©BCP&CKF DRAFT
 

Fifth Grade - Science - April - Overview
 

This month students study the reproductive and endocrine systems of the human body. As a part of the study of the reproductive system, adolescence and puberty are also covered. As one would expect, some of the subject matter in the study of the reproductive system is of a delicate nature; you may want to advise parents regarding the content Lesson 39. Any materials, including those listed under Suggested Books, used in the lesson should be carefully screened for appropriateness, keeping in mind the maturity level of your individual class.

While studying the endocrine system, students construct a "wonderball" that displays their knowledge about it. By the end of the unit, students should know the glands that make up the endocrine system and should be able to summarize the function of each. Related to this, students should be able to describe what hormones are and gain an appreciation for the role they play in bodily functions.

This study of the reproductive and endocrine systems complements the study of other body systems students have undertaken in previous grades. In First Grade students were introduced to, and learned the basic parts of, the following systems: skeletal, muscular, digestive, circulatory, and nervous. Second Grade covered the digestive and excretory systems in more detail, and the Third Grade curriculum included an exploration of the muscular, skeletal and nervous systems. Finally, the circulatory and respiratory systems were learned about in Fourth Grade.
 

Fifth Grade - Science - Lesson 39 - Adolescence, Puberty and the Reproductive System
 

Objectives

Hear about changes that occur in the human body during adolescence.

Read to be informed about the human reproductive system.

Label the parts of the human reproductive system.
 

Materials

Large, full body pictures or photographs of a child, adolescent and adult

Parts of the reproductive system key (attached)

Transparency or drawing on chart paper of the parts of the reproductive system (attached)

For each student

One copy of "The Reproductive System" reading (attached)

One copy of the parts of the reproductive system for labeling (attached)
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Baldwin, Dorothy and Claire Lister. How You Grow and Change. New York: The Bookwright Press, 1984. This book contains useful diagrams, pictures and a glossary. The text is easy to understand and is written in an appealing format.

Elting, Mary. The Macmillan Book of The Human Body. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1986. Puberty is explained well on page 67, and the reproductive system is covered, with helpful illustrations, on pages 68-9.

Mayle, Peter. "What's Happening to Me?" Secaucus, NJ: Carol Publishing Group, 1975. This book is written in a question and answer format, and could easily be read in one sitting by a fifth grader. The approach the author takes is humorous and frank, but you'll want to read the book first to make sure that it is appropriate for all the students in your class.

Teacher Reference

Hirsch, E.D. What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. Contains background information on adolescence and puberty and is the source of today's reading on the reproductive system.

Packer, Kenneth. Puberty. New York: Franklin Watts, 1989. Though this book is written with a young audience in mind, some of the subjects included may be inappropriate for fifth graders. The content of this lesson is covered and the information and explanations offered may be a useful resource for you.

Parker, Steve. Eyewitness Science: Human Body. New York: Dorling Kindersley, Inc., 1993. There is content in the text that may not be suitable for your students, but the cutaway illustrations of the male and female reproductive systems on pages 42 and 43 are outstanding, as is the explanation and illustration of the menstrual cycle on page 43.

Silverstein, Dr. Alvin, Virginia Silverstein and Robert Silverstein. The Reproductive System. New York: Twenty-First Century Books, 1994. Though this book is not written at a fifth grade level and contains content that you may find inappropriate for your students, there are photographs, such as one on page 9 showing sperm trying to penetrate an ovum, that you may want to share with them.

Whitfield, Philip. The Human Body Explained. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1995. The role of hormones in puberty is explained on pages 40-41.
 

Teacher Background

In March, students learned about various types of reproduction. In this lesson, they will learn how humans reproduce. As an introduction to this study, a discussion takes place on the changes that occur during adolescence that allow for reproduction. After the discussion, students read material about the reproductive system and label its parts, using the reading as a reference.

Students may have some previous knowledge about adolescence, as it is the subject of Lesson 32 in Reading Mastery III.
 

Procedure

Begin today's lesson by displaying the pictures or photographs of the child and adult. Ask: What do the bodies of older people and children have in common? How are they different? Have students think back to when they were babies. Ask: How has your body changed over the years? How is your body the same? Tell students that to go from being a child to being an adult involves a number of important changes. Remind students that in the last science unit, they learned about many different types of reproduction. Tell them that many of the changes that occur between childhood and adulthood are changes that allow the human body to reproduce. Tell students that in today's lesson, they will be learning more about human reproduction, but first, they will discuss some of these changes.

Inform students that they are beginning a stage in their lives called adolescence (write this word on the board and display the picture or photograph of an adolescent). Adolescence is the time in your life when you are between the ages of eight and seventeen. At some point during adolescence, puberty (write this word on the board also) takes place. Ask: Does anyone know what puberty is? (Answers will vary. If necessary, inform students that puberty is the time when you begin to change from a child to an adult.) Tell students that during adolescence, everyone goes through puberty. For the purposes of today's discussion, they will consider puberty an amusement park: Puberty Park.

Ask students to think about other amusement parks they have been to or would like to go to. Amusement parks are busy, exciting, sometimes slightly frightening places. Puberty is the same--busy, exciting and sometimes slightly frightening. Knowing as much as you can about puberty can make it a lot less frightening. The first thing to know about Puberty Park is that everyone goes there. Some people "enter" it earlier than others, but eventually everyone goes through the changes that make them an adult. They should not feel badly if they go through puberty earlier or later than their friends.

