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Fifth Grade - Literature - Overview - December
 

There are five lessons in this month's unit. Two lessons are devoted to Shakespeare. Three deal with sayings and phrases. Start the unit with the lessons on Shakespeare as they are a continuation of last month's unit. First, teach the lesson on "Shakespeare and Globe Theater." This will provide the background to the lesson on Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, which should be taught next. In that lesson, terms used in the theater are discussed and students read an extract from the play. The other three lessons may be taught in any order you choose. The lessons on the sayings, Count your blessings and A penny saved is a penny earned offer students opportunities for journal writing.

Fifth Grade - Literature - Shakespeare and Globe Theater
 

Objectives

Know that Shakespeare is considered by many as the greatest writer of all times.

Know that Shakespeare was a poet and dramatist who is nicknamed the Bard.

View a portrait of Shakespeare.

Know some important events in Shakespeare's life.

Know that Shakespeare owned the Globe Theater.

Know the circumstances in which Shakespeare's plays were performed.

Design a playbill for A Midsummer Night's Dream (optional).
 

Materials

Portrait of Shakespeare for transparency (attached)
 

Suggested Books

Student References

Chute, Marchette. Stories From Shakespeare. Cleveland: The World Publishing Company, 1956.

Coville, Bruce. William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. New York: Dial, 1996.

Garfield, Leon, abridged by. Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992.

Lamb, Charles and Mary. Tales from Shakespeare. London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1961.

Pollinger, Gina, selected by. Something Rich and Strange: A Treasury of Shakespeare Verse. New York: Kingfisher, 1995.

Teacher Reference

Bloom, Harold, ed. William Shakespeare: The Tragedies. New York: Chelsea House, 1985.

________. William Shakespeare: Comedies & Romances. New York: Chelsea House, 1986.

Core Knowledge Foundation. Share The Knowledge: Lessons from the Sixth National Conference, 1997 Special Unit and Lesson Plans. Charlottesville: Core Knowledge Foundation, 1997.

Epstein, Norrie. The Friendly Shakespeare: A Thoroughly Painless Guide To The Bard. Penguin: New York, 1993.

Handbook: Folger Festivals. Capitol Hill, Folger Library Shakespeare Education and Festivals Project, 1995.

Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

________. What Your 2nd Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1991.

________. A First Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1991.

________. The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1993.

Kuiper, Kathleen, ed. Merriam Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature. Springfield: Merriam- Webster, 1995.

Shakespeare, William. A Midsummer Night's Dream. Hauppauge: Barron's, 1984.
 

Teacher Background

In First Grade Literature, drama (putting on a play, actors and actresses, costumes, scenery and props, and audiences) was introduced. In Second Grade Literature, the following topic was presented: drama (comedy and tragedy, play, playwright, theater, stage, act, scene). The above-mentioned topics were later reviewed in Second Grade. Earlier, in Fifth Grade Literature, comedy and tragedy were presented as types of literature. A story version of "A Midsummer Night's Dream" was also read.

William Shakespeare (1564-1616) is regarded as the finest poet and playwright in the English language and one of the finest writers in the world. This lesson is about Shakespeare.
 

Procedure

Start by reminding students that earlier in Fifth Grade, they listened to a story entitled "A Midsummer Night's Dream." Tell students that the original version of the story they heard was not in the form of a story. It was a stage play entitled A Midsummer Night's Dream. Both story and play have the same characters and plot. Tell students that A Midsummer Night's Dream was written by Shakespeare, the man considered by many as the greatest writer who ever lived. Tell students this lesson is about Shakespeare.

Present the portrait of Shakespeare and ask whether anyone recognizes it (Answers may vary). Ask students to observe the portrait closely and ask: What was Shakespeare's first name? (William) Write his full name on the board. Ask students to observe Shakespeare's hair and clothing closely and to guess the period in which he lived (late 1500s to early 1600s). Tell students that William Shakespeare was born in 1564 at Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England. Write those place names on the board.

Tell students that Shakespeare got married at eighteen, had three children at Stratford-upon-Avon. Along with his family, he left to seek fame and fortune in London, the capital of England. Tell students that by age twenty, Shakespeare was already famous as a playwright in London and that Elizabeth, the queen of England supported the arts and enjoyed his plays. Tell students that in the years 1595-1596, Shakespeare wrote The Midsummer Night's Dream and performed it for Queen Elizabeth and her court. Ask: Do you think Queen Elizabeth found A Midsummer Night's Dream entertaining? (Answers may vary.) Inform students that Elizabeth enjoyed Shakespeare's plays.

Tell students that Shakespeare wrote 37 plays in his lifetime. Some of his plays were tragedies and others were comedies. Remind students that earlier in Fifth Grade, they studied comedy and tragedy which are two types of literature. Ask: What is a comedy? (story, etc. that treats its subject in humorous manner or has a happy ending) Ask: What is tragedy? (serious story, etc. that portrays problems of its characters and has an unhappy ending) Explain that Shakespeare wrote about the rulers of ancient Greece and Rome as well as about English kings, queens, and princes of the time. He also wrote about youth and love.

