-April 9, Confederate General-in-Chief Robert E. Lee surrenders to Union General Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia

-April 14, Union President Lincoln assassinated by John Wilkes Booth
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Carter, Alden R. The Civil War. New York: Franklin Watts, 1992.

D'Aulaire, Ingri and Edgar Parin. Abraham Lincoln. Garden City: Doubleday, 1970.

Jacobs, William Jay. Lincoln. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1991. This is a forty-one-page easy-to-read book with black-and-white pictures of the assassination and burial of Lincoln on pages 38 and 39. Show the students the pictures and recommend this book for independent reading.

Kent, Zachary. Cornerstones of Freedom: The Story of Ford's Theater and The Death of Lincoln. Chicago: Children's Press, 1987. This easy-to-read book contains thirty pages of lively narrative and color pictures of Lincoln's assassination. Show the pictures to the students and recommend the book for independent reading.

McGovern, Ann. If You Grew Up With Abraham Lincoln. New York: Scholastic, 1992.

Pratt, Fletcher. The Civil War. Garden City: Doubleday, 1966.
 

Teacher Reference

Canon, Jill. Civil War Heroines. Santa Barbara: Bellerophon Books, 1993. This is a coloring book containing sketches and biographical notes about women heroines of The Civil

War. The notes are an interesting resource in themselves. The book may be used with additional historical background, such as Civil War colors and uniforms, to create art exercises for students.

Freedman, Russell. Lincoln: A Photobiography. New York: Clarion, 1987. Pages 121 to 129 contain pictures related to Lincoln's assassination and burial. Show the students these pictures.

Hakim, Joy. A History of US: War, Terrible War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Chapter 30 is a lively account of Lincoln's assassination.

Hirsch, E.D., ed. What Your 5th Grader Needs To Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

Smith, Carter, ed. A Sourcebook on The Civil War: The Road To Appomattox. Brookfield: The

Millbrook Press, 1993. This book contains brief accounts of Sherman's march and the

Battle at Mobile Bay and accompanying color pictures. Show your students the pictures.

The Editors of Time-Life Books. The Civil War, Lee Takes Command, From Seven Days to Second Bull Run. Alexandria: Time-Life Books, 1984. Pages 8 to 21 contain a color picture biography of Robert E. Lee. Read excerpts to your students and show them the pictures.

Whitman, Walt. Everyman: Leaves Of Grass and Selected Prose. London: J. M. Dent, 1993.
This reference volume contains a section titled Memories of President Lincoln, which includes "O Captain! My Captain!" and "When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd." You may also find these poems in many other poetry collections and anthologies.
 

Teacher Background

This lesson describes some events and personalities associated with the final year of The Civil War, 1865. In Fifth Grade American History Lesson 26, students read biographical notes on Lincoln. In American History Lessons 24 and 25, they discussed the divisions between North and South. American History Lessons 27 to 30 have been discussions of the progress of the war.

In his Second Inaugural Address in March 1865, Lincoln described slavery as evil and said that the horrors of The Civil War were a sort of punishment to both North and South for allowing slavery. He said that since slavery was now abolished, it was time for reconciliation and healing, time to move on "With malice toward none, with charity for all..."

By April, Richmond, Virginia, the Confederate capital had fallen, and soon thereafter, Confederate General-in-Chief Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General-in-Chief Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia. Unfortunately, on April 14, 1865, Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth.

This lesson is organized around famous quotations by personalities of The Civil War. At the appropriate point in the lesson, the students will be prompted to select the quotation that fits the situation.

Procedure

Put up the sentence strips and chart paper containing the three quotations, one of the excerpt from President Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address ("With malice toward none, with charity for all..."), one from General Grant ("The war is over. The rebels are your countrymen again...") and General Lee's advice ("Go home now, and if you make good citizens as you have soldiers, you will do well, and I shall always be proud of you.") to his men after the surrender. Draw the students' attention to these and ask the students to read the quotations aloud. Explain to the students that at specific points in the lesson, you will prompt them to select the appropriate quotation.

