Fifth Grade - World History - Overview - December

This month in World History, the students study the changes brought about in European history as a result of the Reformation, England's "Golden Age," and the English Revolution. In each of the first three lessons, students take notes on a sheet of highlights, which outlines the information to be covered. After note taking, students work in cooperative groups to create a filmstrip project, which is complete after Lesson 18. In the last lesson, students share their filmstrip projects with one another, and then write a persuasive composition arguing which of the three time periods studied contained the most influential changes.

To complete the filmstrip, each of the cooperative groups will need two empty cardboard rolls, such as those used to hold paper towels or wrapping paper. You will probably want to begin asking students to bring in rolls in advance of Lesson 16 so that you are prepared for the lesson. Each group will need one roll in Lesson 16, and will need the second roll in Lesson 18.

Completion of the filmstrip project and its presentation by the groups may require more time than typically allotted for World History, and you should teach the lessons, or aspects of them, as time allows and as your experience deems necessary.

Fifth Grade - World History - Lesson 16 - The Reformation
Objectives
Take notes on the important aspects of the Reformation.

Work cooperatively to summarize the major events of the Reformation.

Develop a rubric to evaluate the project begun today.
 

Materials

Sentence strip for the continuation of the class time line

One copy for each student of the attached Reformation highlights

One sheet or panel of blank paper for each student

Crayons or markers for cooperative teams to share

One sheet or panel of blank paper for each cooperative team

Tape

One empty cardboard roll, such as those used to hold paper towels or wrapping paper, for each cooperative team (If a wrapping paper roll is used, it should be cut in half.)
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

McNeer, May and Lynd Ward. Martin Luther. New York: Abingdon Press, 1953. This is a chapter book biography of Martin Luther written at a level appropriate for fifth graders.

Harris, Nathaniel. Spotlight on Renaissance Europe. East Sussex, England: Wayland (Publishers) Ltd., 1986. Pages 32-41 discuss the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter- Reformation.

Pierre, Michael. The Renaissance. Morristown, New Jersey: Silver Burdett Press, 1987. This book details Martin Luther's role in the Reformation on pages 56-57 and the development of the printing press on pages 8-9.

Wood, Tim. The Renaissance. New York: Penguin Books U.S.A., Inc., 1993. The importance of the printing press is addressed on pages 32-33 of this book, and on page 33 is a "See- Through" scene of a printer's shop. The author describes the Reformation on pages 42- 43.

Teacher Resource

Dickens, A.G. Reformation and Society. London: Thames and Hudson, 1966. This book contains much information pertinent to today's lesson.

Hirsch, E.D. What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. Within this book is clear and concise background information on today's lesson.

Severy, Merle. "The World of Luther." National Geographic, October 1983, 418. This article gives great insight into Luther's motivation and the time in which he lived.
 

Teacher Background

In today's lesson, students learn about the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter-Reformation. They will also begin a project that will continue through the World History lessons this month. The students will work cooperatively to summarize this lesson's content into a product that, when finished, will resemble the format of a filmstrip. The important "scenes" of this lesson will be drawn onto sheets or panels of paper, and under each scene will be a brief written explanation of what is happening in the scene. The scenes will then be taped together in chronological order, and the first one taped to an empty cardboard roll. The scenes will then be wrapped around the roll, scroll style. In the next two lessons, students will add panels or sheets of paper to this scroll, taping them to the sheets or panels created previously. When the last strip of sheets or panels has been taped on and wrapped around the empty cardboard roll, the last panel or sheet will be taped on one side to another empty cardboard roll. All of the panels or sheets will then be wrapped around the second roll, so that when they are unrolled, one sees the first panel first. (See the illustration below.) During the last World History lesson this month, students will show their "filmstrip" to the class and will be graded on their efforts. In today's lesson, you will give one extra sheet of blank paper to each team so that they can write a title for their filmstrip and note the creators' names.

In order to make the filmstrip, students first listen to background information given by you and take notes on it, using the attached sheet of highlights. Students are each given a sheet of paper, then put into cooperative teams. The teams discuss how to depict the important points of the lesson using as many scenes as there are members of the team. To accomplish this summarization exercise, they may use the notes they took on the sheet of highlights. Each member of the team will be expected to draw one scene and write, below it, a brief explanation (several sentences) of what is happening in the scene. The teams will need to discuss with one another not only what is being drawn by each person but also what is being written, so that when read and looked at consecutively, the scenes flow into each other in a way that makes sense and tells the story of what they learned in World History today.

Students will continue the time line that they have worked on in previous World History lessons.

Procedure

Begin this class by telling students that in today's lesson, they will be learning about an important aspect of the Renaissance, called the Reformation (write this word on the board). Ask: What root word do you see in the word "Reformation?" (reform) What does this word mean to you? (Answers will vary. Make sure that students understand two uses of the word. First, they should know the use that means "to correct something that is wrong in an attempt to move to a better state," as in "I am going to reform my dog's bad behavior." Second, they should know the use that means "to shape into something new," as in "I will reform this clay snake into a ball.") What do you think was reformed during this age in history? (Answers will vary.) Tell students that they will find out what was reformed, but first, they should know when the Reformation took place. Write "Reformation" on the sentence strip and the dates 1500-1600. Have a student point out where he or she thinks this should be inserted on the time line. Ask: Looking at the time line, what events took place while the Reformation was occurring? (Answers will vary but should include any of the events noted as occurring between 1500 and 1600.)

Next, tell students that they will be beginning a project in this lesson that will continue through the next several lessons. In order to successfully complete the project, they will need some background information, which you will be providing. Pass out copies of the attached sheet of highlights and tell them that the information will cover these major points. (You may wish to read through the list of words and phrases on the sheet so that students have the opportunity to hear the pronunciation of the cues.) Instruct the students to, as you are talking, follow what you are saying by using this sheet. They should jot down words or phrases to help them remember important details about each of the items on the list of highlights. You may wish to model this by giving the following example: Assume one of the highlights in a previous lesson had been written as "Banking." Students then heard this information: "Banking became an important source of income for merchants in Florence." Ask: What would you write to help you remember these details about banking? (Answers will vary but should include words such as income, merchants, and Florence.) It is important that students understand that they are not expected to write every word you say, but only to flesh out the sheet of highlights. Once students understand the process of note-taking in this lesson, begin giving them the following information orally.