Puberty Park has lots of attractions. The first they'll hear about today is the roller coaster. Puberty Park's roller coaster is a ride called "Hormones." (Write hormones on the board.) Hormones are powerful chemicals that are released into the bloodstream from glands in the body. These powerful chemicals cause mental, physical and emotional changes in their lives, and are responsible for producing the changes that allow men and women to reproduce. All of these changes can make them feel like they are on a roller coaster--speeding along towards adulthood on a ride that involves strong feelings. Girls often begin the hormone "ride" before boys.

The next attraction at Puberty Park are the distorted mirrors. (Describe, if necessary, to students that these are the mirrors that are bent and curved to make you look much taller, shorter, or rounder than you really are.) During their visit to Puberty Park, as their bodies begin to change, they will sometimes feel like they are looking into one of the distorted mirrors. This doesn't mean that they won't like the way they look--in fact they will probably be pretty pleased with the changes as they occur--it simply means that their bodies won't look the way they are used to seeing them. For girls, this means that they will develop curves and roundness: breasts and hips. Boys will become taller and their shoulders will widen. Sometimes all of this growth will mean that they require more sleep at night, or become more physically active during the day.

If their hands and feet are growing more rapidly than the rest of their body, which is common, they may feel awkward; they shouldn't worry, the rest of them will catch up. Adolescents going through Puberty Park will sometimes experience a very rapid change in height or weight, which is called a "growth spurt," and leads to the next attraction at Puberty Park: food!

Like all amusement parks, food is an important part of Puberty Park. Tell students that all of this growth may leave them feeling like they haven't eaten in weeks. Their bodies need extra calories to use for growing, so they shouldn't be surprised if they want to visit the snack bar again and again. It's important for them to remember that the better food they eat, the better their bodies will develop. Unfortunately, sometimes while in Puberty Park adolescents will begin to get blemishes on their face known as pimples. Pimples are something almost everyone has at one time or another, but eating good foods and avoiding fatty and sugary foods can help them control the number of pimples they will get.

A popular game among young men at Puberty Park is the game in which one takes a large hammer and hits a pump, sending an indicator up a tube to, hopefully, ring a bell. As young men develop muscles, they will become better and better at this game, and any other that involves physical strength. If this type of game doesn't interest them, they may head over to the haunted house at Puberty Park. They won't go through the haunted house to feel frightened, instead they may use their new, deeper voices to help out with the sound effects. (But they should beware: sometimes their voices will crack when they least expect it!)

Tell students that there is no side show at Puberty Park. They will not hear any carnies calling out for them to come check out the bearded lady. They will, however, begin to notice hair on themselves in new places. Both boys and girls will begin to grow pubic hair around their genitals and hair under their arms. By the time puberty is over, young men will have more facial hair, and may need to shave daily. They may also find that there is more hair on their chests than there was before they entered Puberty Park.

Another attraction that is not at Puberty Park is a house of mirrors. They will not look around and see bodies just like their own as they go through puberty. Everyone goes through the changes in a different way, but it's important to remember that all of these changes are normal, and happen to everyone. If students want to know more about this important stage in their lives, encourage them to talk to a parent or grandparent about it, or to go to the library to find books on the subject.

Remind students that many of these changes take place so that they can reproduce--become moms and dads. Tell them that they will now read to be informed about human reproduction, and will label the parts of the male and female reproductive system. Distribute the reading selection and the worksheet to students, and read the worksheet directions aloud to them to confirm they understand what to do.

Once students have completed the reading, display the chart or transparency of the human reproductive system and review correct labeling with students. Then, in the last few minutes of class, ask students to write any questions they have about the reading anonymously on a sheet of paper. (This is to avoid embarrassment and the airing of questions that may be inappropriate for all students to hear.) Collect the questions and at the next available time, answer those that you feel are appropriate for the whole class.

Suggested Follow-Up Activity

It's A Matter of Time

Instruct students to convert the information in the following table into a bar graph. They should not only design the bar graph, but then write three questions that fellow students should answer, using the graph, comparing and contrasting the gestation period of a human to the other mammals listed. Graphs and questions could be posted at a learning center, or kept in folders for students to work on in extra time.
 
 

The Time Various Mammals Spend Pregnant


 
MAMMAL TIME SPENT PREGNANT
COW 9 MONTHS
HORSE 11 MONTHS
RACOON 2 MONTHS
HUMAN 9 MONTHS
GUINEA PIG 2 MONTHS
GOAT 5 MONTHS
CAT 2 MONTHS
RABBIT 1 MONTH

The Human Reproductive System

from What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know by E.D. Hirsch

The changes in a person's body during adolescence are in preparation for puberty, the time when male and female humans undergo physical changes which enable them to produce children. Human reproduction is very similar to reproduction in other mammals. In females, an egg cell is released each month from one of two ovaries. The egg then passes into one of the fallopian (fah-LOW-pee-en) tubes, where it is either fertilized by sperm from a male, or not. If it is not fertilized, it passes into the uterus, and then out of the body along with the lining of the uterus. The uterus lining and egg pass through the [cervix, and then through the] vagina (vuh-JY-nuh) on their way out of the body. This monthly process of shedding the unfertilized egg and the lining of the uterus is called menstruation (men-stroo-AY-shun)--from the Latin word mensis, meaning month, because it typically occurs about once a month.