Write the word "inaugurate" on the board, explain that it means to start. Tell the students that in his Second Inaugural Address in March 1866, marking the beginning of his second term as President, Lincoln said slavery was evil and described the horrors of The Civil War as a sort of punishment to both North and South for allowing slavery. Invite students to respond to this view of The Civil War.

Explain that in Lincoln's view, slavery was now abolished, and it was time for both North and South to put their differences aside and start healing the wounds of war. Ask: Which of the three quotations was part of Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address? ("With malice toward none, with charity for all..."). Add Lincoln's name to the quotation. Invite the students to suggest ways in which the divisions between North and South could be healed after The Civil War.

Tell the students that by the spring of 1865, Union troops controlled a part of every state in the Confederacy and Lee's troops in Virginia were short on food supplies. Ask: What was the cause of Lee's troops being short on supplies? (Sherman's march to the sea) Tell them General Lee carried out a surprise attack on the Union Army but Confederate troops were outnumbered by Grant's army, which was also better supplied.

Ask the students to recall the reason for the First Battle of Bull Run (Manists) in 1861 (close to a railroad leading to Richmond). Ask: Why was Richmond a Union target? (Confederate capital) Ask: What would an attacking army hope to find in any capital? (seat of government, military headquarters)

Tell the students that in April, 1865, with Union forces approaching Richmond, President Jefferson Davis and some of his men abandoned Richmond, hoping to set up a new capital elsewhere, and Confederates set fire to Richmond. Ask: Why? (to prevent Union Army from using it) Tell the students that on April 3, 1865, Union troops marched into Richmond. The capital of the Confederacy had fallen. Ask: What does the fall of Richmond suggest about the war? (end was near)

Put up the map of Civil War Sites. Tell the students that Lee's troops were escaping from the advancing Union Army and had made it to the small town of Appomattox Court House, Virginia when Union General Grant sent a note to Confederate General Lee, advising him to surrender. Tell the students that on Sunday, April 9, 1865, Lee met with Grant and several of his officers at a house in the town of Appomattox Court House, shook hands and signed a surrender agreement.

Explain that Grant's men had begun to celebrate their victory within earshot of General Lee when General Grant spoke the words of one of the quotations in the classroom. Ask the students to select the appropriate quotation ("The war is over. The rebels are our countrymen again...") Add Grant's name to the quotation. Invite students to explain what Grant's words meant (the Union has been restored) and what those words tell them about General Grant's character (sympathetic, honorable, considerate, noble). Ask the students to comment on the possibility that Northerners and Southerners could go back to being countrymen again and describe possible lasting effects of the war. (Answers may vary.)

Tell the students that when General Lee returned to his men at camp, he found them weeping and spoke to them using the words in one of the quotations in the classroom. Ask the students to read this quotation aloud ("Go home now, and if you make good citizens as you have soldiers, you will do well, and I shall always be proud of you.") Ask: What did General Lee's statement mean? (that they had been brave soldiers, that they should be good US citizens) Ask: How would the ex-Confederate soldiers have to behave in order to become good US citizens as

General Lee had asked them to? (swear allegiance to the Union, lay down their arms)

Ask the students to describe the Northerners' reaction to the news of General Lee's

surrender (celebration). Explain that The Civil War had been like a ship's journey through a dark storm but General Lee's surrender and the end of the war were like a ray of sunlight after the storm.

Tell the students that on April 14, 1865, five days after General Lee had surrendered, President Lincoln and his wife attended a play at Ford's Theater in Washington and there, a Maryland native, John Wilkes Booth, a Ford Theater actor and supporter of the Confederacy and slavery, sneaked up behind the President and shot him in the head. Tell the students that Lincoln died the following day.

You may put up a time-line of The Civil War in the classroom to help your students follow the events of the war more easily.

Show the students pictures related to this lesson. The Suggested Books section above

contains a list of materials that you can use with the lesson.

You may assign the attached activity. An Answer Key is provided below.
 

Answer Key

You may assign the activity as independent work or have the whole class participate in a written or oral exercise. It is designed to give students opportunities for using information learned during the lesson.
 

Step A

This response must use General Lee's character to come up with a reaction to his defeat.
 

Step B

This response must describe a fact related to The Civil War and explain the student's reaction to it.
 