Tell students that Shakespeare was also a poet who wrote sonnets and that a sonnet is a poem that is fourteen lines long and expresses strong emotions. Love was a frequent theme of Shakespeare's sonnets. At first, Shakespeare was part of a company called the Lord Chamber-lain's Men. In 1599, together with some of his colleagues, Shakespeare built a theater near the river Thames (TEMS) in London. That theater held three thousand people. Tell students that Shakespeare's theater was called the Globe Theater. Ask: Why might it have been called the Globe Theater? (It appeared to be circular.) Explain that earlier theaters were rectangular in shape. They consisted of an inn and its yard, but the Globe Theater had so many sides that it resembled a circle. Tell students that the people who went to Shakespeare's plays varied but that they were middle class citizens such as merchants and craftsmen.

Tell students that King James I became king of England in 1603 after the death of Queen Elizabeth and that James was an even bigger supporter of the arts. That same year, Shakespeare named his company the King's Men. Explain that Shakespeare wrote in order to make money and he did in fact earn himself a small fortune from his work which allowed him to retire from the London stage in 1610-1611.

Tell students that upon retirement Shakespeare went back to his native Stratford-upon-Avon. Inform students that Shakespeare's house in Stratford called "New Place" still exists, and that they can visit that house if they ever visit England. Tell students that in 1613 the Globe Theater was destroyed by fire. It seems the fire was caused by a cannon that was shot during the staging of a play written by Shakespeare called Henry VIII. Shakespeare died in 1623 at fifty-two. Suggest that students refer to the classroom time line and ask: What era in European history did Shakespeare live in if he was born in 1564 and died in 1623? (Renaissance) Tell students that Shakespeare lived around the same time as Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616), the Spanish author of 'The Adventures of Don Quixote,' the story read earlier in Fifth Grade.

Tell students that although Shakespeare is famous today and his plays are performed all over the world, Shakespeare carried on his trade as a playwright in a very different atmosphere than that which prevails in America today. Explain that there were no televisions, no radios, or electric lights and the newspaper was just developing. Tell students that the Lyric Theater and the Mechanic Theatre are Baltimore theaters which are located in the city, on major roads and which can also be easily reached by rail. Explain that this easy access was not so in Shakespeare's time. Explain to students that the theaters were outside London and those who attended plays often took a boat across the River Thames (TEMS).

Explain that Government authorities in London were afraid that so many people sitting close together would spread the plague. Explain that the plague was a deadly fever which at least once in Shakespeare's lifetime, in 1594, caused the theater to be closed altogether. Explain that the plague was brought to Europe from boats returning from the East during the Crusades, religious wars that Christians fought against Muslims in the Middle Ages. Explain that the plague was caused by a germ that was carried by rats. Ask: Given that the plague was caused by a germ spread by rats, how might one prevent the plague from spreading? (using cats to control the rat population) Emphasize that Europeans did not know that the plague was transmitted by rats and so the theaters were closed.

Tell students that for religious reasons playgoing was also forbidden by law on one day of the week and ask students to guess which day it was (Sunday). Explain that law also forbade females from acting in the theater so it was always an all-male cast of actors. Ask: Who would play female characters? (boys) Ask: Why would boys be chosen to play the roles of women on stage? (no beards, higher voices) Emphasize that this means that the roles of Hermia and Helena in A Midsummer night's Dream were played by males.

Ask: Today, do most theaters do business in the day or at night? (night) Explain that in Shakespeare's time plays took place during the day if the weather permitted it. Tell students that plays were advertised on playbills, notices printed to advertise a play. On the day of the performance, a colored flag was raised over the theater to tell those who wanted to attend whether the event would take place as advertised. Remind students that tragedy and comedy are two major types of literature. Ask students to guess at the color of the flag that announced a tragedy at the Globe Theater (black). Ask students to guess at the color of the flag that announced a comedy at the Globe Theater (white).

Next, ask students: What is the name of the office at which today's playgoers buy their tickets? (box office) Tell students that the box office probably got its name from the practice of collecting gate fees in a particular way during Shakespeare's time. Ask students to guess at the practice of collecting fees which led to the name 'box office.' Explain that playgoers dropped a penny into a box at the door to the theater and that practice probably led to the use of the term 'box office' which now refers to the office where tickets are sold and information about an event is given. Tell students that theaters in Shakespeare's time made no use of a curtain.

Explain that vendors sold beers outside the theater but that there were no restrooms at the theater in Shakespeare's time. Ask: Based upon the story version you have listened to, do you think that Londoners in the 1590s found Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream funny? (Answers may vary.) Remind students that as often happens in a comedy, in the end of A Midsummer Night's Dream, all is well in that the couples Demetrius and Helena and Hermia and Lysander are reunited. Ask: Do you think that Shakespeare's audience in the 1590s might have enjoyed that ending? (Answers may vary.) Remind students that fairies are portrayed in A Midsummer Night's Dream and explain that fairies were not simply imagined by Shakespeare, Londoners of that time believed fairies truly existed.

