Fifth Grade - Literature - May - Overview
This month's Literature curriculum includes the study of two poems: "Casey at the Bat" by Ernest Lawrence Thayer and Dickinson's "I like to see it lap the Miles." The lesson for "Casey at the Bat" will be greatly enhanced if you are able to get one of the Suggested Books containing the poem, so you may wish to begin the process of obtaining one early. In addition to these poems, this month students hear a Native American legend, "Morning Star and Scarface" and listen to or read American Indian Trickster Stories. (The legend and stories will also be found in books you may wish to begin to acquire now.) Three sayings are covered: Out of the frying pan and into the fire; Steal his/her thunder; and Tom, Dick and Harry. Finally, students hear the historical background to Chief Joseph's speech "I Will Fight No More Forever" and read the speech for themselves.
Many of the lessons this month are intended to complement the study
in American History this month of Westward Expansion. "I like to see it
lap the Miles" should be read after American History Lesson 34, and "I
Will Fight No More Forever" should be read after American History Lesson
37. The legend and stories may be read at any time during the month.
Fifth Grade - Literature - Sayings and Phrases - Out of the Frying Pan
and Into the Fire
Hear the meaning of the saying.
Explain why the words of the saying are appropriate, given the meaning of the saying.
Identify an instance in which a fictional character goes out of the
frying pan and into the fire.
The saying Out of the frying pan and into the fire written on a sentence strip or on the board
One of the Suggested Books, listed below (or another appropriate book)
dePaola, Tomie. Strega Nona. New York: Prentice-Hall Books for Young Readers, 1975. In this Caldecott Honor Book, Big Anthony goes out of the frying pan and into the fire when, after bragging to the townsfolk about the pasta pot and being ridiculed, he creates an uncontrollable flood of pasta.
________. Strega Nona Meets Her Match. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1993. Again poor Big Anthony throws himself into the fire when he not only takes a new job, but a job with Strega Nona's rival.
Meddaugh, Susan. Hog-eye. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1995. In this amusing story, a little pig tricks a wolf into going out of the frying pan and into the fire several times.
Van Allsburg, Chris. Jumanji. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1981. Through the playing of the game, Jumanji, the children in this story repeatedly go out of the frying pan and into the fire as they create a wilder and wilder scene within their home.
Westcott, Nadine Bernard. I Know an Old Lady Who Swallowed a Fly. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1980. Humorous illustrations complement this rendering of the children's song of the same name. As the old lady swallows larger and larger creatures, she goes out of the frying pan and into the fire numerous times.
Willard, Nancy. The Sorcerer's Apprentice. New York: The Blue
Sky Press, 1993. Leo and Diane Dillon have illustrated this retelling of
the poem by Goethe. In it, the sorcerer's apprentice goes out of the
frying pan and into the fire when she tries to use the sorcerer's magic.
In today's lesson, students learn the meaning of the saying Out of
the frying pan and into the fire. Once they know the meaning, they
should be able to explain why the words of this saying are appropriate.
Then, students listen as you read a story in which a character, or characters,
go out of the frying pan and into the fire. Several such stories
are recommended above; if you prefer, or are unable to get one of them,
use another suitable story of your own choice.
Tell students that today, they will learn the meaning of the saying
of the frying pan and into the fire, and display the saying on the
board or on a sentence strip. Ask: Does anyone know the meaning of the
saying? (Allow any student who does to explain.) If no one does, tell students
that this is a saying that is used when someone is in trouble, and then
because of their actions, they get into even more trouble. Read the following
scenario to students, or use one of your own creation:
"My mother is really mad at me," Maggie told her friend. "I arrived
home last night late for dinner, and the whole family had been waiting
for me so that they could eat. Then, when I told them that I had been snacking
all afternoon and wasn't even hungry, I went out of the frying pan and
into the fire."
Tell students that the saying is applicable in this situation because Maggie was already in trouble, or in the frying pan, because she was late to dinner. Then, after the whole family had been waiting for her to begin, she wasn't even hungry, so she made her mother even angrier, and Maggie went into the fire.
Ask: Why is being in trouble similar to being in a frying pan; why is this a good comparison? (Neither are a great place to be, both can make you feel "hot," etc.) Tell students that the saying assumes that the frying pan is above the fire, and that the fire is being used to cook whatever is in the frying pan. Ask: How is getting in even more trouble because of your action like going from a frying pan into a fire? (The situation is even hotter, or worse, than it was before, etc.)