Step C

This response must explain an advantage of the Union and how it contributed to the outcome of the war
 

Step D

This response must explain a disadvantage of the Confederacy and how it contributed to the outcome of the war.
 

Fifth Grade - American History - Lesson 32 - The Civil War (Part 6)
 

Name: ______________________________________________________________________
 
 
 

Activity 1

Write at least one sentence in response to the following.
 

Step A

Describe how you think General Lee might have felt during his surrender to General Grant.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Step B

Describe the most surprising fact you learned about The Civil War and explain why this surprised you.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Step C

State one reason why you think the Union won The Civil War and explain your answer.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Step D

State one reason why you think the Confederacy lost The Civil War and explain your answer.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Fifth Grade - American History - Lesson 33 - Reconstruction 1865-1877
 

Objectives

Discuss the following: Reconstruction, the South in ruins, Radical Republicans and the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson, carpetbaggers, scalawags, the Freedmen's Bureau and "40 acres and a mule," the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments, Black Codes, the Ku Klux Klan, the end of Reconstruction, and the Compromise of 1877 and withdrawal of Federal troops from the South.
 

Materials

Classroom-size map of the USA

Sentence strip containing time-line begun in prior American History lessons

Note: You may use a time-line for your students to keep track of the dates in this lesson more easily.

1865-Andrew Johnson succeeds Lincoln as 17th president

-Johnson outlines Reconstruction; pardons former Confederates swearing loyalty to the U.S.

-Freedmen's Bureau establishes schools for poor African-Americans and whites in South

-February, The 13th Amendment freeing slaves is passed; slavery abolished

1868-June, 14th Amendment made all former slaves US citizens

-Ku Klux Klan racist terrorist society formed at Pulaski, Tennessee by Confederate veterans of The Civil War

-House of Representatives votes to impeach president Johnson

1869-The 15th Amendment gives African-American men the vote

1872-Congress closes the Freedmen's Bureau

1877-Rutherford B. Hayes becomes 19th president

-Reconstruction ends

-Federal troops are withdrawn from South
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Bradby, Marie. More Than Anything Else. New York: Orchard Books, 1995. This is a picture

book about a young black boy's longing to learn to read after emancipation. It was inspired by the life of Booker T. Washington. The pictures are by Chris Soentpiet.

Recommend it for independent reading.

Johnson, Dolores. Now Let Me Fly: The Story of a Slave Family. New York: Macmillan, 1993. This picture book describes the life of a slave family from a kidnaping in Africa to the emancipation period. It is illustrated by the author. Recommend it to your students.

Nordquist, Marty, ed. Voices in African-American History: The Civil War and Reconstruction.
Cleveland: Modern Curriculum Press, 1994. This book describes the conditions of Southern blacks during and after The Civil War. Recommend it to your students for independent reading.
 

Teacher Reference

Foner, Eric and Olivia Mahoney. America's Reconstruction: People and Politics After The Civil War. New York: HarperPerennial, 1995. This is a general reference to the period

Hakim, Joy. A History of US: Reconstruction and Reform. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. This book is a comprehensive reference on the Reconstruction period.

Lester, Julius. To Be a Slave. New York: Scholastic, 1968. Chapter 7 contains first hand accounts of what life was like for ex-slaves after emancipation. Read excerpts from it to your class.

Mettger, Zak. Till Victory is Won: Black Soldiers in The Civil War. New York: Lodestar, 1994.

Chapter Six, "Victorious Freedmen" describes the lives of blacks in the South after The

Civil War. Read excerpts to your students.

Smith, John David. Black Voices From Reconstruction, 1865-1877. Brookfield: The Millbrook Press, 1996. This book contains original documents that record the experiences of blacks during Reconstruction.
 

Vocabulary used in this lesson

1. impeachment: indictment or charge of a high government official for a crime

2. Radical Republicans: group of members of Lincoln's party in Congress who wanted to make sure that ex-slaves were safe, that they could earn a living, and be full citizens

3. amendment: change by correcting, adding, or deleting; an alteration made to a bill, etc.