Finally, tell students that there are many Shakespeare plays on video, including film versions of A Midsummer Night's Dream and invite them to seek their parents's permission and help in borrowing them from their public libraries or renting them from their neighborhood video rental outlets. Tell students that William Shakespeare is nicknamed 'The Bard of Avon' or simply 'The Bard,' (write these on the board) bard being a term meaning a composer or writer of poems.

Activity

You may carry out this activity orally in class.

Tell students that even before anyone has read Shakespeare, chances are they have heard Shakespeare. Tell students that the following sayings and phrases are by Shakespeare. Ask students whether they have heard these sayings and phrases before and what they mean. Provide the answer if students do not know them. E.g. Ask: Have you heard the saying, It's Greek to me? (Answers may vary.) Ask: What does it mean? Say: It means that something is incomprehens-ible.

1. It's Greek to me (something is incomprehensible)

2. Budge an inch (change one's position slightly)

3. Vanished into thin air (disappear without a trace)

4. High time (about time)

5. Your own flesh and blood (family, children)

6. Without rhyme or reason (for no clear reason)

7. Dead as a doornail (dead)
 

Additional activity

You may ask your students to carry out this activity. They may organize themselves into groups to do so.

1. Design a playbill advertising Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. A playbill advertises a play. Information included on a playbill includes the organizers, the times and place of the performance, the names of actors performing the lead roles and the fee for attending the play. The play is being presented by your class. For an example of a playbill, see your neighborhood movie or theater box office.
 

Fifth Grade - Literature - Drama - A Midsummer Night's Dream

Objectives

Read aloud an extract of A Midsummer Night's Dream.

Identify character traits.

Recall the terminology of drama: play, playwright, theater, act, scene, scripts.
 

Materials

Text of the extract to be performed from Act Three, scene two, of A Midsummer Night's Dream, for transparency and one copy per student (attached)
 

Suggested Books

Student References

Chute, Marchette. Stories From Shakespeare. Cleveland: The World Publishing Company, 1956.

Coville, Bruce. William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. New York: Dial, 1996.

Garfield, Leon, abridged by. Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992.

Lamb, Charles and Mary. Tales from Shakespeare. London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1961.

Pollinger, Gina, selected by. Something Rich and Strange: A Treasury of Shakespeare Verse. New York: Kingfisher, 1995.

Teacher Reference

Bloom, Harold, ed. William Shakespeare: The Tragedies. New York: Chelsea House, 1985.

________. William Shakespeare: Comedies & Romances. New York: Chelsea House, 1986.

Core Knowledge Foundation. Share The Knowledge: Lessons from the Sixth National Conference, 1997 Special Unit and Lesson Plans. Charlottesville: Core Knowledge Foundation, 1997.

Epstein, Norrie. The Friendly Shakespeare: A Thoroughly Painless Guide To The Bard. Penguin: New York, 1993.

Handbook: Folger Festivals. Capitol Hill, Folger Library Shakespeare Education and Festivals Project, 1995.

Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

________. What Your 2nd Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1991.

________. A First Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1991.

________. The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1993.

Kuiper, Kathleen, ed. Merriam Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature. Springfield: Merriam- Webster, 1995.

Mowat, Barbara A. and Paul Werstine, eds. The New Folger Library Shakespeare: A Midsummer

Night's Dream. New York: Washington Square Press, 1993. Contains helpful notes on Shakespeare's life, language, and theater as well as commentary on the text of the play.

Shakespeare, William. A Midsummer Night's Dream. Hauppauge: Barron's, 1984.
 

Website

http://the-tech.mit.edu.Shaksepear...eamamidsummernightsdream

Contains paintings of Shakespeare and texts of his works, including A Midsummer Night's Dream.
 

Teacher Background

In First Grade Literature, drama (putting on a play, actors and actresses, costumes, scenery, props, and audiences) was introduced. In Second Grade Literature, the following topic was presented: drama (comedy and tragedy, play, playwright, theater, stage, act, scene). The above-mentioned topics were later reviewed in Second Grade. In a prior lesson in Fifth Grade Literature, comedy and tragedy were presented as types of literature. A story version of "A Midsummer Night's Dream" was read and Shakespeare and the Globe Theater were discussed.

William Shakespeare (1564-1616) is regarded as the finest poet and playwright in the English Language and one of the finest writers in the world. This lesson lets students experience Shakespeare. This experience with Shakespeare's words is necessary if they are to fully appreciate the author as a playwright.