How does the sperm reach the egg in the fallopian tube to fertilize it? First we need to learn about the male reproductive organs. Sperm are produced in the testes, oval-shaped glands that are contained in a pouch of skin, the scrotum, which hangs below the penis. The sperm travel through tubes in the testes in a whitish fluid called semen. The semen can exit the male's body through the urethra, a tube in his penis.

During sexual intercourse, the male places his penis inside the female's vagina. The semen shoots out of his penis and into her vagina, and the sperm swim toward her uterus. After reaching the uterus, they swim toward the fallopian tubes, where one sperm cell--and only one--is admitted through the egg's outer covering. When egg and sperm join, fertilization has occurred.

If the egg is fertilized, it develops into a zygote, which travels down the fallopian tube and implants itself in the wall of the uterus. Here it grows into an embryo and further develops into a fetus. The fetus grows inside its mother for nine months, until it is developed enough to live in the outside world. When it is born, a baby needs constant care and attention.
 
 

The Human Reproductive System


 
 

Name_________________________________________
 

Directions: Use the descriptions found in the reading to label each of the parts of male and female reproductive system. A word bank containing the names of the parts you will use has been provided.
 
 

WORD BANK

Fallopian Tube Penis Scrotum
Cervix Urethra Vagina
Testis Ovary Uterus

The Human Reproductive System: KEY


 
 

Name_________________________________________
 

Directions: Use the descriptions found in the reading to label each of the parts of male and female reproductive system. A word bank containing the names of the parts you will use has been provided.
 
 

WORD BANK

Fallopian Tube Penis Scrotum
Cervix Urethra Vagina
Testis Ovary Uterus

 

Fifth Grade - Science - Lesson 40 - Introduction to the Endocrine System
 

Objectives

Listen as the difference between duct and ductless glands is explained.

Predict which hormone facts are accurate, and which are not.

Tell what the endocrine system is comprised of.

Define "hormone" and list some of the things hormones do in the body.
 

Materials

For each cooperative group

An index card on which three true facts and one inaccuracy about hormones has been printed (see Teacher Background)
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Elting, Mary. The Macmillan Book of The Human Body. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1986. The difference between duct and ductless glands is explained in language that fifth graders would surely understand on page 66. The endocrine system is described and illustrated on pages 66-67.

Fekete, Irene and Peter Dorrington Ward. Your Body. New York: Facts On File Publications, 1984. This text concisely explains the role of the glands in the endocrine system in text appropriate in difficulty for fifth graders. There is a helpful illustration on page 29 of these glands.

Parker, Steve. How the Body Works. Pleasantville, NY: The Reader's Digest Association, Inc., 1994. Some of the various functions of hormones in the body are explained on pages 106- 107.

Rutland, Jonathan. Human Body. New York: Warwick Press, 1976. The author does a great job of explaining the difference between duct and ductless glands on page 22, and there is a helpful chart on the glands of the endocrine system and the function of each of page 23.

The Visual Dictionary of Human Anatomy. New York: DK Publishing, Inc., 1996. Though the text may be written at a level slightly higher than fifth grade, the excellent, colorful illustrations of the glands of the endocrine system make this book a worthwhile reference source for students.

Teacher Reference

Kapit, Wynn and Lawrence M. Elson. The Anatomy Coloring Book. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers, 1993. The illustrations in this text of the glands of the endocrine system are outstanding.

Le Vay, David. Human Anatomy and Physiology. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Publishing Group, 1975. The glands of the endocrine system and the role of hormones in the body are explained in great detail in this book on pages 340-348.

Stein, Sara. The Body Book. New York: Workman Publishing Company, 1992. This is a book written with a young audience in mind, but the reading level would be considered difficult by most fifth graders. The author does explain, with lots of interesting facts, how hormones released by the glands of the endocrine system work in the body.

Whitfield, Philip. The Human Body Explained. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1995. There is an illustration on page 38 that shows the location of each of the glands of the endocrine system. The dimensions of, and hormones produced by, the endocrine glands are listed in a table on this page as well.

Teacher Background

In today's lesson, students are introduced to the endocrine system. The endocrine system consists of the ductless glands in the body that secrete hormones to do a variety of tasks. The glands that are a part of this system are the pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, pancreas, ovaries and testes. (Students should be familiar with the ovaries and testes from Lesson 39.) Students first listen as you explain the difference between duct and ductless glands and give a brief introduction to the endocrine system. They are then challenged to complete an activity that serves to inform them of the many roles that hormones play in bodily functions. In this activity, cooperative groups are each given an index card on which three true facts, and one falsehood, about hormones have been written. Groups read what has been written about hormones and try to decide which is the falsehood. Each group then reads the content of their card to the class and tells which of the four items written they believe to be inaccurate. After each group does so, you will tell them which of the items is actually false. If, because of class size, more than one group has the same set of information, simply don't reveal which is the falsehood until both groups have read. Sets of facts and inaccuracies have been listed below. You will note that the inaccuracies have been listed last in each set; you will want to mix up the order of the sentences before writing them on cards for students.

Set One

Hormones can make you grow to be nine feet tall.

Hormones cause your body to release more sugar in cold temperatures to keep you warm.

Hormones cause a young man to begin to grow facial hair.

Hormones can affect your ability to taste salty foods. (inaccurate)

Set Two

Hormones cause a woman to produce milk to feed an infant.