Next, tell students that they are going to hear a story in which a character(s)
goes out of the frying pan and into the fire. Instruct students
to listen for the answer to this question: Who went
out the frying pan
and into the fire and how did he or she do so? Read the story of your
choice to students, then ask them to answer the question you posed, using
the saying in their answer(s).
Fifth Grade - Literature - Sayings and Phrases - Steal His/Her Thunder
Hear the meaning of the saying.
Hear the historical origin of the saying.
Write a letter giving advice and explaining the modern-day meaning of
The saying Steal his/her thunder written on a sentence strip
or on the board
Hirsch, Jr., E.D., ed. What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. Contains the meaning of the saying and an example of it in use.
Room, Adrian, revised by. Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable.
New York: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 1995. Describes the incident
from which the saying is derived on page 1026.
In this lesson, students learn the meaning of the saying Steal his/her
thunder. After hearing the historical origin of the saying, they write
a letter to the man who literally had his thunder stolen, giving advice
either on how he could have prevented this from happening, or what he should
have done about it once it happened. In the letter students also explain
to him, in their own words, what the saying has come to mean.
Begin today's lesson by asking students to raise their hand if they have ever had thunder stolen from them. It is anticipated that some students will express surprise and confusion over this question, but tell them that you think that probably most of them have had their thunder stolen--whether they knew it or not! Display the saying Steal his/her thunder and tell students that this is a saying that is used when another person does or says something before you have the chance to do it yourself. Give students the following examples, or ones of your own creation:
Timothy saw on the television news that because of snow, school would be canceled for the day. He could hardly wait to tell all his brothers and sisters! He ran upstairs to find them already laughing and clapping--his brother Maurice had heard about the cancellation on the radio and had already told everyone. Timothy's face fell, and when his mother asked him what was wrong, he said, "Oh, I wanted to tell everyone about the school cancellation, but Maurice stole my thunder."Shauna learned a new cheer in cheerleading club and looked forward to showing it to her neighborhood friends. As she walked down the sidewalk home, however, she could hear another girl in the cheerleading club, Amy, doing the cheer, and when she came around the corner, she saw that Amy was performing the cheer for all of the neighborhood girls. "Rats!" Shauna thought to herself, "I wanted to be the one to show them the cheer. Amy stole my thunder!"
Tell students: Now that you know what the saying means, raise your hand if you have ever had your thunder stolen. Ask volunteers to describe the particular events.
Next, tell students that this is a saying that originated from an incident that occurred in the early 1700s. John Dennis was a playwright who had just invented a device that could be used to make a sound like thunder for one of his plays. Though the device was clever, and did indeed make a sound just like thunder, the play he used it in was a failure, and did not run very long. Shortly after his play was withdrawn from the stage, he went to see a performance of Shakespeare's Macbeth. Ask: What do you think he heard? (his own device being used to make the sound of thunder) Dennis exclaimed his frustration that "villains" would use his thunder but not his play.
Tell students that they are to write a two paragraph letter to John Dennis (write this name on the board). In the first paragraph, they should give Mr. Dennis advice. They may choose to either advise him on what he could have done to prevent his thunder from being stolen, or they may give advice to him about what he could have, or should have, done once it was stolen. (Consider offering extra credit to students who give advice on both matters.) In the second paragraph, students should explain to Mr. Dennis, in their own words, what the saying has come to mean today. If needed, they may create a scenario to describe in the second paragraph to illustrate their explanation.
When all students have finished this assignment, ask volunteers to read
their letters to the class.
Fifth Grade - Literature - Sayings and Phrases - Tom, Dick and Harry
Hear the meaning of the saying Tom, Dick and Harry.
Develop a modern version of the saying.
Brainstorm other common trios.
Copy of the saying Tom, Dick and Harry on sentence strip or chart
Hirsch, E.D., edited by. A First Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1989, 1991. Contains the meaning of the saying and an example of it in use on page 12.
Room, Adrian, revised by. Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 1995. The origin and meaning of the saying can be found on page 1084.