Procedure

First, remind students that in a prior lesson in Fifth Grade, they listened to a story version of "A Midsummer Night's Dream." Ask: Who wrote the original A Midsummer Night's Dream? (Shakespeare) Ask: In what form was Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream? Was it a poem, a novel, or a play? (play) Tell students that Shakespeare was an English poet and playwright who lived in the Renaissance. Tell students he was born in the late 1500s and died in the early 1600s.

Tell students that A Midsummer Night's Dream is divided into five acts and that an act is similar to a section of a book. Tell students that each act is subdivided into scenes and that scenes are like chapters in a book. The end of a scene or act on stage is often marked by a short pause in the performance. During that pause, no actor is on stage. The actors' re-entry onto the stage means the start of a new scene or act. Explain to students that characters in a scene may have lines (speaking parts) or be silent.

Distribute copies of the extract from A Midsummer Night's Dream (attached) to each student. Tell students that the script contains four speaking parts, Lysander, Demetrius, Hermia, and Helena and no silent parts. Next, present the synopsis of the plot of A Midsummer Night's Dream as follows.
 

Helena loves Demetrius. Lysander and Demetrius both love Hermia. Hermia loves Lysander. Yet Egeus, Hermia's father prefers Demetrius for a son-in-law. Under Athenian law, if Hermia does not marry Demetrius, she must become a nun or be put to death.

Hermia and Lysander decide to run away from Athens, but Helena, Hermia's friend, tells Demetrius of their plans. Demetrius enters the forest, intending to stop Lysander and Hermia from leaving Athens. Helena follows Demetrius into the same forest.

The four lovers, Lysander, Demetrius, Hermia, and Helena soon get lost and fall asleep in the forest. Puck, a mischievous fairy, pours the juice of a magic flower into the eyes of Lysander and Demetrius. Because of the magic flower, both Lysander and Demetrius awake and fall in love with Helena.

Hermia gets upset and quarrels with Helena. Eventually, Puck corrects his mistakes. Theseus, the king is out hunting in the forest and meets the young lovers. Theseus allows them to marry whoever they would like to. Lysander marries Hermia and Demetrius chooses Helena.

Tell students that act three, scene two takes place in the forest soon after the four lovers have fallen asleep and Puck has poured the magic juice into the eyes of Lysander and Demetrius, causing the two men to fall in love with Helena. Explain that at this point, no one is in love with Hermia. Ask: Previously, who were both men in love with? (Hermia) Tell students that Helena does not believe that Lysander is interested in her. Instead, she accuses Hermia of getting Lysander to make a fool of her.

Ask the students to read the extract silently to themselves. Then, call on four students to read the roles of the four characters, Demetrius, Lysander, Hermia, and Helena. Have boys read the parts of Lysander and Demetrius and girls read the parts of Hermia and Helena. Instruct the students to start reading. At the start of the second page, select a second set of four readers. Make sure to praise outgoing readers. Do not rate or compare readers. Do not attempt to give a word-for-word translation of the text. Keep calling on students until everyone has read aloud to the class.
 

Discussion

When every student has had a chance to read aloud from the extract, ask: What is the extract about? (love) Tell students that all four characters in this scene are in a situation of conflict. They all face obstacles in getting what they want. Ask: In this scene, who is Lysander in love with? (Helena) Ask: Who is Demetrius in love with? (Helena) Ask: In this scene, who is Helena in love with? (Demetrius) Ask: In this scene, who is Hermia in love with? (Lysander)

Tell students that together as a class, they will discuss the character traits of the characters in the scene. Remind students that in a prior lesson, they learned that characters had physical and moral traits. Explain that physical traits or qualities had to do with size, gender, age, etc. Tell them that moral traits were qualities or defects of character. For example, a heroic character is often courageous. Explain that in this class, they will describe only the moral character traits of Lysander, Demetrius, Hermia, and Helena.

Explain that you will call on individual students to read a particular line from the play. Then, you will ask that same student or another to describe the character the way he or she comes across from what the character has said or what was said about him or her. Offer the following example to the class. Call on a student to read line one aloud to the class.

Once the student has read the line, identify the speaker (Lysander), and say to the students: In my opinion, this line reveals that Lysander thinks he is in love. Or, you may say: I think this line tells us that Lysander is in love. Tell the students that they should begin their description by stating it is their personal view or opinion. Write the description of the character on the board or on chart paper and ask the rest of the class for their opinions of the description. You may also ask students to justify or explain their answers. Once the students have understood the exercise, proceed as follows. Call on a student to read a particular line or lines. After each reading, ask: From these words, what can you say about Lysander?

1. Lysander to Demetrius. Line 3. Withdraw and prove it, too. (aggressive, jealous)

2. Lysander to Hermia. Line 6. Away, you Ethiope! (rude, insensitive, unkind)

3. Lysander to Hermia. Line 8. Hang off, thou cat, thou burr! (rude, insensitive, unkind)

4. Lysander to Hermia. Line 9. I'll shake thee from me like a serpent. (rude, insensitive, unkind)

5. Lysander to Hermia. Line 28. I do hate thee. (vile, crude)

Call on a student to read and ask: From these words, what can you say about Demetrius?