Hormones can help fight stress.

Hormones help your body to balance its levels of salt and water.

Hormones can make you very sensitive to high-pitched sounds. (inaccurate)

Set Three

Hormones can make your heart beat faster when you are scared.

Hormones warm a fetus to prepare it for the cold air outside the womb.

Hormones can calm and soothe you.

Hormones determine what color eyes you have. (inaccurate)

Set Four

Hormones can cause your hands to tremble when you are nervous.

Hormones tone the muscles of a fetus to prepare it for the weight of gravity.

Hormones affect how much energy you have.

Hormones can cause you to be allergic to milk. (inaccurate)

Set Five

Hormones decrease the need for oxygen in a fetus to prepare it to breathe air outside the womb.

Hormones can cause you to feel "butterflies" in your stomach when you are nervous.

Hormones can deaden pain.

Hormones affect how fast or slow you read. (inaccurate)

Set Six

Hormones tell your body how fast it should grow.

Hormones can give you the strength and energy to fight or run when in a dangerous situation.

Hormones cause a young woman to develop breasts.

Hormones tell your body how to swallow. (inaccurate)

Set Seven

Hormones help control when you sleep and when you wake.

Hormones give the signal when a baby is ready to be born, and cause a woman to go into labor.

Hormones created by breast feeding can prevent a woman from getting pregnant.

Hormones can make twins become triplets before they are born. (inaccurate)
 

Procedure

Tell students that today, they will begin to learn about the endocrine system. (Write this on the board.) The endocrine system is a body system, in the same way that the body has, for example, a skeletal system. Ask: What does the skeletal system consist of ? (the body's bones) What do you think the endocrine system consists of? (Answers will vary) Tell students that the endocrine system consists of a set of ductless glands (write this on the board as well) in the body. The body has many glands; glands are organs that make special chemicals for the body. Some glands have ducts and some are ductless. Ducts are openings from the gland that lead either to a body cavity or lead out of the body. A gland near your eyes produces tears, and it is obviously a gland that has a duct because tears flow out of your body. Salivary glands also have ducts and produce the saliva in the mouth cavity. Ductless glands don't release what they produce in this way, out of a duct and directly out of the body or into a body cavity. Instead, they use tiny blood vessels that run through them. The blood in these tiny blood vessels picks up chemicals from glands as it passes through them. Reworded, ductless glands release what they produce directly into the bloodstream. Tell students that the human body has many glands that produce sweat. Ask: Are these glands ductless, or do they have ducts? (They have ducts.) How can you tell? (because sweat flows out of the body) Two of the ductless glands of the endocrine system are also part of the reproductive system. Ask: Can you guess which two glands these are? (the ovaries and testes)

To recap, tell the students that they now know that the endocrine system is made up of ductless glands, and that ductless glands are organs that release special chemicals directly into the bloodstream. In the endocrine system, these special chemicals are hormones. (Write on the board.) Remind students that they already know a little about hormones from the previous science class. Ask: What do you remember about hormones? (Answers will vary, but should include general information about the role of hormones in puberty. Students may also remember that a hormone is a powerful chemical that is released into the bloodstream.) Tell students that the definition of a hormone is: a chemical released into the bloodstream that influences cells at a distance from those that secreted it. (Write this definition on the board next to the word "hormones.") Go on to explain the definition by giving students this example: a hormone produced by cells within an endocrine gland in the head is a chemical that affects cells far away in the kidneys. Glands are like army generals within the body, hormones are like their orders, and blood is like the messenger delivering the orders to various parts of the body.

Tell students that hormones influence the body in many more ways than just those having to do with puberty that they learned about in the last lesson. To get them thinking about all the ways hormones affect the body, tell students that they will be playing a game. In groups, they will receive an index card that has four sentences written on it about hormones Three of the sentences are true, and one is false. They will read the sentences, discuss them, and try to guess which sentence about hormones is actually not true. They will then share the four sentences with the class, and tell which one they believe to be false. You will then tell them if they guessed correctly, and if not, tell which sentence is the inaccuracy. Once you have confirmed that students understand what they are to do, group students cooperatively and pass out the index cards. As students read and discuss the information, erase what you have written on the board regarding the endocrine system. After about five minutes, direct groups to end their discussions, and to share the information on their cards. After each group has done so and has found out if they guessed correctly, ask: After listening to many of the things that hormones do, did you notice any patterns or tendencies regarding the ways in which hormones affect the body, and if so, what were they? (Answers will vary, but may include that hormones have much to do with the development of the fetus; influence the way a body reacts to fear or fright; can affect us physically in good ways, like deadening pain; affect growth and puberty; and influence the way in which we use food for energy.) Congratulate students on their ability to recognize the patterns and tendencies and make generalized statements about hormones based on them.

To summarize today's class, ask: What system are we now studying? (the endocrine system) What is the endocrine system made up of? (ductless glands) What do the ductless glands in the endocrine system produce and release into the bloodstream? (hormones) In your own words, what is a hormone? (Answers will vary, but should basically adhere to the definition you gave earlier in the class.) What are some of the things that hormones can do? (Answers will vary.) Inform the students that indeed, because the hormones released by the endocrine system do so many things, it is possible to say that together, the nervous system and the endocrine system control and coordinate all the body's activities. Tell them that in the next class, they will learn about two of the glands in the endocrine system and what the specific hormones from these glands do.
 