Tell students that they already know that during the Renaissance, there was a re-birth in interest in learning. Among other ways of learning, people spent time reading old ancient Greek and Roman books. Until this time, though, books were only found in the homes of the wealthy because they were so expensive. Ask: Why do you think books were so expensive? (Answers will vary.) Tell them that until the mid-1400s, every book had been hand written, and if you wanted a copy of a book, the copy was made by hand. Hold up a book and ask students to guess about how long it would take to copy every page of the book by hand. Conclude that it would take a very long time, so the book price would be high to pay for all of this labor. Tell students that around 1450, things changed. A man named Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press. By using movable raised letters made out of wooden blocks, Guttenberg could print a whole page in seconds. Ink was spread on the raised letters, and a piece of paper was pressed against the letters. When the paper was lifted, the page was full of print. Suddenly, books were much cheaper to make, and many people who could not afford them before began to buy them.

Ask: What do you think was the first book to be copied using Guttenberg's printing press? (the Bible) Tell students that before people were able to buy the Bible and read it themselves, they only knew what it said on the basis of what the clergy of the Catholic Church told them. Now, people were reading the words on their own and forming their own original ideas about what the words really meant.

In addition to forming their own ideas about what the Bible really meant, some people were beginning to become critical of common practices within the Catholic Church. They thought that the lifestyle led by some leaders and clergy of the Catholic Church was not in keeping with the teachings of the Bible. Ask: What do you remember from last month about the role of most popes during the Renaissance? (They lived more like political leaders and princes than spiritual leaders.) Additionally, the Catholic Church had one practice in particular that people began to question: the selling of indulgences. As a part of this practice, a person would give money to a priest. In exchange for the money, the priest would guarantee that the person, upon death, would go straight to heaven, despite all their sins. (At this point in the lesson it would be a good idea to check the students' notes to make sure that they are writing an appropriate amount and are noting what is important.)

In 1517, one person decided to do something about what he felt were the faults of the Catholic Church. This person was Martin Luther, for whom Martin Luther King, Jr. was named.

Martin Luther, was a monk (a type of priest) who did not like seeing leaders of the Catholic Church living like princes, more concerned with making money than actually helping people, and he did not believe in the practice of selling indulgences. In his opinion, people did not need the Catholic Church at all. He came to the conclusion that in order to go to heaven, all a person truly needed to do was to read the Bible and have faith in God. He wrote down his beliefs and what he felt needed to be changed within the Catholic Church and called this list of ideas the "95 Theses." He walked down to the local Catholic Church in his town in Germany and nailed the 95 Theses to the door. Ask: What do you think the leaders of the Catholic Church thought of Luther's ideas? (They did not like them.) In fact, they condemned him and tried to prevent people from talking about what Luther had written.

Luther's ideas, however, were printed on the printing press and it wasn't long before people everywhere had read them and were discussing them. Many people agreed with Luther and began to protest the practices and authority of the Catholic Church. Ask: What does it mean to "protest?" (to express objections or disapproval) These protestors started their own new churches, one of which was begun by followers of Luther and called "Lutheranism." As a group, the churches begun by these protestors were called "Protestant," which means "protesting." Remind students that the Catholic Church had been a powerful force in society, and though it continued to be, the social structure of Europe was changed now that there were two major religions.

Another leader of the Protestant Reformation and one of the men to start his own Protestant church was John Calvin. Calvinists often lived in strict communities where frivolities such as dancing and theater-going were banned. Calvinism eventually spread throughout Europe, and because Calvin did not believe in the necessity of priests and popes, this religion made kings and other leaders nervous. Ask: Why do you think it had this effect? (The kings and other leaders were afraid people might also start to question their necessity.) In fact, many years later Calvinism influenced the Puritans, who established the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

Despite the growth of the Protestant movement, there were some people--including priests and nuns--who wanted to change the Catholic Church without leaving it. They began a movement within the Church known as the "Counter-Reformation." Ask: What does it mean to "counter" something? (to work against it) Use the examples of counterattack and counterclockwise to illustrate this point. Ask: So what do you think was the purpose of the Counter-Reformation? (to work against the effects of the Reformation) Through the Counter-Reformation, the Catholic Church was attempting to renew itself, examine its beliefs and stop the rise of Protestantism.

One of the leaders of the Counter-Reformation was a man now known as St. Ignatius of Loyola. Early in his life, he was not a religious person. In fact, he was a soldier who loved adventure. In a battle he was badly injured, and over the many months it took him to heal, he read about the lives of holy people. He became inspired, and once he had recovered, became a priest. He set an example of self-discipline and life in poverty that many other young priests chose to follow. Those who followed him were, and are, known as Jesuits, and they became leaders in missionary work and education. (If time permits, ask students if they have heard of the local high school and college named for St. Ignatius of Loyola and explain that Jesuits run both of these institutions.)

Tell students that they should now have their sheet of highlights complete with notes.

Ask them to look back over the notes and to silently reflect on the two meanings, discussed earlier, of the word "reform." Ask: Using the meaning "to correct something that is wrong in an attempt to move to a better state," what would you say people tried to reform during the Reformation? (the Catholic Church) Using the meaning "to shape into something new," what would you say was reformed during the Reformation? (the social structure of religion in Europe into two branches: Catholicism and Protestantism) Can students now see why this time period is aptly called the Reformation?