6. Demetrius to Helena. Line 2. I love thee more than he can do. (competitive)

7. Demetrius to Lysander. Line 4. Quick, come! (vile, quick-tempered)

8. Demetrius to Lysander. Line 7. You are a tame man, go! (confident, proud)

Call on a student to read and ask: From these words, what can you say about Hermia?

9. Hermia to Lysander. Line 10. Why are you grown so rude? What change is this? (hurt)

10. Hermia to Lysander. Line 11. Sweet love,-- (affectionate, kind)

11. Hermia to Lysander. Line 14. Do you not jest? (confused, surprised)

12. Hermia to Lysander. Lines 24-25. Since night you loved me; yet since night you left me. (hurt, shocked)

13. Hermia to Lysander. Line 26. Why then you left me? (hurt, shocked, confused)

14. Hermia to Helena. Lines 29-30. You juggler! you cankerblossom! You thief of love! (angry)

Call on a student to read and ask: From these words, what can you say about Helena?

15. Helena to Hermia. Line 15. Yes, sooth and so do you (jest). (confused)

Tell students that A Midsummer Night's Dream is a play about love. Ask: How would you describe love from Shakespeare's portrayal of it in this extract? (Answers may vary.) Tell students that some people think that love is blind. Ask: Does the extract that they read suggest love is blind? (Answers may vary.) Remind students that the conflict between characters in this extract is caused by a magic juice that Puck has poured into Lysander and Demetrius' eyes. That magic juice caused Lysander and Demetrius to hate Hermia whom they were in love with the night before and fall in love with Helena whom they both hated the night before. Ask: What does Shakespeare's use of that magic juice say about love? (Answers may vary.) Ask: What other impressions of love did you get from the extract? (Answers may vary.)

Finally, remind students that Shakespeare wrote A Midsummer Night's Dream nearly four hundred years ago. Ask students to recall stories or movies by living authors or filmmakers that they have read or watched. Ask: Do you get the impression that the idea that Shakespeare had of love is different from the way that living authors and filmmakers see love. (Answers may vary.) Ask: Do you think that A Midsummer Night's Dream is relevant to you? (Answers may vary.) How? (Answers may vary.)
 

Fifth Grade - Literature - Drama - A Midsummer Night's Dream
 

A Midsummer Night's Dream
 

Dramatis Personae

Lysander in love with Hermia/Helena

Demetrius in love with Hermia/Helena

Hermia daughter of Egeus, in love with Lysander

Helena in love with Demetrius
 

Act III, Scene II, Another part of the forest.

LYSANDER

Helen, I love thee; by my life, I do.

DEMETRIUS

I say I love thee more than he can do.
 

LYSANDER

If thou say so, withdraw, and prove it too.
 

DEMETRIUS

Quick, come!
 

HERMIA

Lysander, whereto tends all this? 5
 

LYSANDER

Away, you Ethiope!
 

DEMETRIUS

You are a tame man, go!
 

LYSANDER

Hang off, thou cat, thou burr! vile thing, let loose,

Or I will shake thee from me like a serpent!
 

HERMIA

Why are you grown so rude? what change is this? 10

Sweet love,--
 

LYSANDER

Thy love! out, tawny Tartar, out!

Out, loathed medicine! hated potion, hence!
 

HERMIA

Do you not jest?
 

HELENA

Yes, sooth; and so do you. 15
 

LYSANDER

Demetrius, I will keep my word with thee.
 

DEMETRIUS

I'll not trust your word.
 

LYSANDER

What, should I hurt her, strike her, kill her dead?

Although I hate her, I'll not harm her so.
 

HERMIA

What, can you do me greater harm than hate? 20

Hate me! wherefore? O me! what news, my love!

Am not I Hermia? are not you Lysander?

I am as fair now as I was erewile.

Since night you loved me; yet since night you left

me: 25

Why then you left me--O the gods forbid!--

In earnest, shall I say?
 

LYSANDER

That I do hate thee and love Helena.
 

HERMIA

O me! you juggler! you cankerblossom!

You thief of love! what, have you come by night 30

And stolen my love's heart from him?
 

Fifth Grade - Literature - Sayings and Phrases - A penny saved is a penny earned
 

Objectives

Understand the literal meaning of the saying.

Relate the saying to non-financial contexts.

Create a scenario that shows advantages and disadvantages of saving.
 

Materials

Text of the saying, A penny saved is a penny earned on sentence strip, chart paper, or the board
 

Suggested Books

Teacher Reference

Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

________. A First Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1989.

Morris, William and Mary. Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins. New York, Harper and Row, 1988.
 