4. carpetbaggers: Northerners who moved to the South after The Civil War, some, such as missionaries and teachers, to help ex-slaves and poor farmers, and others to take advantage of the chaos there; many carried suitcases lined with carpet material, hence the name

5. scalawags: term meaning rascal, used by Southern Democrats to refer to Southern whites who supported Radical Republicans during Reconstruction

6. The Freedmen's Bureau: agency created by a law signed by President Lincoln in March 1865 to feed blacks and whites in the South, to help former slaves find jobs, and protect them from discrimination

7. vigilante: a person who assumes the authority of the law, as in avenging a crime

8. Reconstruction: twelve-year period between 1865-1877, devoted to rebuilding the

South and reuniting the USA, or bringing the eleven Confederate states back to the USA

9. Ku Klux Klan: racist terrorist organization formed by Confederate veterans of The Civil War in Pulaski, Tennessee in 1866 to keep African-Americans from exercising their civil rights

10. Black Codes: laws passed after emancipation (1865) by Southern states to prevent ex-slaves from voting, testifying against whites in court, serving on juries, and joining the militia

11. Compromise of 1877: settlement between Southern Democrats and Republicans in Congress in which Republicans got Rutherford B. Hayes, a member of their party, to be made president and Southern Democrats got Federal troops to leave the South
 

Teacher Background

This lesson describes the twelve-year period in American history called Reconstruction. It is a period which would significantly influence American history in the twentieth century. The conditions faced by African-Americans that would later give birth to a civil rights movement are

described here. This period also saw the shift in the South toward the Democratic party.

You may use this lesson over two class periods.
 

Procedure

Show the students pictures of Richmond, Virginia; Atlanta, Georgia; and Vicksburg, Mississippi in ruins or ask the students to suppose they had viewed these cities immediately after The Civil War and describe them. (Answers may vary.) Have them cite examples of destruction caused by the war (bombing of Vicksburg, burning of Atlanta and Richmond, destruction of roads, ports, bridges, railroad tracks, farms, factories). Write the death toll (620,000 total, 360,000 Union deaths, and 260,000 Confederate deaths) on the board, and compare the figures with the populations of the cities where the students live. Ask them to think of the plight of those who had been maimed by the war and tell them, for example, that in 1866, the state of Mississippi spent one fifth of its income on artificial legs and arms for Civil War veterans.

Write the word "destruction" on the board. Ask: What word means the opposite of "destruction"? (build, construction) Ask: What word means to construct again? (reconstruction) Tell the students that The Civil War had left the South in ruins. Ask: Why was it the South that lay in ruins and not the North? (battles took place in South) Ask: Can you list things that needed rebuilding after the war? (roads, railroads, cities, farms) Ask: How would you have suggested rebuilding these things? (Answers may vary.) Ask the students to think of one thing that had been broken during the war but could not be mended with hammers and nails. Ask: What was that? (Union) Ask: What would you have needed to build the Union again? (trust, dialogue, laws) Ask: How would you have suggested rebuilding the Union after the war? (Answers may vary.) Tell the students that there was a group of people whose lives had been broken long before the war. Ask: Who were they? (ex-slaves)

Tell the students this lesson is about Reconstruction, write the word "Reconstruction" on the board, and explain that it was the period in American history from 1865 to 1877 in which America tried to rebuild these three things; Southern cities and farms, the lives of millions of ex-slaves, and the Union. Write these three items on the board. Ask the students to rank these three tasks by order of increasing difficulty. (Answers may vary.) Ask: Suppose you had been given the task of reconstructing America after the war, would you have needed an institution such as an army, church, or school to do so? (Answers may vary.)

Ask: Had you been asked to form a team to reconstruct Atlanta, Richmond, or Vicksburg, which individuals and groups would you have included? (carpenters, masons, farmers, etc.) Ask: What tools would you have needed for this task? (hammers, nails, etc.) Tell the students that rebuilding the cities of the South was probably the easiest task of Reconstruction.

Remind the students that it is said the Union was broken during The Civil War. Ask: What does that mean? (secession) Tell the students that secession meant refusing to live according to the highest law of the country. Ask: What is the highest law in America? (US Constitution) Remind the students that the ex-Confederate states had decided not to live by the US Constitution, had written their own constitution, fought a war with the Union, and lost.