Fifth Grade - Science - Lesson 41 - The Pituitary and Thyroid Glands

Wonderball activity adapted from Instructor magazine.
 

Objectives

Read to be informed about the pituitary and thyroid glands.

Summarize the functions of the pituitary and thyroid glands.

Designate the locations within the body of the pituitary and thyroid glands.

Select and draw symbols for the functions of the hormones of the pituitary and thyroid glands.
 

Materials

For each student or pair of students

One copy of the reading "The Pituitary and Thyroid Glands" (attached)

Two copies of the wonderball pattern (attached)

One copy of the wonderball directions (attached; to be used in Lesson 42 also)

Crayons, colored pencils or magic markers

A pair of scissors
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Elting, Mary. The Macmillan Book of The Human Body. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1986. The locations of the thyroid and pituitary are shown on page 67, and the function of the pituitary is described on page 66.

Fekete, Irene and Peter Dorrington Ward. Your Body. New York: Facts On File Publications, 1984. The roles of the pituitary and thyroid glands are described on page 28, and a diagram showing their location is on page 29.

Parker, Steve. Eyewitness Science: Human Body. New York: Dorling Kindersley, Inc., 1993. The location and function of the thyroid are given on page 40.

Rutland, Jonathan. Human Body. New York: Warwick Press, 1976. The function of the pituitary gland is described on page 22, and that of the thyroid on page 23.

The Visual Dictionary of Human Anatomy. New York: DK Publishing, Inc., 1996. There are excellent drawings of the pituitary and thyroid glands on pages 14 and 15.

Teacher Reference

Kapit, Wynn and Lawrence M. Elson. The Anatomy Coloring Book. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers, 1993. A diagram on page 124 shows the location of both the pituitary and the thyroid. The thyroid is diagramed and discussed in great detail on page 127.

Le Vay, David. Human Anatomy and Physiology. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Publishing Group, 1975. The pituitary is covered comprehensively on pages 342-345, as is the thyroid on page 345.

Whitfield, Philip. The Human Body Explained. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1995.

Details regarding the function of the pituitary are given on page 41, and the same is done for the thyroid on page 42. Illustrations of both glands are also provided.
 

Teacher Background

In this lesson, students learn the location and function of both the pituitary and thyroid glands. They also begin a project that will be completed in the next two lessons. This project involves the creation of a "wonderball." To make the wonderball, each student will first read about both glands. Then, he or she will cut out the circular wonderball pattern (attached). On the pattern, the student will write the name of one of the glands and designate its location in the body

with an arrow. Then, around the outside edge of the pattern, each student will summarize the function of the gland in one or two sentences. Finally, the student will decorate the extra space in the pattern with symbols that represent the effect that gland and its hormones have on the body. This process will be repeated with the second gland read about as well. Once this has been done with the pituitary and thyroid, and the adrenal and pancreas glands in Lesson 42, the wonderball will be assembled, and directions regarding this are provided in Lesson 43.

This project has been written with the assumption that each student will be creating his or her own wonderball, but the project can be modified so that it is completed in pairs. Each pair would need to read the passage together, then discuss how to summarize the function of each gland, the location of each within the body, and what symbols to use. One student would be responsible for completing the wonderball part for the thyroid, and the other student would be responsible for completing the wonderball part for the pituitary. They would need to check one another's work to make sure that it is finished and correct.
 

Procedure

Begin today's lesson by quickly reviewing the content covered in Lesson 40. Ask: What body system are you currently studying? (the endocrine system) What is the endocrine system made up of? (ductless glands) What do the ductless glands produce and release into the bloodstream? (hormones)

Tell students that today, they will be learning more about two of these ductless glands and will begin to make a project that displays what they have learned. Tell students that the two glands they will be learning about are the pituitary (pi TOO ah ter ee) and the thyroid glands. (Write the names of both of these glands on the board.) Distribute "The Pituitary and Thyroid Glands," the wonderball directions, and the wonderball patterns. Tell students that once they do the reading, they will carefully follow directions to begin the creation of a wonderball using the patterns. Read the directions with the students and confirm they understand what to do. Once this has been done, students should begin the reading. After the reading has been completed, they should make the two parts of the wonderball.

When students have completed making today's wonderball parts, ask volunteers to share their one- or two-sentence summaries of the functions of the pituitary and thyroid glands. Then, ask: Who can stand up and show the class on their own body the location of the pituitary gland? (Because the pituitary is located within the brain, the student should point to his or her head.) Who can show the location of the thyroid gland? (at the base of the throat) What symbols did you select to represent the function of the pituitary gland and its hormones, and why did you select these symbols? (Answers will vary.) What symbols did you select to represent the function of the thyroid gland and its hormones, and why did you select these symbols? (Answers will vary.) Compliment students on their ability to summarize today's reading and their creativity in selecting appropriate symbols, and tell them that in the next class, they will be learning about two more glands of the endocrine system and making two more wonderball parts.

Instruct students to put their names on the back of their wonderball parts and either store them safely until they are needed again, or turn them in to you for safe keeping. The wonderball directions should be collected so that they can be used again in the next lesson.