Explain that they will now begin the project mentioned earlier. They will each get a sheet of blank paper and then be put into groups. In the groups, they will discuss what aspects of the information they just heard are most important. They will need to choose four or five (depending on the number of people in the group) scenes to draw on the sheets of paper. All scenes should be drawn with the paper held in a horizontal, or landscape, position, so that the paper will fit around the cardboard roll with excess roll on either side. On the bottom of each scene, the artist will write several sentences about what is happening in the scene. Each scene will be like a filmstrip panel that could be read aloud. Using their sheets of highlights should make the writing of the text for each picture easier. For example, tell students that after referring to their sheets of highlights with notes, they may decide as a group that one of the most important things that happened in the history covered today was the start of the Counter-Reformation movement. One of the group members may then choose to draw, for this event, St. Ignatius Loyola telling other young priests about his life of poverty. Under the drawing, the artist could write, "The Counter-Reformation was an attempt by the Catholic Church to stop the spread of Protestantism. One of its leaders was St. Ignatius Loyola, a priest who led a life of self-discipline and poverty." Make sure that students understand that each of them will draw one scene and write the accompanying text for it. Students should discuss in their groups which scenes will be drawn and what will be said for each. The papers should make sense if they are shown and read one after the other. Explain to students that eventually, the papers will be taped together and, in combination with other picture panels they draw in future classes, will be rolled around empty cardboard tubes to make products much like a filmstrips.

Before putting students into groups, if time permits, develop a rubric for the completed filmstrip with the students. An example is attached. If time is running short in today's lesson, you may wish to develop this rubric with the students in a future lesson, however, the earlier students are made cognizant of what is important in the completion of this assignment, the greater the advantage they will have in its construction.

Put students into groups and have them begin to discuss what four or five scenes they will draw. As they do so, pass out crayons or markers. When teams have completed the drawings and descriptions, pass out a blank sheet of paper to each team. Tell students that this will be the title frame, and should be titled, "The Reformation, England's 'Golden Age' and the English Revolution." (Write this title on the board.) This title can be written in large, fancy letters, and, once the names of the team members have been written on the page, the page may be decorated as time permits. Take this time to explain how teams will tape the panels together in an order that makes sense, with the title page first, then will tape the edge of the title panel to an empty cardboard roll as shown below.

Allow students to make the title page, and as they do so, pass out the empty cardboard rolls. Students should proceed to tape the pages together and then tape the long banner they create when combined to the roll. When finished, they should wrap all of the pages around the roll and it should be collected for use in the next lesson. In addition, have the students put their names on the sheets of highlights that contain their notes from today's lesson, and collect these for future use.

To summarize the lesson, ask the following questions: During the Reformation, what was reformed in the sense that its faults were addressed in an attempt to change them? (the Catholic Church) What was reformed in the sense that it was made into something new and different? (the religious social structure in Europe) What invention helped this to occur? (the printing press) How did this invention play a role in the Reformation? (People were able to read the Bible for themselves and make up their own minds about what its words really meant.) What complaints did people have about the Catholic Church? (Priests and popes lived like princes and sold indulgences to make money.) What person began to publicly criticize the Catholic Church and started a movement that prompted many to leave it? (Martin Luther) What were the 95 Theses? (a list of Luther's beliefs and ideas about what needed to be changed within the Catholic Church) Who were the Protestants? (people who protested against the Catholic Church and eventually left it to start and join new churches) What was the Counter-Reformation? (an attempt by the Catholic Church to stop the spread of Protestantism by examining its beliefs and renewing itself) Complement students on how well they learned today's content, and tell them that in the next lesson, they will be learning about England's "Golden Age."
 

Suggested Follow-up Activities
 

Have students journal about what they'd like to reform about school.
 

Students can pretend to be either St. Ignatius Loyola or Martin Luther. Have them, either in writing or out loud, answer the question, "Why did you choose to lead people in the way that you did?"
 

Students may also use a Venn Diagram to organize their thoughts comparing and contrasting Martin Luther to St. Ignatius Loyola, then write a paragraph or composition based on their Venn Diagram.
 

Fifth Grade - World History - Lesson 16 - The Reformation

THE REFORMATION

INVENTION OF THE PRINTING PRESS
 
 

BIBLE MADE AVAILABLE TO ALL
 
 

CRITICISM OF CATHOLIC CHURCH
 
 

LIFESTYLE OF LEADERS
 
 
 

INDULGENCES
 
 
 

MARTIN LUTHER
 
 
 

BELIEFS
 
 
 

95 THESES
 
 
 

PROTESTANTS
 
 
 

JOHN CALVIN AND CALVINISTS
 
 

COUNTER-REFORMATION
 
 

ST. IGNATIUS OF LOYOLA
 
 

Fifth Grade - World History - Lesson 16 - The Reformation
 

EXAMPLE RUBRIC FOR STUDENT FILMSTRIP PROJECT
 
AREA POINTS
Choice of subject matter for pictures
Quality of explanation for pictures
Flow of ideas from panel to panel
Creativity and completeness

Point Scale:

23-25: Excellent!

20-22: Good work

18-19: Fair job

17 or less: Is this your best effort?
 

Total points/Grade ________________________________
 

Grade Scale:

90-100: Excellent!

80-89: Good work

70-79: Fair Job

Less than 70: Is this your best effort?
 
 
 

Team Names:________________________________________________________________
 

Fifth Grade - World History - Lesson 17 - England in the "Golden Age"
 

Objectives

Make predictions and inferences about England's "Golden Age."

Take notes on the important aspects of England's "Golden Age."

Work cooperatively to summarize the major events of the "Golden Age" of England.
 

Materials

Sentence strip for an addition to the class time line

One copy for each student of the attached highlights of England's "Golden Age"

One sheet or panel of blank paper for each student

Crayons or markers for cooperative teams to share

Tape

Filmstrip projects begun by cooperative teams in Lesson 16

Portrait of Henry VIII from one of the books below (optional)
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Anderson, David. The Armada. New York: Hampstead Press, 1988. This book gives background to the battle in which the Spanish Armada was destroyed and goes into the aftermath of the battle as well. It contains lots of diagrams, illustrations and maps and is written at level appropriate for fifth graders.

Connatty, Mary. The Armada. New York: Warwick Press, 1987. This book not only details the battle between the English ships and the Spanish Armada but also describes the political setting that surrounds this battle. The pictures and illustrations are interesting and the format would be appealing to fifth graders.