Ask: How could the Union be mended? (Answers may vary.) Tell the students some Americans felt the ex-Confederates had been traitors for fighting the war and needed to be punished. Explain that others, such as Lincoln, wanted to make it easy for the Confederates to rejoin the Union. Ask: In your opinion, what should have been fair treatment for ex-Confederates after The Civil War? (Answers may vary.)

Tell the students that the US Constitution required the states to accept certain conditions. Ask: What would you have required of the ex-Confederate states before readmitting them to the

Union? (Answers may vary.) Ask: Should ex-Confederate states have been allowed to rejoin the

Union if they had insisted they had the right to secede or hold slaves in the future? (Answers may vary.)

Ask: Why was Abraham Lincoln unable to lead America through Reconstruction? (died, 1865) Ask: Had he survived, would Abraham Lincoln have been gentle or harsh toward the ex-Confederates after the war? (gentle) Ask: Can you cite any proof of what Lincoln's attitude toward ex-Confederates would have been? Invite the students to search for proof in his words or deeds. Remind the students that in his Second Inaugural Address, President Lincoln had advised all Americans to move forward "with malice toward none, with charity for all..." Ask: What do these words suggest about what Lincoln's attitude toward the ex-Confederates would have been? (forgiving, gentle)

Write the expression "Radical Republicans"on the board and explain that "radical" meant extreme, and "Republicans" referred to the party of Lincoln. Tell the students that some law-makers in Congress received that nickname because they wanted the Federal Government to be harsh toward ex-Confederates. Explain that reconstructing the Union proved more difficult than rebuilding the cities, but it has been done. Ask: What can you cite as proof that the Union was reconstructed after The Civil War? (no state has left the Union since The Civil War)

Tell the students that rebuilding the lives of ex-slaves proved to be the most difficult task of Reconstruction. Ask the students to brainstorm and create a list of problems that ex-slaves faced in trying to re-build their lives as free persons (little or no education, land and other property, trades and skills, tools, experience in finding a job or house, getting medical care). Ask the students to discuss ways of solving those problems. (Answers may vary.)

Tell the students that the Federal Government created the Freedmen's Bureau to help ex-slaves and poor whites in the South. Write the term "Freedmen's Bureau" on the board. Tell them that General Sherman had distributed army mules and land to blacks who had followed his march to the sea and this caused a rumor that the Federal Government planned to give every ex-slave "forty acres and a mule." Write the expression on the board. Explain that Congress did try to give ex-slaves land, but President Johnson opposed the idea and very few blacks got "forty acres and a mule." Ask: What should have been fair treatment for ex-slaves? (Answers may vary.) Ask: Should ex-slaves have been paid for their services during slavery? (Answers may vary.) Ask: How would an elderly or weak slave have taken care of himself or herself after emancipation? (Answers may vary.) Tell the students that these were some of the issues that Americans faced during Reconstruction.

Remind the students of The Dred Scott decision of 1859. Ask the students to recall the dispute over the decision (state governments claimed they had the right to decide whether or not to allow slavery and others felt only the Federal Government in Washington, D.C. had that right). Explain that the issue had not been resolved in the US Constitution, proving that the Constitution was not perfect. Ask: What do you do with something that is not perfect? (improve it) Explain that an amendment is a correction or improvement. Tell the students that the US Constitution had been improved or amended since it was adopted in 1787 and that the first ten such amendments are called the Bill of Rights. Ask: Why were they called the Bill of Rights? (They gave the American people many rights, including the right to speak freely, and to choose and practice the religion of one's choice.)

Ask the students to propose amendments to solve some problems that caused The Civil War. Tell the students that after The Civil War, in 1865, the US adopted the Thirteenth Amendment making slavery illegal.

Tell the students that every ex-Confederate state then denied ex-slaves the right to vote. Ask: Is one a citizen if she or he is not allowed to vote? (Answers may vary.) Ask: How will a group's lives be affected if they are not allowed to vote? (unable to elect true representatives, and pass laws favorable to them) Tell the students that a code is a collection of laws. Write the expression "Black Codes" on the board and explain that these were laws passed after emancipation (1865) by Southern states to prevent ex-slaves from voting, testifying against whites in court, serving on juries, joining the militia, owning property, and carrying out certain trades and businesses. Explain that these laws allowed the ex-slaves to be treated as though they were still slaves.