Teacher Background

A penny saved is a penny earned means that money not spent is money in one's pockets. The saying may apply to saving anything valuable. As such it touches on issues of conservation of natural resources, and on the concepts of planning, vision, risk management, and the future. This saying could relate to such topics as land use in Environmental Science, and financial institutions in Social Studies. There are other sayings such as 'A stitch in time saves nine,' 'An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure,' and 'Strike the hammer while the iron is hot,' that tackle similar themes. Help your students make those connections.
 

Procedure

Ask your students to visualize the following scenario. It is Christmas time. They have been keeping a piggy bank for the entire year. Now, they decide to use up all of their savings on the latest video game but their mother advises against it. "What if you need a new ball next week?" asks Mother. In response, they say, "Mother, what have I been saving this money for if I cannot use it all when I want to?" At this point, Mother says, "A penny saved is a penny earned, my dear." Ask your class to explain what the Mother in this scenario meant when she used the saying, A penny saved is a penny earned.

Explain that the saying, A penny saved is a penny earned means that money not spent is money in one's pockets. In other words, saving a penny is the same as earning a penny. Ask: Do you agree with the saying that A penny saved is a penny earned? (Answers may vary.) Ask: What is money for? (Answers may vary.)

Explain that money can be spent on goods (candy, sneakers) and services (doctor, dentist) people want or need immediately. Money can be saved for future use. Money can also be invested. Money used to buy candy which is then resold is money invested. Money that is saved is put away for a 'rainy day' or a difficult time when a different, possibly a critical need (the need for medicines in case of illness, for example) may come up. And money invested may yield more money. Ask students to work in pairs to create scenarios that show the advantages and the dis-advantages of saving. Explain a scenario as a scene that is told as if it were a true event or a scene in a movie, play or novel. Tell the students that characters are used and a problem presented in a scenario. (See above for example of a scenario.) Allow students to share their scenarios with the class.

Ask the students: What does the word 'penny' in this saying, A penny saved is a penny earned mean? (money, cash) Ask: What are some of the forms money takes? (coins, paper, gold, money, or any article of value used as a means of exchange, form of payment or measure of wealth) Ask: Can anything other than a penny be saved? (yes) Explain that anything of value or anything we like can be saved.

Ask students to think of other things besides money which are worth saving. Tell students that the saying, A penny saved is a penny earned, while advising us to save money, could also advise us on how to use our mineral resources, wildlife, water. Ask: How should present generations use the earth's natural resources? (so that future generations may enjoy them, too) Explain that the saying, A penny saved is a penny earned has something in common with the sayings 'A stitch in time saves nine,' 'An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure,' and 'Strike the hammer while the iron is hot.' (Write these sayings on the board.) The literal meaning of 'A stitch in time saves nine' is that fixing a broken seam in one's clothing might require one stitch if done early instead of nine stitches in the future. The meaning of 'An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure' is that it is better to avoid a problem than to solve it. 'Strike the hammer while the hammer is hot' advises us not to waste opportunities. All three sayings emphasize making the proper use of things we have, whether it is thread (stitches), health (prevention), or opportunities (while the hammer is hot), in order to avoid problems in the future. Ask students: Can you think of other sayings that advise people to make the best use of what they have? (Answers may include, 'Make hay while the sun shines' and 'A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.')

Finally, tell students that the saying, A penny earned is a penny saved is more than just advice on saving. Explain that in order to save, one must believe in the future. To prepare for the future, one must plan. Saving is a simple form of planning for the future. Ask: Why is it necessary to plan for the future? (The future is uncertain or unpredictable.) Explain however, that saving may have one particular disadvantage. It is called inflation. Inflation means that the costs of things will rise with time so that money earned earlier will buy less in the future. Investing money is one way to earn more money. However, investing involves the risk that business will not do well and investments will be lost.
 

Activities

Ask your students to do the following activities.

1. Think of five things you could save and the advantages society might get from saving them.

2. Imagine yourself a journalist and write an advice column titled Five ways for students to save money.
 

Additional activities

You may ask your students to do the following exercise.

1. Write a short story. In your story, the main character is Joe. Joe misses out on a good deal because he does not have a penny. Joe is penniless because yesterday he spent all his money on an article he no longer needs and which no one wants to buy from him.

2. Do you remember any character in a story, novel, play or movie where the use of money was an issue? Write a paragraph in which you identify the character, the title of the work they are in, the particular money-related problem the character faced, and the consequences to the character.
 

Journal

Ask your students to respond to this journal prompt.

1. When you talk about the future, what do you mean? Is it tomorrow, ten years from now, or is it twenty? How do you feel about the future? Does the thought of the future scare you or excite you? What will you be in the future? Do you think the future will take care of itself? Do you think that today is all that matters? Do young people have more difficulty saving money than adults do? Why?
 

Fifth Grade - Literature - Sayings and Phrases - Birthday suit
 

Objectives

Understand the phrase in context.

Create an original phrase.
 