Harris, Nathaniel. Spotlight on Elizabethan England. East Sussex, England: Wayland (Publishers) Ltd., 1985. This book contains detailed information on Elizabeth's reign and though the text may be found a little challenging by some fifth graders, it does contain a helpful date chart on page 74.

________. Spotlight on Renaissance Europe. East Sussex, England: Wayland (Publishers) Ltd., 1986. Pertinent to this lesson, this book contains a little information on Henry VIII on pages 22, 23 and 45 and on Elizabeth I on pages 30-31.

Hook, Jason. Sir Francis Drake. New York: The Bookwright Press, 1988. This biography of Drake is in an appealing format with colorful illustrations.

Turner, Dorothy. Queen Elizabeth I. New York: The Bookwright Press, 1987. This book is easy to read and contains lots of illustrations.

White-Thomson, Stephen. Elizabeth I and Tudor England. New York: The Bookwright Press, 1985. This book is both comprehensive and concise and contains a helpful table of dates on page 56.
 

Teacher Resource

Dickens, A.G. Reformation and Society. London: Thames and Hudson, 1966. This book contains limited information on Henry VIII and Elizabeth I.

Hirsch, E.D. What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. Much background information pertinent to today's lesson is contained in this book.
 

Teacher Background

Today's lesson will follow the same format as Lesson 16 in that you will present information orally as students take notes on a sheet of highlights, then they will create the next set of panels for the continuing "filmstrip" group activity. One more date will be added to the class time line: the sinking of the Spanish Armada in 1588.

Some students may have read about Henry VIII as a part of the Reading Mastery series. He was featured in Lesson 95 of Reading Mastery V.
 

Procedure

Begin this lesson by asking students what they learned about in the last World History lesson. (the Reformation) If there has been a long lapse of time between this lesson and the last, you may wish to briefly review the major points of that lesson. (If you choose to do so, you could either use the sheets of highlights on which students took notes, or have students read, in groups, the panels they created during the lesson when they began the filmstrip project.) Tell students that in today's lesson, they will learn a little more about the effects of the Reformation as a part of their study of England's "Golden Age." Write the phrase "Golden Age" on the board and ask students to tell you what inferences and predictions they can make about this time period based on its name. It is expected that students will foresee that because the term "golden" is used, this period is viewed as a positive time in English history. Press students to predict what might be going well for England. Ask: What makes a country prosperous? (Answers will vary; discuss them as time allows.)

Tell students that just as in the last lesson, they will receive a sheet of highlights on which they can take brief notes based on the information you are about to give them. The notes should be helpful when they create the next set of panels or sheets for the filmstrip they began in the last lesson. Encourage students to actively use the highlights to follow what you are saying as well. Pass out copies of the highlights and after reading through them as a class, present students with the information below.

Tell students that most of what they know about the Renaissance so far concerns the events and influence it had on Italy. Other countries, too, were undergoing change during the Renaissance, and England was one of them. In 1491, one year before Christopher Columbus set sail, a baby boy, who was to become a powerful ruler, was born in England. This boy was named Henry, and when he became the King of England in 1509, he was called Henry VIII. Henry had heard about the trouble Martin Luther was causing the Catholic Church, and Henry denounced him and his ideas--at first. Henry was also a powerful man who was used to getting his way. He badly wanted a son to whom he could pass on his throne, but his wife gave birth to only one child, a daughter. Henry insisted that the failure to produce a son was his wife's fault and asked the officials of the Catholic Church to grant him a divorce so that he could marry another woman who would hopefully bear him a son. The Catholic Church, which was opposed to divorce, refused to do so. Ask: What do you think Henry VIII did? (He divorced his wife anyway and the next day married another woman, Anne Boleyn.) Tell students that, angry over the refusal of the Catholic Church to cooperate with his plans, he even quit his membership in it and started his own church, which he called the Church of England. Ask: Who do you think he made head of the Church of England? (himself) The new Church of England seized the lands within England that belonged to the Catholic Church and, in Protestant tradition, soon translated the Bible into English so that its members could read it in their own language.

Henry VIII ruled England until his death in 1547. During his long reign, he did eventually get the son he wanted, and established England as a major power within Europe. Before Henry's time, England suffered from frequent civil wars, which caused hardship for the English people. Henry was such a stern leader (he even beheaded two of his wives!) that he was able to unite England as one solid country. (If you were able to get any of the books listed under Student Reference or Teacher Resource take this opportunity to show the students a portrait of Henry VIII.)

Henry would have been disappointed to find out that the son he went to such great efforts to have, Edward VI, did not live long enough to rule Britain for very long--he died at the age of fifteen. After his death, his half-sister, Mary Tudor, took over the throne. Mary Tudor was a Catholic and tried to forcibly make England Catholic again. (In fact, she tried with such violent tactics that she became known as "Bloody Mary.") After Mary Tudor's death, another one of Henry VIII's daughters came to the English throne. This queen was Elizabeth I. Elizabeth I was an intelligent, feisty redhead, and though it was expected that she would marry and hand over the throne to her husband, she refused to wed the many suitors who came calling. Elizabeth was like her father in several ways. First, like him she was a Protestant and considered herself head of the Church of England. Next, she ruled for a very long time, as he did. Third, like that of Henry VIII, her reign was very good for England. Elizabeth was a patron of the arts in true Renaissance style. One of the artists who no doubt felt supported by her encouragement of the arts was a famous playwright who lived during her time. Ask: Can you guess who this playwright is? (William Shakespeare, currently being studied by the students as a part of the Literature curriculum.) Under Elizabeth, England remained powerful and united. Check students' notes at this point to make sure that they are writing an appropriate amount about the facts which are important.

Another powerful country in Europe at this time, however, was Spain. Spain was growing wealthy from the new sources of gold and riches it had found. Ask: What do you think these new sources were? (the areas it was exploring in the New World) Elizabeth, who wanted some of these riches for England, encouraged her ships to pirate the Spanish ships and bring their loot home to England. One of the English sea captains quite good at this was a favorite of Elizabeth's, Sir Francis Drake.