Begin the lesson by telling students that today, they will be learning a saying that means everyone, or most everyone. Display the saying Tom, Dick and Harry, and ask if anyone has heard it being used. If so, ask for volunteers to use it correctly in a sentence. If no student has heard of it, or can use it correctly, provide the following examples for students:
I told Suzanne my secret, but instead of keeping it to herself, she told every Tom, Dick and Harry!Tell students that the saying dates back to Victorian times (the late 1800s), when Tom, Dick and Harry were popular names for men. So, if someone were speaking of every Tom, Dick and Harry, then that would include many, many people. The saying also implies that the person using it does not necessarily personally know all the Toms, Dicks and Harrys he or she is making reference to.
That is the oldest joke--every Tom, Dick and Harry knows the punch line to that one!
Ask: Is Tom a very popular name today? What about Dick? Harry? Tell students that though the saying is still used, and means the same thing that it did in the 1800s, there are probably fewer Toms, Dicks and Harrys around now than there were when the saying was first used. Ask students to think silently for a moment about what names are quite popular today. Then, in groups, have them discuss what three names they would use in a modernized version of the saying. (For example, one group of students may come to the conclusion that Michael, Brandon and Nikita are very popular. They would then suggest that today, the saying should instead be "Michael, Brandon and Nikita" to include more people than Tom, Dick and Harry.) Tell students that they should consider feminine names in their discussion, although the original saying used only masculine names. Once students have had a few moments of discussion in small groups and have come to joint conclusions, ask groups to share their modernized versions of the saying.
Next, instruct students to think back to another saying they learned earlier this year: Lock, stock and barrel. Ask: What do these two sayings have in common? (Both use three words to mean a great quantity--either everyone or everything.) Tell students that the number three is used quite frequently not only in sayings, but in many other aspects of life and culture as well. For example, tell students that there are three branches of government (executive, judicial and legislative) and three Musketeers. Other trios include the guessing game "Animal, Vegetable, Mineral," and morning, noon and night. In small groups, challenge students to think of other things that come in threes, or other common or well-known trios. After sufficient time, have groups share. A list of possible answers is given below.
Man, woman and child
Three strikes and you're out
Faith, hope and charity
The Christian Trinity (Father, Son and Holy Spirit)
Three forms of matter (solid, liquid, and gas)
Mind, body and spirit
Hear no evil, see no evil, speak no evil
The Three Stooges (Larry, Moe and Curly)
Elementary, middle and high school
Beginning, middle and end
Earth, wind and fire
Land, sea and sky
Larva, pupa and adult
Breakfast, lunch and dinner
Three Blind Mice
The Three Little Pigs
A three-day weekend
The Three Bears
Length, width and height
Hook, line and sinker
Red, white and blue
Rock, scissors and paper
Three leaf clover
Fifth Grade - Literature - Poetry - Casey at the Bat
Hear "Casey at the Bat" read.
Brainstorm Casey's feelings after striking out.
Express and support an opinion regarding who should take credit for
the fame of "Casey at the Bat."
Copy of the poem "Casey at the Bat" from one of the Suggested Books,
below. (If this is not available, a copy of the poem has also been attached.)
Cohn, Amy L., compiled by. From Sea to Shining Sea: A Treasury of American Folklore and Folk Songs. New York: Scholastic Inc., 1993. "Casey at the Bat" can be found on page 314.
Thayer, Ernest Lawrence. Casey at the Bat. New York: Workman Publishing, 1987. This version is illustrated by Keith Bendis and has a sentimental, yet informative introduction by Roger Kahn. The drawings to accompany the text are pen and ink and show what the game, players and fans looked like when the poem was written in 1888. These illustrations focus on Casey's expressions and are sometimes humorous.
________. Casey at the Bat. New York: Atheneum Books for Young Readers, 1994. The illustrations in this edition are acrylic, somewhat impressionistic paintings done by Gerald Fitzgerald. Like the book noted above, they give the viewer an idea of what a baseball game would have looked like in 1888.
________. Casey at the Bat. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1977. Casey's strike out takes place in a more modern setting in this edition, with pen and ink drawings by Jim Hull. A plate is given to each line, or part of a line, and in the fifty-six drawings, the artist frequently takes an interesting perspective. There is a long, scholarly introduction by Martin Gardner that gives the background of the poem and a biography of the poet.
________. Casey at the Bat. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1988. Patricia Pollaco has illustrated the poem in this edition, and has given it extra text to put it in the setting of a modern Little League game. The extra text adds to the character of Casey, and makes his strike out a humbling lesson for him.