Explain that in 1866, Confederate veterans of The Civil War formed an organization in Pulaski, Tennessee aimed at keeping African-Americans from enjoying these rights. Explain that the Ku Klux Klan was a secret society whose members wore white hoods over their faces when appearing in public, that they were a terrorist organization which conducted their politics through terror or fear, burning black churches, schools, and homes and even killing blacks by lynching (hanging). Tell the students that individuals or groups who take the law into their hands in this way are called vigilantes and write the word on the board. Tell the students that the Ku Klux Klan did not only attack blacks but also carpetbaggers and scalawags who supported them.

Write the words "carpetbaggers" and "scalawags" on the board and explain that carpetbaggers were Northerners who had moved to the South after The Civil War, that some, such as missionaries and teachers, helped ex-slaves and poor farmers improve their lives, and others took advantage of the chaos there. Tell the students that they carried suitcases made out of carpet material and this explains their name. Explain that scalawag is a term meaning rascal, used to refer to Southern whites who supported blacks during Reconstruction.

Tell the students that in 1868, the Federal Government adopted the Fourteenth Amendment guaranteeing that anyone born in the US is automatically a citizen of the US and the state of his or her birth, that everyone has the right to defend himself or herself in a court of law, and all have equal protection under the law.

Tell the students in that same year, Andrew Johnson became the first and only president ever to be impeached. Explain that impeachment means charging someone in high office, such as the president, with a crime. Explain that Johnson was impeached because Radical Republicans felt he was blocking their plans for Reconstruction, but the President was found not guilty.

Ask: Had you been a member of the Federal Government and there were groups trying to prevent others from exercising their rights, how would you have responded? (Answers may

vary.) Tell the students that in 1869, the Fifteenth Amendment was voted into law, and that it prevented state and federal governments from denying or limiting a person's rights on account of a person's race, color, and the fact that person was once a slave. Emphasize that the Fifteenth Amendment gave black men the right to vote. Remind the students that no women of any group were allowed to vote at this time. Ask: If men had the right to vote and women did not, were they equal under the law? (no)

Explain that after emancipation, the North felt less interested in the struggles of the South. Tell the students that President Lincoln's successor, President Andrew Johnson had not insisted that ex-Confederate states pass laws protecting the rights of ex-slaves, and Southern politicians, especially Southern Democrats, as members of the Democratic party are called, soon gained power in the ex-Confederate state governments, replacing the Republicans as the ruling party. Tell the students that Southern Democrats won elections by fair and unfair means, including terrorizing blacks from voting and instituting a poll tax which required payment in order to cast a ballot. Explain that since many blacks could not afford such a payment, only few exercised their rights to vote.

Tell the students that Union troops had remained in the South to keep the peace, to protect blacks from attacks, and to carry out Reconstruction but in 1877, the new president, Rutherford B. Hayes, gave in to pressure from Southern Democrats, pulled out Union troops from the South, and ended Reconstruction.

You may assign the attached activity. An Answer Key is provided below.
 

Answer Key

You may assign the activity to students to be completed independently or to the whole class as a written or oral exercise. It is designed to give students opportunities for using information learned during the lesson.
 

Step A

This response must explain that Black Codes were laws meant to limit the rights of blacks in the South during Reconstruction. Such rights included the right to vote.
 

Step B

This response must state that a person born in New York after 1868 is automatically a citizen of New York and America.
 

Step C

This response must explain that today slavery is against the law in every state of the Union.
 

Step D

This response must justify this statement by explaining that slaves either did not exercise their rights as citizens or were not accorded citizenship status by law until after emancipation.
 

Step E

This response must explain that terrorism or such measures as the poll tax prevented ex-slaves from exercising their rights after 1865.
 

Activity 1

Write at least one complete sentence in response to the following.
 