When Spain, which was still a Catholic country, went to war with the Netherlands, which was now Protestant, Elizabeth decided to jump in on the side of the Dutch. King Phillip II of Spain gathered 130 of his best ships into a large naval fleet called the Spanish Armada. The Armada set sail for England, confident of victory. Sir Francis Drake was ready for the Armada with 200 ships, and though they were manned by less experienced sailors, the English ships were light in the water and were able to maneuver about quickly. The Spanish suffered heavy losses at the hands of Sir Francis Drake, and ran into more bad luck when they tried to retreat. A very bad storm had blown in and caused most of the Spanish ships that were still afloat to crash on the rocky shores of Ireland and Scotland.

With the majority of Spain's best ships now at the bottom of the sea, England felt they had the liberty to start exploring some of the areas formerly explored by Spain. The seas now became dominated by England instead of Spain, and it wasn't long before the English were establishing colonies. Ask: On what continent were the majority of these new English settlements? (North America) Tell students that if the Spanish had beat the British instead of the other way around, perhaps they'd be speaking Spanish instead of English! Ask: Why is this so? (The Spanish may have continued to colonize the New World, and, unchecked, their colonies may have extended Spanish influence far north into North America.) Because the sinking of the Spanish Armada led to these changes and developments in the exploration of the New World, it is considered to be an important event in world history and should be added to our time line. On the sentence strip, write "Sinking of the Spanish Armada, 1588," and add this event to the time line.

Tell students that their note taking is now complete. Pass out a sheet of blank paper to each student and have students reconvene into the groups they were in during Lesson 16. Review the directions with students: They are to discuss, as a team, which four or five important scenes from today's lesson they'd like to feature in their group filmstrip. Each member of the group will decide on one of the scenes to draw, and together they will discuss what should be written under each scene. Each of the group members will then draw (again, holding the paper in a horizontal/landscape position) the scene assigned to them and write, in several sentences, the explanation discussed for it. Encourage students to use the notes they took on the sheet of highlights to write the scene explanations.

Once teams have completed the scenes based on today's lesson, pass back to teams the portion of the filmstrip project begun in the last lesson. Instruct the students to tape today's scenes together horizontally, as they did yesterday's, in a logical order. Then, the first scene based on today's information should be taped to the last scene based on the information from Lesson 16. All of the scenes should then be wrapped around the cardboard roll and collected for use in future lessons. In addition, have the students put their names on the sheets of highlights that contain their notes from today's lesson, and collect these for future use.

To summarize the lesson, remind students that the title of their filmstrip includes the phrase "England's 'Golden Age.'" Ask: Why was this age "golden" for England? (It became a powerful, united country and took over domination of the seas.) Why was the Church of England started? (Henry VIII was angry because the Catholic Church refused to grant him a divorce.) Some people might say that Henry was a bad person but a good ruler. Ask: What evidence can you give to support this statement? (He beheaded two of his wives, and was very stern, but united England and ended the civil wars that had made life hard for people there.) Elizabeth I is one of the most popular and well known of the English monarchs, a lot like George Washington or Abraham Lincoln is in American History. Ask: What do you think it is about her or her reign that people remember? (Answers will vary.) Why is the defeat of the Spanish Armada such an important event in history? (It checked Spanish exploration and allowed the British to begin exploration in earnest.) Congratulate students on their understanding of this time period in history, and tell them that in the next lesson, they will learn about the English Revolution and complete their filmstrip.
 

Suggested Follow-up Activities
 

Sir Francis Drake, Elizabeth I and Henry VIII were fascinating people. Students may enjoy doing further research on them and presenting their findings to the class.
 

Have students design a monument to either Sir Francis Drake, Elizabeth I or Henry VIII. The monument should reflect the artist's interpretation of the personality of the figure, and should be accompanied by a plaque which gives basic information on the person being honored.

Fifth Grade - World History - Lesson 17 - England in the "Golden Age"
 

ENGLAND'S "GOLDEN AGE"

HENRY VIII
 

CHURCH OF ENGLAND
 

STRONG RULE
 

ELIZABETH I
 

POSITIVE REIGN OVER ENGLAND
 

ENGLAND ON THE SEAS

PIRACY
 
 

SIR FRANCIS DRAKE
 
 

DEFEAT OF THE ARMADA
 
 
 

EXPLORATION OF THE NEW WORLD
 
 

Fifth Grade - World History - Lesson 18 - The English Revolution
 

Objectives

Take notes on the important aspects of the English Revolution.

Work cooperatively to summarize the major events of the English Revolution.

Compare the English Bill of Rights to the American Bill of Rights and Constitution.

Note the influence of English history (covered in today's lesson) on American history.
 

Materials

One copy for each student of the attached highlights of the English Revolution

One sheet or panel of blank paper for each student

Crayons or markers for cooperative teams to share

Tape

Filmstrip projects begun by cooperative teams in Lesson 16

One empty cardboard roll, such as those used to hold paper towels or wrapping paper, for each cooperative team (If a wrapping paper roll is used, it should be cut in half.)
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Trease, Geoffrey. Seven Kings of England. New York: The Vanguard Press, 1955. Relevant to today's lesson, this book gives accounts of the reigns of Charles I, Charles II and William III. Though there are no illustrations, the information is written in an appealing story-like style appropriate for fifth graders.
 

Teacher Resource

Kagan, Donald, Steven Ozment and Frank M. Turner. The Western Heritage. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1983. A detailed history of the time period covered by this lesson can be found on pages 467-481 of this text. There is also a helpful time line of events that took place in England in the Seventeenth Century on page 481.
 

Teacher Background

In today's lesson, students hear about the English Revolution, then finish the filmstrip they have been working on in the last two lessons.

Students have learned about the issues central to today's lesson (the power of the ruler over the people and religious freedom) as a part of their study of American history in the Fourth Grade. In this lesson, they will see the connection between these issues and English history. Students should be able to understand the influence this aspect of British history and experience had on the construction of the American Constitution and Bill of Rights.
 