Materials

Text of the phrase, birthday suit on sentence strip, chart paper or on the board
 

Suggested Books

Teacher Reference

Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

________. A First Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1989.

Morris, William and Mary. Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins. New York, Harper and Row, 1988.
 

Teacher Background

Birthday suit means naked. It refers to the state in which we all are born. There are many phrases which use figurative language to refer to parts of the body or states of existence. They include 'land of Nod,''wolf in sheep's clothing,''goose flesh,' also referred to as 'goose bumps' and 'goose pimples,' and 'bend over backwards.'
 

Procedure

Ask students: Have you ever heard the phrase, birthday suit used before? (Answers may vary.) Ask: Who used it? (Answers may vary.) Ask: What does it mean? Explain that birthday suit means naked. Ask students to try to explain why birthday suit means naked (no one is born with clothes on, people are born naked). Explain to students that the word 'suit' in this phrase is used in a figurative sense. Remind students that figurative language is language that is colorful and imaginative. Figurative language does not have exact meaning. It is the opposite of literal language. The word 'suit' in the phrase birthday suit is an example of figurative because it refers to one's skin as clothing. Ask: Is human skin similar to or quite different from clothing? (Answers may vary.)

Explain that there are other phrases which use figurative language to refer to parts of the human body or to states in which we find ourselves. Some examples are 'land of Nod' which means sleep, 'wolf in sheep's clothing' which means that someone appears to be friendly but is the opposite. 'Goose flesh' also referred to as 'goose bumps' or 'goose pimples' refers to the bristling of hair on the skin as happens when one is afraid or cold. To 'bend over backwards' means to go out of one's way in order to be kind. Explain that in each of these phrases, a state (sleep) or a part of the human body (skin) is compared to something else. However, these comparisons do not include the words 'like' or 'as.' Ask: Do you know any other phrases that use figurative language to refer to a part of the body or a state of being? (Answers may include the following; itchy palms, meaning to be eager to do something; bite one's tongue, meaning to refrain from saying something; lose face, meaning to suffer humiliation; sink one's teeth into something, meaning to start something; rub shoulders with someone, meaning to associate or mingle with someone; cold feet, meaning to change one's mind about something.)
 

Activities

Ask your students to form small groups and create an original phrase which uses figurative language to express a state of being (e.g. happiness, anger) or a part of the body (e.g. hand, stomach).
 

Fifth Grade - Literature - Sayings and Phrases - Count your blessings
 

Objectives

Complete a sentence that includes the saying.

Understand the saying.

Count one's own blessings.
 

Materials

Text of the saying, Count your blessings on sentence strip, chart paper or on the board

Text of the scene 'Paul and Mary' below for transparency (attached)
 

Suggested Books

Teacher Reference

Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

________. A First Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1989.

Morris, William and Mary. Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins. New York, Harper and Row, 1988.
 

Teacher Background

Count your blessings means you should be thankful for what you have.
 

Procedure

Present the text of the scene 'Paul and Mary' on the board.
 
 

Paul and Mary


 
 

Paul sat on the grass, his chin in his hands. He had a faraway look in his eyes and looked right past his beautiful date. His eyes were on the birds way up in the sky.

'What's wrong, Paul?' asked Mary. 'Cheer up!' she said.

'I'm so sad,' said Paul.

'Sad? Why?' asked Mary, surprised. 'And there was I, thinking we were having a grand time. After all, it's's the middle of fall and here we are amidst the fallen leaves in the park. What's up, Paul?'

'I don't have a car to drive you around,' he said, sulking.

'Your motorbike will do just fine for now,' she said firmly.

'I'd like to take you shopping, but I don't have the cash,' he whined.

'Why aren't you thankful for what you do have, why don't you ...... .... ........., Paul? After all, you have a friend in me!'
 

Tell the students that three words are missing in the last response of the dialogue and that these three words make up a saying that means one should be thankful for what one has. Ask students to work with a partner to find out what these three missing words are. Tell students that first, they should choose a partner, next they should read the scene, and then they should work together to find the words of the saying, (Count your blessings.)

Allow a few minutes for discussion, then ask students to report what they have found. If the students do not at first get it, guide them by explaining that the first word begins with the letter 'c' and has four other letters, the second word has three other letters and begins with the letter 'y,' and the final word begins with the letter 'b' and has eight other letters. Highlight the last sentence with the missing words and guide your students' search by giving such clues as follow: How does one know how much money one has? (by counting) What is another word for 'luck'? (blessing) You may progressively supply the word 'your,' 'blessings,' then 'count.' Present all of the saying if your students fail to find it after an effort that you think is reasonable.

Once the saying Count your blessings has been presented orally and in writing, explain that Paul (in the scene below) focuses on what he does not have. Explain that in the words of another proverb, Paul says of a bottle that is half full that it is half empty. Paul needs a change of attitude. He needs to start counting what is there. Maybe when Paul starts appreciating what he has instead of moping over what he does not have he can start seeing just how blessed he is. Ask: Why should Paul feel blessed? (because he does have something to be thankful for, a friendship; because his situation could have been worse) Ask: What other advice could Paul do with? (Answers may include the following; He should be more positive, or optimistic.)