Step A

Explain the meaning of the expression "Black Codes" and cite examples of their effects.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 
 
 

Step B

State the citizenship of someone who was born in New York, USA after 1868.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 
 
 

Step C

Explain why the police of any state of the USA would be interested in reports that someone was being held as a slave in the United States today.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 
 
 

Step D

Explain why it would be true to say that slaves had not been citizens of the USA.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Step E

Describe one means by which ex-slaves were prevented from exercising their rights after 1865.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 


Bibliography

Student Reference

Carter, Alden R. The Civil War. New York: Franklin Watts, 1992. (0-531-2039-6)

________ . The Battle of Gettysburg. New York: Franklin Watts, 1990. (0-531-10852-X)

Commager, Henry Steele. The Great Proclamation. New York: Bobbs Merrill, 1960.

Jacobs, William Jay. Lincoln. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1991. (0-684-19274-8)

Johnson, Dolores. Now Let Me Fly: The Story of a Save Family. New York: Macmillan, 1993. (0-02-747699-5)

Johnson, Neil. The Battle of Gettysburg. New York: Macmillan, 1989. (0-02-747831-9)

Kent, Zachary. Cornerstones of Freedom: The Story of Ford's Theater and The Death of Lincoln. Chicago: Children's Press, 1987. (0-516-04729-9)

________ . Cornerstones of Freedom: The Story of Sherman's March to the Sea. Chicago: Children's Press, 1987. (0-516-04728-0)

Lincoln, Abraham. The Gettysburg Address. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1995. (0-395-69824-3)

McGovern, Ann. If You Grew Up with Abraham Lincoln. New York: Scholastic, 1992. (0-590-45154-5)

Nordquist, Marty, ed. Voices in African-American History: The Civil War and Reconstruction.

Cleveland: Modern Curriculum Press, 1994. (0-8136-4972-2)

Pratt, Fletcher. The Civil War. Garden City: Doubleday, 1955.

Smith, Carter, ed. A Sourcebook on The Civil War: The Road To Appomattox. Brookfield: The Millbrook Press, 1993. (1-56294-264)

Windrow, Martin. The Soldier Through The Ages: The Civil War Rifleman. New York: Franklin Watts, 1985. (0-531-10081-2)

Wisler, G. Clifton. The Drummer Boy of Vicksburg. New York: Lodestar, 1997. (0-525-67537-X)

Young, Robert. Both Sides, The Emancipation Proclamation, Why Lincoln Really Freed the Slaves. New York: Dillon, 1994. (087518-613-0)
 

Teacher Reference

Cameron, Rita G. Let's Learn About Maryland. Baltimore: Media Materials, 1985. (0-912974-02-8)

Canon, Jill. Civil War Heroines. Santa Barbara: Bellerophon Books, 1993. (0-88388-147-0)

Foner, Eric and Olivia Mahoney. America's Reconstruction: People and Politics After The Civil War. New York: HarperPerennial, 1995. (0-06-096989-X)

Freedman, Russell. Lincoln: A Photobiography. New York: Clarion, 1987. (0-89919-380-3)

Hakim, Joy. A History of US: War, Terrible War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. (0-669-36837-7)

________ . A History of US: Reconstruction and Reform. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. (0-669-36838-5)

Hirsch, E. D., Jr. ed. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. (0-385-31464-7)

Katcher, Phillip. The Civil War Sourcebook. New York: Facts on File, 1992. (0-8160-2823-0)

Lester, Julius. To Be a Slave. New York: Scholastic, 1968. (0-590-42460-2)

Fifth Grade - American History - April
 
 

Bibliography


 
 

Meltzer, Milton, ed. Lincoln: In His Own Words. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1993. (0-15-24-5437-3)

Mettger, Zak. Till Victory is Won: Black Soldiers in The Civil War. New York: Lodestar, 1994.(0-525-67412-8)

Smith, John David. Black Voices From Reconstruction, 1865-1877. Brookfield: The Millbrook Press, 1996. (1-56294-583-1)

The Editors of Time-Life Books. The Civil War, Lee Takes Command, From Seven Days to Second Bull Run. Alexandria: Time-Life Books, 1984. (0-8094-4804-1)

Ward, Geoffrey C. The Civil War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990. (0-394-56285-2)

Whitman, Walt. Everyman: Leaves Of Grass and Selected Prose. London: J. M. Dent, 1993. (0-460-87475-6)