Procedure

Tell students that today, they will be hearing about what is called the "English Revolution." Ask: What do you think about when you hear the word "revolution?" (Answers will vary, but it is expected that students will draw upon their knowledge of the American Revolution to relate this word to a change in government.) Tell students that they will be taking notes again today as you explain the English Revolution to them. Pass out the sheet of highlights and read it with students so that they hear these auditory cues to the important aspects of today's lesson.

Begin by telling students that when Queen Elizabeth I died, the throne went to her cousin, James, known as King James I. Mary had been part of the Tudor family, and James and his descendants were from the Stuart family. The Stuart kings all believed firmly that their right to be king was a gift given by God and that it could not be taken away by anyone. This belief caused trouble between the Stuart kings and Parliament, which is the governing body of England, much like Congress is here in the United States. There were people in Parliament who did not believe that kings had a God-given right to rule. They thought that kings and the people they ruled should work in partnership, and that kings should follow the same rules and laws that their subjects were expected to follow. Because of this difference in opinion, every time that Parliament tried to pass a law limiting the king's power, the Stuart kings refused to follow or sign it.

James and the other Stuart kings who followed him also had disagreements with the Puritans, who were growing in number in England. The Puritans wanted to change the Church of England, to "purify" it, and also wanted to change a number of things about English society. Remind students that the Puritans were influenced by the Calvinists, and tell them that like the Calvinists, the Puritans thought that activities such as dancing and going to the theater were sinful. James and many of the other Stuart kings refused to let the Puritans change the Church of England. Some of the Stuart kings made life hard for Puritans by charging them fees to attend Puritan services and refusing to allow them to take part in politics.

In 1642, these two issues, religion and the power of the king, caused a civil war in England. On one side were the Cavaliers, who supported the rights of the king, who by this time was James's son Charles, known as King Charles I. On the other side were the Roundheads (who were called this name because of the very short hair style they wore). The Roundheads fought for more power for Parliament and for more freedom of religion for the Puritans. Eventually, the Roundheads won out over the Cavaliers, and in 1649 Charles I was beheaded.

The leader of the Roundheads, Oliver Cromwell, now became the leader of England, and had the title "Lord Protector." His rule over England is called the "Puritan Regime." Ask: What changes do you think took place in English society? (Puritans were free to worship and take part in government. Laws were enacted that did not allow dancing, theater-going or drunkenness.) Now that Cromwell was in charge, perhaps some English people also thought that Parliament would get more political power. To their surprise, though, he sent all of the members of Parliament home and soon became hated for his harsh military rule. Under him, members of the Church of England were treated in much the same way that Puritans were treated under James I and Charles I. When Cromwell died in 1658, there were quite a few people in England who were ready to go back to the old system of a king and parliament. Check students' notes at this point to make sure that they are writing an appropriate amount about the facts which are important.

In 1660, Charles I's son, also named Charles, was invited to become king by Parliament. He accepted the offer, and the system of monarchy, or kings and queens, was restored in England. Ask: How do you think that the Puritans felt about this change? (They were not pleased.) Indeed, many of them left on boats for the New World, ready to take their chances there instead of living under another king who would deny them religious freedom and rights.

Although Parliament had invited Charles to become King Charles II, they were not as ready to accept his son, James, as King James II. For one thing, James was a Catholic, and by this time, there were few Catholics left in England. Parliament did not trust someone who was not a member of the Church of England. Another reason why Parliament did not like King James

II was because he had stronger views than his father about the power a king should have. Ask: What view on this subject would make Parliament angry? (the view that kings had a God-given right to rule and no one could take it from them) This is indeed how King James II felt, and he tried to force all of the English institutions to accept unlimited power of the monarchy. This made James an unpopular king, and when his wife, the queen, gave birth to a son, the English became fearful that the son would grow up and become a Catholic king much like his father--or even worse!

In 1688, the British decided it was time for a change, and invited William of Orange, who had married James II's Protestant oldest daughter, Mary, to invade and take the throne from his father-in-law, King James II. William, who was from the Netherlands, accepted the invitation to invade, and when he did so, he found that no one in England was willing to fight for King James II. James fled to France, and William took the throne with Mary as his queen. One name the British call this change in rulers is the "Bloodless Revolution." Ask: Why would it be called that? (No one had to fight, or shed blood, in order for this change to occur.)

Once William and Mary were king and queen, they agreed to recognize a Bill of Rights that limited the powers of the monarchy and guaranteed the rights of Parliament and the rich in England. According to this Bill of Rights, kings and queens rule not because God gives them the right to do so, but because Parliament approves of them. This Bill of Rights is the reason why another name for the change in rulers and government, other than the Bloodless Revolution, is the "Glorious Revolution." (Make sure that students understand that the Bloodless Revolution and Glorious Revolution are considered to be the same thing.) Ask: Why would the British people call it this? (It gave them power that they had wanted for a long time.) Inform students that the British Bill of Rights established the idea that the framework of government could, and should, be set up by and for the people being governed. It created the notion that if the ruler broke this contract to rule with Parliament, Parliament had a right to replace him or her.

Remind students that this is not the first Bill of Rights they have heard of. Ask: What is the other they are familiar with? (the first ten amendments to the American Constitution) What similarities do they see between the British Bill of Rights and the American Bill of Rights and Constitution? (Answers will vary, but should center around the fact that both limit the power of the ruler and guarantee certain rights to those being ruled. Students may also note that idea that a ruler may be replaced by those being governed as present in both.) Praise the students for their ability to connect these two, and confirm that indeed the English Bill of Rights did influence the construction of the American Constitution. People who came to the New World from England brought with them political ideas based on the English Bill of Rights that we now see in the American Constitution and Bill of Rights. Additionally, because of their experience with religious intolerance and persecution in England, many of the English immigrants to the New World also brought with them ideas of religious tolerance and freedom that we see reflected in American history.