THE PITUITARY AND THYROID GLANDS
The Pituitary Gland


 


The pituitary is like the "boss gland" of the endocrine system. It creates hormones that are sent to the other glands of the endocrine system to tell them what to do. In addition to controlling the other endocrine glands, the pituitary affects some of the body's most important functions. The pituitary makes a growth hormone that affects every cell of the body! This growth hormone turns on or off the amount of nourishment that a cell can take in. This influences how big cells can get, and how fast they can multiply. If cells are big and multiplying quickly, you grow. A problem with the pituitary gland can cause a person to be a giant, or a dwarf. The pituitary also secretes a hormone that affects your blood pressure, and another that tells your kidneys whether the right amount of water exists in your body. The reproductive system must follow directions from the pituitary as well; it tells the ovaries and testes when to grow and begin egg and sperm production. When a baby is ready to be born, the pituitary sends a message to the uterus to begin labor, and to the breasts to begin to produce milk. Did you realize you had such a bossy gland? It's a good thing the pituitary usually knows what it is doing. Perhaps the reason why it does is because of its "smart" location: it can be found deep in the center of the brain.

The Thyroid Gland

Imagine for a moment that you have a bow tie on and put your fingers on your neck where it would be. Under your fingers, and beneath the skin at the base of your neck lies the thyroid gland, which, coincidentally, is about the same shape and size of a bow tie. When you eat, the cells in your body turn food into heat and energy through a chemical reaction. The thyroid is in charge of telling your body how quickly to perform this chemical reaction. Therefore, the thyroid can affect how much energy you have. If a person's thyroid creates a hormones that tell their body to quickly turn food into energy, that person has what is known as a fast metabolism. The opposite is also true: if the thyroid's hormones are telling a body to work slowly to turn food into energy, that body has a slow metabolism. Too much of the thyroid's hormone can make a person very thin and nervous. Not enough of the thyroid's hormone can make a person overweight and constantly tired.
 

DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING WONDERBALL PARTS
 

STEP ONE: Read the material you have been given on the glands.
 

STEP TWO: Cut out one wonderball pattern
 

STEP THREE: On the line above the body outline, write the name of the first gland you read about today.
 

STEP FOUR: Draw an arrow on the body outline to show the location of that gland in the body.
 

STEP FIVE: In one or two sentences, summarize the function of the gland. (What does it do for the body?) The sentence(s) should be written in your own words around the outside edge of the wonderball pattern piece.
 

STEP SIX: In the remaining space on the wonderball piece, draw symbols to represent the effects this gland and its hormones have on the body. Illustrate your wonderball piece with at least two symbols.
 

STEP SEVEN: Repeat steps two through six, this time for the second gland you read about today.
 

Fifth Grade - Science - Lesson 42 - The Pancreas and Adrenal Glands

Wonderball activity adapted from Instructor magazine.
 

Objectives

Read to be informed about the pancreas and adrenal glands.

Summarize the functions of the pancreas and adrenal glands.

Designate the locations within the body of the pancreas and adrenal glands.

Select and draw symbols for the functions of the pancreas and adrenal glands and their hormones.
 

Materials

For each student or pair of students

One copy of the reading "The Pancreas and Adrenal Glands" (attached)

Two copies of the wonderball pattern (attached to Lesson 41)

One copy of the wonderball directions (from Lesson 41)

Crayons, colored pencils or magic markers

A pair of scissors
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Fekete, Irene and Peter Dorrington Ward. Your Body. New York: Facts On File Publications, 1984. The roles of the adrenals and pancreas are described on pages 28-29, and a diagram showing their locations is on page 29.

Parker, Steve. Eyewitness Science: Human Body. New York: Dorling Kindersley, Inc., 1993. There are great photographs of models of both the adrenal and pancreas glands on pages 40-41.

________. How the Body Works. Pleasantville, NY: The Reader's Digest Association, Inc., 1994. The "flight or fight" response is described on page 105. A diagram on page 106 explains insulin's role in balancing the body's glucose level.

Rutland, Jonathan. Human Body. New York: Warwick Press, 1976. The function of the pancreas is described on page 22, and that of the adrenals is well described on page 23. An illustration on page 23 shows the locations of these glands.

The Visual Dictionary of Human Anatomy. New York: DK Publishing, Inc., 1996. There are excellent drawings of the adrenals and pancreas on page 15.

Teacher Reference

Kapit, Wynn and Lawrence M. Elson. The Anatomy Coloring Book. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers, 1993. A diagram on page 124 shows the location of both the adrenals and pancreas. A cross-section of an adrenal gland is provided on page 128, and the function of the pancreas is detailed on page 129.

Le Vay, David. Human Anatomy and Physiology. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Publishing Group, 1975. The adrenals and pancreas are covered on pages 346-347.

Stein, Sara. The Body Book. New York: Workman Publishing Company, 1992. The author does an outstanding job of explaining the role of the adrenal glands on pages 203-206. Her explanations are complemented by interesting facts and example scenarios.

Whitfield, Philip. The Human Body Explained. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1995.

Details regarding the function of the pancreas and insulin are given on pages 42-43, and the adrenal gland is covered on pages 38-9. Illustrations of both glands are also provided.

Teacher Background

In today's lesson, students read about two more of the glands of the endocrine system, the adrenal glands and the pancreas. After the reading, they follow the same procedure they followed in Lesson 41 to make two more wonderball parts.
 