Ask: How many people know Bill Gates? Explain that Bill Gates is the chairman of the Microsoft corporation, the organization selling most of the software that run computers worldwide, and the wealthiest person in America and the world. Bill Gates is a billionaire several times over. Ask: Do you think Bill Gates counts his blessings? Why do you think so? (Answers may vary.) Ask: When did Bill Gates begin to count his blessings? Was it before he started his business or after his first billion dollars? Why do you say so? (Answers may vary.) Ask: Is it easier to count one's blessings when one has plenty or when one is down and out? (Answers may vary.)

Finally, tell students that to be thankful does not always mean that one is satisfied to the point that one sits on his laurels, or becomes so contented with one's past achievements that one stops working altogether. To count one's blessings is to acknowledge what one has, who one is, and what one has achieved in the past. Tell students one should avoid extremes of attitude. To be too easily satisfied with one's achievements, might make one an underachiever. To not count one's blessings could make one sore and unhappy.
 

Activities

Ask your students to do the following exercise.

1. Write the heading Counting my blessings in your exercise book, write the date, then think a little and write ten positive things about yourself. These may include personal qualities you recognize in yourself (intelligent), things you have (friendships, books), your past achievements (you participated in a class project which made you proud).
 

Journal

You may ask your students to respond to this journal prompt.

1. Can you recall an instance when you didn't count your blessings? Did someone else recognize this and point it out to you? Did you acknowledge to that person that this was truly the case, that you were not counting your blessings? Recall that situation and write a paragraph about it, saying how you felt then, how you feel about it now, and use the saying, Count your blessings as the title or anywhere else in your writing.

OR

2.Can you recall an instance when you didn't count your blessings even if no one else recognized this? Recall that situation and write a paragraph about it, saying how you felt then, how you feel about it now, and use the saying, Count your blessings as the title or anywhere else in your writing.

Paul and Mary

Paul sat on the grass, his chin in his hands. He had a faraway look in his eyes and looked right past his beautiful date. His eyes were on the birds way up in the sky.

'What's wrong, Paul?' asked Mary. 'Cheer up!' she said.

'I'm so sad,' said Paul.

'Sad? Why?' asked Mary, surprised. 'And there was I, thinking we were having a grand time. After all, it's's the middle of fall and here we are amidst the fallen leaves in the park. What's up, Paul?'

'I don't have a car to drive you around,' he said, sulking.

'Your motorbike will do just fine for now,' she said firmly.

'I'd like to take you shopping, but I don't have the cash,' he whined.

'Why aren't you thankful for what you do have, why don't you ...... .... ........., Paul? After all, you have a friend in me!'

Bibliography

Student References

Chute, Marchette. Stories From Shakespeare. Cleveland: The World Publishing Company, 1956.

Coville, Bruce. William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. New York: Dial, 1996. (0-8037-1785-7)

Garfield, Leon, abridged by. Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992. (0-679-83870-8)

Lamb, Charles and Mary. Tales from Shakespeare. London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1961.

Pollinger, Gina, selected by. Something Rich and Strange: A Treasury of Shakespeare Verse. New York: Kingfisher, 1995. (1-85697-597-5)

Teacher References

Bloom, Harold, ed. William Shakespeare: The Tragedies. New York: Chelsea House, 1985. (0-87754-617-7)

________. William Shakespeare: Comedies & Romances. New York: Chelsea House, 1986. (0-87754-664-9)

Core Knowledge Foundation. Share The Knowledge: Lessons from the Sixth National Conference, 1997 Special Unit and Lesson Plans. Charlottesville: Core Knowledge Foundation, 1997.

Epstein, Norrie. The Friendly Shakespeare: A Thoroughly Painless Guide To The Bard. Penguin: New York, 1993. (0-670-84447-0)

Handbook: Folger Festivals. Capitol Hill, Folger Library Shakespeare Education and Festivals Project, 1995.

*Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. (0-385-21464-7)

________. What Your 2nd Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1991. (0-385-31027-7)

________. A First Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1991. (0-395-59901-6)

________. The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1993 (0-395-65597-8)

Kuiper, Kathleen, ed. Merriam Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature. Springfield: Merriam-Webster, 1995. (0-87779-042-6)

Morris, William and Mary. Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins. New York, Harper and Row, 1988. (0-06-015862)

Mowat, Barbara A. and Paul Werstine, eds. The New Folger Library Shakespeare: A Midsummer Night's Dream. New York: Washington Square Press, 1993. (0-671-72279-4)

Shakespeare, William. A Midsummer Night's Dream. Hauppauge: Barron's, 1984. (0-8120-3584-4)
 

*Required for lessons