With their note taking on the English Revolution complete, students are ready to finish the filmstrip project. Pass out a blank sheet to each student and have students get into the cooperative teams they have been working in during World History this month. If necessary, review the directions with the students: They are to discuss, as a team, which four or five important scenes from today's lesson they'd like to feature in their group filmstrip. Each member of the group will decide on one of the scenes to draw, and together they will discuss what should be written under each scene. Each of the group members will then draw, holding the paper horizontally, the scene assigned to them and write, in several sentences, the explanation discussed for it. Encourage students to use the notes they took on the sheet of highlights to write the scene explanations, and tell them that their explanations should flow nicely into one another.

Once teams have completed the scenes based on today's lesson, pass back to teams the portion of the filmstrip project completed in the last two lessons. Instruct the students to tape today's scenes together horizontally, as they have done twice before, in a logical order. Then, the first scene based on today's information should be taped to the last scene based on the information from Lesson 17. Once this has been done, give each group the empty cardboard roll and instruct the students to tape the right edge of the last scene based on today's information to the cardboard roll, as shown below.

All of the scenes can now be wrapped around this second cardboard roll so that when the scenes are unrolled, one sees the title page first and the final scene from today's lesson last.

The filmstrip projects should then be collected for use in the next lesson. In addition, have the students put their names on the sheets of highlights that contain their notes from today's lesson, and collect these for future use.

Summarize today's lesson by asking students the following questions. How was the English revolution both "glorious" and "bloodless?" (It was glorious because Parliament finally was able to get the monarchy to agree to limited power and to give more power to the people being governed. It was bloodless because no one died in the transfer of the throne from James II to William and Mary.) The Stuart kings had much trouble with Parliament and the Puritans. What advice do you think that Henry VIII or Elizabeth I would have given these kings? (Answers will vary, but should reflect the stern and powerful nature of these two monarchs.) If you were a British citizen living during this time period, would you rather have lived under the reign of Oliver Cromwell and his Puritan Regime, or under the restored monarchy of Charles II? (Answers will vary.) Why do you think that no English army fought against William III when he invaded from the Netherlands? (James II, because he had been power hungry, had alienated the English people, and they were ready for a new king.) How do you think American history might be different if the Puritan Regime had continued, with no restoration of the monarchy? (Answers will vary--encourage the students to reflect upon the influence this change may have had on the Puritan flight to the New World and the English Bill of Rights. Would a very different group of

people then have chosen to leave England? Would the English Bill of Rights still have been written? If so, how would it be different?) How does the English history covered in this lesson influence American history? (Because of religious intolerance in England, Puritans left and came to the New World; many immigrants felt religious tolerance would be important in the colonies established in the New World; English immigrants brought political ideas based on the English Bill of Rights, such as limited power of rulers and the ability of the governed to replace unsatisfactory rulers, with them to the New World; ideas of religious tolerance and limited power of rulers can therefore be found in the American Constitution and Bill of Rights.) Compliment students on their participation in the discussion, and tell them that in the next lesson, they will get to see one another's filmstrips.

Suggested Follow-up Activity

In any extra time, students could work in small groups to make a family tree depicting the Tudor and Stuart family lines as they relate to the English throne. In Connatty's book, The Armada, (noted in Lesson 17) there is a family tree on page 4 which could be used to check their work. Students could use any of the other books listed under Student Reference in the bibliography for World History in December to complete this project. On the tree, students may want to note dates of birth and death, as well as the dates, if available, of each monarch's reign.
 

Fifth Grade - World History - Lesson 18 - The English Revolution
 

THE ENGLISH REVOLUTION

THE STUART KINGS VS. PARLIAMENT AND THE PURITANS
 
 

CIVIL WAR: THE CAVALIERS VS. THE ROUNDHEADS
 
 

CHARLES I BEHEADED
 
 

OLIVER CROMWELL AND THE PURITAN REGIME
 
 

CHARLES II: THE MONARCHY RESTORED
 
 

MANY PURITANS SET SAIL FOR THE NEW WORLD
 
 

JAMES II AND THE POWER OF THE KING
 
 

WILLIAM AND MARY: THE BLOODLESS REVOLUTION
 
 

ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS: THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION
 
 

INFLUENCE ON THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION
 

Fifth Grade - World History - Lesson 19 - Project Sharing and Persuasive Writing
 

Objectives

Read and display the filmstrip projects.

Listen and observe as classmates read and show their filmstrip projects.

Write a persuasive composition.
 

Materials

One copy for each group of the grading rubric, for teacher use

The filmstrip project completed by each group in Lesson 18

Students' sheets of highlights, with notes, from Lessons 16, 17 and 18
 

Teacher Background

In today's lesson, students share the filmstrip projects they have completed over the last three lessons. To prepare for the writing assignment, as they listen to their classmates present their projects, students will be listening for the important historical changes that took place during the Reformation, England's "Golden Age," and the English Revolution. After all of the projects have been presented, students will use what they heard and their notes from the last three lessons to decide which of these three ages contained the most important historical changes. They will then write a persuasive composition with the purpose in mind of convincing the reader that the age they selected contains the most important changes, in comparison to the two other ages. After the class is over, use the rubric developed by the class in Lesson 16 to grade each group's project.
 

Procedure

Tell students that in today's lesson, they will have the opportunity to share their projects with one another. Ask: What three time periods, or ages, will be covered in the filmstrips? (the Reformation, England's "Golden Age," and the English Revolution) Write these on the board. Instruct students that as they listen to their peers present their filmstrips, they should listen for the changes that took place as a result of each age.

Tell students that to present the project, one student needs to hold the first cardboard roll and another student the second. These two students will work together to roll the filmstrip in front of their classmates, from title sheet to the last page. As they do so, another one of the team members should position him or herself in front of the filmstrip in a position that allows him or her to read what each panel says, but does not block the other students' views of the picture on each panel. So that all group members have a chance to participate in the showing of the project, encourage students to select a spot in the filmstrip at which those not participating will step in to do so. Pass back the filmstrip projects and give students a few moments to decide upon roles within the group. Those who will be reading the panels should quickly read them now so that they are familiar with what their team members have written.