Procedure

Begin today's lesson with a quick review. Ask: What system are you currently studying? (the endocrine system) What are some of the glands of the endocrine system? (the ovaries, testes, pituitary and thyroid) What is the name of the chemical that is produced by the ductless glands of the endocrine system? (hormone) What is a hormone? (a chemical released into the bloodstream that influences cells at a distance from those that secreted it)

Tell students that they are going to read about two more of the glands of the endocrine system today. These glands release two well-known hormones: insulin and adrenalin. (Write the names of these two hormones on the board.) Ask: Has anyone heard of either of these hormones? What do you know about them? What glands do you think produce them? (Adrenalin is produced by the adrenals [ah DREEN ls]; insulin by the pancreas [PAN kree uhs].) Write the names of these glands on the board and tell students that these are the glands they will be learning about today.

Distribute "The Pancreas and Adrenal Glands," the directions for making wonderball parts, and two wonderball patterns to each student. Instruct students to follow the same procedure they did in Lesson 41 to create two more wonderball parts. If necessary, review the directions for making wonderball parts with students.

When students have completed making today's wonderball parts, ask volunteers to share their one- or two-sentence summaries of the functions of the pancreas. Ask: Who knows someone with diabetes? What does the pancreas have to do with diabetes? (The pancreas produces insulin, which decreases the amount of sugar in the bloodstream. When not enough insulin is produced, the body can't absorb sugar properly and diabetes results.) Who can stand up and show the class on their own body the location of the pancreas gland? (just below the stomach) What symbols did you select to represent the function of the pancreas and its hormones, and why did you select these symbols? (Answers will vary.)

Ask for volunteers to share their one- or two-sentence summaries of the function of the adrenal glands. Why is the result of the hormone adrenalin called the "fight or flight syndrome?" (It readies the body, by releasing stored-up energy, to either face possible attack or run.) Who can show the location of the adrenal glands? (at the base of both sides of the rib cage) What symbols did you select to represent the function of the adrenals, and why did you select these symbols? (Answers will vary.) How are either of the two glands you learned about today similar to either of the two glands you read about the last class, the pituitary and the thyroid? (Answers will vary but may include: the thyroid and the pancreas both have a role in how the body uses food; the pituitary and the adrenals both produce powerful hormones that affect many areas of the body; the pancreas and pituitary, when malfunctioning, cause well-known disorders.)

Instruct students to put their names on the back of their wonderball parts and either store them safely, with the first two parts, until the next science class, or turn them in to you for safe keeping. Tell students that in the next class, they will be assembling the wonderball.
 

Suggested Follow-up Activity

Diabetes Research
 

Fifth Grade - Science - Lesson 42 - The Pancreas and Adrenal Glands
 

Instruct students to do research on diabetes. They should find out the warning signs and symptoms of diabetes, how insulin is used to treat it. If possible, they should interview a diabetic about the disease and how the person lives with it. Those students able to do the research should share their findings with the class.

THE ADRENAL AND PANCREAS GLANDS
The Adrenal Glands

Imagine that you are walking down a dark alley at night and suddenly hear footsteps behind you. The footsteps grow faster and closer, and you get that stomach-clenching, heart-racing scared feeling. Before you turn around to see that it's just your best friend trying to catch up with you, your adrenal glands are preparing your body to either fight or run. How do your adrenal glands cause this "fight or flight syndrome?" When you become very scared, angry or excited, your brain warns your adrenal glands that you might need to become very active physically. Your adrenal glands release one of the fastest-acting hormones, adrenalin, into your bloodstream. Within seconds, adrenalin is having effects on various parts of your body. Blood that is normally in your intestine rushes to your brain to make it more alert, and to your muscles to allow them to be as strong as possible. Your pupils dilate to let in more light so that you can see better, and your heart and breathing rates increase to charge your system with oxygen. Adrenalin also causes your liver to release stored-up energy in the form of sugar. You become ready to face the situation your brain thinks is approaching. In addition to acting like a hero in emergencies, your adrenal glands listen to orders from the pituitary when you're in extremely cold temperatures and release a hormone that allows you to convert sugar in your system into heat. Stress, injuries and allergic reactions are also made less severe thanks to a hormone released by the adrenal glands.

You may have noticed that the plural form of gland is used when referring to the adrenals; this is because they are a pair of glands that sit on top of each of your kidneys, at approximately the same level as the lowest rib on your left and right sides.

The Pancreas Gland

Just below your stomach sits a gland about the size and shape of a pine cone. This gland, the pancreas, is both a duct and ductless gland. It produces strong juices for digestion that it sends to the intestines out of a duct, but it also releases an important hormone, insulin, directly into the blood stream. After you eat, your pancreas senses that there is extra sugar, called glucose, in your blood. To lower the level of glucose, the pancreas sends insulin into the blood. Insulin helps the body to store this extra sugar (which will be turned into energy) by telling the tissues in your body to take it in, and tells the liver not to produce any glucose for the time being. If the pancreas produces too little insulin, the body can't store the glucose and it's lost through the urine. This is the case in people who have the disease called diabetes. People who have diabetes are given extra insulin.

Insulin's partner hormone is glucagon. Your muscles use glucose to move, so when you're very active, you are using up a lot of glucose. The pancreas senses that the glucose level in the blood is too low, and releases glucagon. Glucagon has the opposite effect of insulin: it tells the liver and tissues to put glucose back into the bloodstream so that you have enough energy to continue to use your muscles. The seesaw action of insulin and glucagon keeps the sugar in your blood at just the right level!
 

Fifth Grade - Science - Lesson 43 - The Endocrine System: Summary

Wonderball activity adapted from Instructor magazine.