Once students have had the opportunity to prepare as described, organize the groups into two sections. The groups in each section will take turns presenting their filmstrips to each other, and will continue to rotate so that each group has an opportunity to share theirs and view at least one other group's. Before they do so, remind those in the audience of their listening task (to listen for the changes that took place as a result of each age). As groups share, you should rotate to listen to a portion of each group's presentation.

When all groups have shared, collect the filmstrips for grading purposes and then ask students to think about the changes they heard about as a result of each of these ages. Ask: What changes took place as a result of the Reformation? (Religious society in Europe was split between Catholic and Protestants; the Catholic Church lost some of its power and authority; the Catholic Church underwent a Counter-Reformation in which some of its practices were changed; the Bible was made readily available to people in their own language.) As students give these answers, write them down under "the Reformation" on the board. Ask: What changes took place during England's "Golden Age?" (England sunk the Spanish Armada and became a powerful presence on the seas, furthering the spread of English colonies in the New World, and checking the growth of Spanish ones; Henry VIII established the Church of England and made England a predominantly Protestant nation; under Henry VIII and Elizabeth I England became a united, powerful country free of civil war.) Again, write these changes, as students give them, under "England's 'Golden Age'" on the board. Finally, ask: What changes took place as a result of the English Revolution? (Many Puritans left England for the New World; the English Bill of Rights was written, which limited the power of the monarchy and established the rights of Parliament and the wealthy in England.) These changes, too, should be noted under "the English Revolution" on the board.

Tell students that while certainly all three of these ages brought about important changes in history, they need to decide for themselves which of the three ages, in their opinion, held the most important changes in comparison with the other two. As they are thinking about this, pass back to students their sheets of highlights with notes, and tell them that the notes they took may help them in coming to a conclusion. (Alternatively, you may wish to pass out these sheets prior to the filmstrip presentations so that students can refer to their notes while listening to others present. This would allow them to reinforce their notetaking and clarify any points made by the filmstrip "producers.")

Next, tell students that in the remaining time in today's lesson, they will be writing a composition to convince the reader that their opinion about the selected age is correct. In other words, they will be writing a composition to support their stand that the age they selected contained more important changes than the other two ages. The title of the composition should be whatever age they have selected as having the most important changes, either "The Reformation," or "England's 'Golden Age,'" or "The English Revolution." Within the composition, students should describe what changes took place within the selected age, tell why these changes are important and argue why these changes are more important than the changes that took place as the result of the other two ages. (If time is limited, you may choose to eliminate the third goal of the composition.) Remind students that their composition should include topic and concluding sentences and should be proofread for spelling, punctuation and capitalization. Students should use their noted sheets of highlights to add details to the body of their compositions.

Allow students time to write the composition, then collect for grading purposes. If time allows, have students engage in a discussion to answer the question, "Which of these three ages contained the most important changes?" If possible, students should discuss the answer to this question with little involvement from you--encourage them to respond directly to one another's points and have students call on each other to continue the flow of ideas. You may want to occasionally step in to redirect the discussion or to play devil's advocate.
 

Suggested Follow-up Activities

Because students have sheets of highlights with notes, you could ask them to study the information contained on them, then quiz the students at a later date.
 

Before giving each team their grade on the filmstrip project, give them a blank copy of the rubric and ask teams to honestly assess and evaluate their performance on this project. Be sure they keep in mind the performances of their classmates as a benchmark to use while thinking about and discussing this issue.
 

Another way to prompt reflective thinking among the students is to ask them to evaluate the group work itself, not the resultant project. Using a form like the one attached, students can discuss within their group how they used good teamwork skills, and note areas for future improvement.
 

Fifth Grade - World History - Lesson 19 - Project Sharing and Persuasive Writing
 

TEAMWORK EVALUATION FORM
AREA RATING
The members of our team took turns listening to each other.
The members of our team asked for everyone's opinion.
The members of our team took their roles seriously and accomplished the tasks assigned to them.
The members of our team respected one another.
The members of our team each made an important contribution to the successful accomplishment of our project.

 
 

Rating Scale:

3 = Excellent

2 = Satisfactory

1 = Needs Improvement
 
 
 

One reason we enjoyed working as a team on this project is ____________________________
 

____________________________________________________________________________
 

One way we could have improved teamwork on this project is __________________________
 

____________________________________________________________________________
 

Team member names:__________________________________________________________
 

____________________________________________________________________________
 
 

Bibliography


 
 

Student Reference

Anderson, David. The Armada. New York: Hampstead Press, 1988. (0-531-19505-8)

Connatty, Mary. The Armada. New York: Warwick Press, 1987. (0-531-19030-7)

Harris, Nathaniel. Spotlight on Elizabethan England. East Sussex, England: Wayland (Publishers) Ltd., 1985. (0-85078-566-9)

________. Spotlight on Renaissance Europe. East Sussex, England: Wayland (Publishers) Ltd., 1986.(0-85078-653-3)

Hook, Jason. Sir Francis Drake. New York: The Bookwright Press, 1988. (0-531-18202-9)

McNeer, May and Lynd Ward. Martin Luther. New York: Abingdon Press, 1953.

Pierre, Michael. The Renaissance. Morristown, New Jersey: Silver Burdett Press, 1987. (0-382-09295-3)

Trease, Geoffrey. Seven Kings of England. New York: The Vanguard Press, 1955.

Turner, Dorothy. Queen Elizabeth I. New York: The Bookwright Press, 1987. (0-531-18132-4)

White-Thomson, Stephen. Elizabeth I and Tudor England. New York: The Bookwright Press, 1985. (0-531-18008-5)

Wood, Tim. The Renaissance. New York: Penguin Books U.S.A., Inc., 1993. (0-670-85149-3)
 

Teacher Resource

Dickens, A.G. Reformation and Society. London: Thames and Hudson, 1966.

Hirsch, E.D. What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. (0-385-41119-7)

Kagan, Donald, Steven Ozment and Frank M. Turner. The Western Heritage. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1983. (0-02-362520-1)

Severy, Merle. "The World of Luther." National Geographic, October 1983, 418.