Objectives

Assemble the wonderball.

Compare and contrast the glands of the endocrine system.

Write persuasively to convince the reader of the importance of the endocrine system.
 

Materials

For each student or pair of students

Glue or paste

Wonderball parts created in Lessons 41 and 42
 
 
 

Teacher Background

In today's lesson, students first complete the wonderballs by assembling the parts they created in the last two classes. After today's lesson, display the wonderballs in the classroom or hallway by punching a hole in the top and hanging them from the ceiling using yarn or string.

Once students have assembled their wonderballs, they will use them in the remainder of today's activities as reminders of what they have learned. In groups, students will compare and contrast the glands of the endocrine system. Finally, independently, they will write a persuasive paragraph entitled "The Importance of the Endocrine System."
 

Procedure

Tell students that they will be assembling their wonderballs today, and distribute the wonderball parts and the glue or paste. Assembling the wonderball requires careful attention to directions, and you will want to demonstrate each step for students as you describe how to do it.

First, have students fold each part in half vertically, so that the fold divides the body outline into left and right halves. Then, students should take one part (hereafter called part A) and apply glue to one half of the back. Another part (hereafter called part B) should then be placed against the glue, with the folds of both parts lined up, so that the glue is holding one half of part A to half of part B. It is important that students make sure that both parts are upright (words facing the same direction) when gluing them together. Next, have students apply glue to the back of the other half of part B. A new part, (part C) should then be glued to this half of part B, again, lining up the folds and making sure the words face the same direction. At this point, one half of part A is glued to half of part B, and the other half of part B is glued to part C. One half of the fourth part, part D, will be glued to part C in the same manner that B was glued to A and C was glued to B. Finally, have students glue the unglued side of part D to the unglued side of part A, again making sure that the folds are even with each other. If done properly, the result when viewed from above will be a star consisting of four panels. Students should be able to turn the ball and read what is on each of the panels. Congratulate students on their ability to follow the directions as you gave them, and on the neatness of their wonderballs.

Tell students that they have learned much about the endocrine system. Their wonderballs display information about four of the glands in the system. Ask: What two glands are not in the wonderball, but are a part of the endocrine and reproductive systems? (the ovaries and testes) Tell students that they will now use the wonderballs to help remind them of what they have learned as they complete the next activity. Put students into cooperative groups and instruct them to think of ways the following two sentences could be completed (write both sentence starters on the board):

The glands of the endocrine system are all alike in that...

The glands of the endocrine system are different from one another in that...
 

After five to ten minutes, ask groups to share ways they thought of to end both sentences. Answers will vary, but possibilities are listed below.
 

The glands of the endocrine system are all alike in that...

they are all ductless (though the pancreas is both duct and ductless)

they all produce and release hormones

they all influence the body in more than one way

The glands of the endocrine system are different from one another in that...

they produce different hormones

they affect the body in different ways

they are in different locations throughout the body
 

Next, ask students how many of them had heard of the endocrine system before beginning this science unit. (It is anticipated that not many of them will have.) Tell them that a person who has not heard of the endocrine system may assume that it is not important. After all, it's not like other, well known systems such as the digestive, skeletal or circulatory. Their task is to write a persuasive paragraph convincing the reader that the endocrine system is important to the body. The paragraph should be titled "The Importance of the Endocrine System." In the paragraph, they should use what they know about each of the glands of the endocrine system to help support their argument. After sufficient time, collect the paragraphs and wonderballs for grading purposes. Students may want to share their paragraphs with one another, and if there is time to do so, allow them to read their work aloud.

Bibliography

Student Reference

Baldwin, Dorothy and Claire Lister. How You Grow and Change. New York: The Bookwright Press, 1984. (0-531-04803-9)
Elting, Mary. The Macmillan Book of The Human Body. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1986. (0-02-733440-6)
Fekete, Irene and Peter Dorrington Ward. Your Body. New York: Facts On File Publications, 1984. (0-87196-989-0)
Mayle, Peter. "What's Happening to Me?" Secaucus, NJ: Carol Publishing Group, 1975. (0-8184-0312-8)
Parker, Steve. Eyewitness Science: Human Body. New York: Dorling Kindersley, Inc., 1993.
(1-56458-325-2)
________. How the Body Works. Pleasantville, NY: The Reader's Digest Association, Inc., 1994. (0-89577-575-1)
Rutland, Jonathan. Human Body. New York: Warwick Press, 1976. (0-531-09057-4)
The Visual Dictionary of Human Anatomy. New York: DK Publishing, Inc., 1996.
(0-7894-0445-1)
 

Teacher Resource
Hirsch, E.D. What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. (0-385-41119-7)
Kapit, Wynn and Lawrence M. Elson. The Anatomy Coloring Book. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers, 1993. (0-06-455016-8)
Le Vay, David. Human Anatomy and Physiology. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Publishing Group, 1975. (0-340-42875-9)
Packer, Kenneth L. Puberty. New York: Franklin Watts, 1989. (0-531-10810-4)
Silverstein, Dr. Alvin, Virginia Silverstein and Robert Silverstein. The Reproductive System. New York: Twenty-First Century Books, 1994. (0-8050-2838-2)
Stein, Sara. The Body Book. New York: Workman Publishing Company, 1992. (0-89480-805-2)
Whitfield, Philip. The Human Body Explained. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1995. (0-8050-3752-7)