________. Casey at the Bat. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan,
Inc., 1978. Casey and the other players have been drawn as animal characters
in the humorous, full-color illustrations by Wallace Tripp in this edition.
In today's lesson, students hear the ever-popular poem "Casey at the Bat" by Ernest Lawrence Thayer. The descriptive language of the poem has tempted many artists to illustrate it, and one of the books recommended above should be read to students, as the illustrations should increase their comprehension of the poem significantly.
Thayer was born in Massachusetts in 1863, to a prosperous New England family. He attended Harvard and though his major was in philosophy, he wrote the annual Hasty Pudding play and edited the Harvard Lampoon, the college's humor magazine. After graduating, he resisted joining the family business in woolens and went to Europe. It was an offer from an old classmate, William Randolph Hearst, to write a weekly humor column in the San Francisco Examiner that brought him back to the United States. It was in this column that Thayer published "Casey at the Bat" on June 3, 1888 under the pseudonym "Phin." Thayer later told interviewers that the poem was not based on any specific player or team, though several players claimed to have been his inspiration. (Thayer did admit that there was a bully he knew as a youth named Casey, and said that perhaps the title was a taunt suggested to him by his memory of this boy.)
When "Casey" was first printed, it did not receive very much attention, and probably would have been quickly forgotten had the following series of events not taken place. In late 1888 or early 1889 a rising young comedian and bass singer, William De Wolf Hopper, was performing in New York City. When he was informed that the New York Giants and the Chicago White Stockings would be in the audience one night, he asked his friend, a novelist named Archibald Clavering Gunter, for an idea on how to do something special for the benefit of the players. Gunter gave Hopper a newspaper clipping containing "Casey at the Bat" and suggested Hopper memorize it and recite it in his act. He did, and the audience delighted in it so much that by Hopper's own account he went on to recite it more than 10,000 times in acts all over the country. Newspapers everywhere began to reprint copies of the poem, and its fame grew and grew.
Thayer never understood the popularity of "Casey" and claimed it was no better than many of his other works, which received no attention at all. The fame of "Casey" and subsequent confusion and arguments over its authorship left Thayer disgusted, and he refused to accept payments for reprintings. Because of his low opinion regarding the quality of his writing, he would have no doubt been surprised by the opera, song, movies and cartoons later made based on "Casey at the Bat." Thayer died in California in 1940.
Students may have read "Casey at the Bat" as a part of Reading Mastery
VI, Lessons 71-72.
Tell students that today, they will be hearing a poem entitled "Casey at the Bat," by Ernest Lawrence Thayer. (Write the title and poet's name on the board.) Ask: Given the title, what do you think the poem is about? (Accept all reasonable answers, but congratulate those students who guess baseball.) Remind students that baseball season is beginning, and ask students to name some of baseball's great hitters. Ask: How does the crowd react when one of these men comes up to bat? (Answers will vary.) How does it feel to be watching a great hitter? Why? Tell students that the subject of the poem, Casey, is also a great hitter, though he is a fictitious character.
Before reading the poem, discuss the meaning of any of the following
words you think your students wouldn't know:
pall-like--characteristic of a coffin
melancholy--a gloomy state of mind
defiance--a bold resistance to authority
doff--to tip (the hat) in greeting
patron--a person who is a paying supporter
haughty--proud or snobbish
grandeur--the state of being impressive or awesome
tumult--the violent and noisy commotion of a crowd
After discussing the necessary vocabulary, read the poem to students. If you are not able to get one of the books listed above, read the poem dramatically, using facial expressions and gestures and altering your voice to imitate Casey's and the umpire's. Stop reading the poem after the stanza that ends with the line, "Defiance flashed in Casey's eye, a sneer curled Casey's lip." Ask: What do you think will happen in the remainder of the poem? (Answers will vary.) Once students have shared their predictions, continue to read the remainder of the poem.
After finishing the poem, ask students: What did you want to happen? How does the poet lead you to believe that Casey will hit a home run? (Students should note that the crowd had certain expectations of him, and that his bearing, as described, suggested a player who was sure that he could really slam the ball.) From the information in the poem, what kind of player and person does Casey seem to be? (confident, proud, popular, etc.) How does the crowd react when they see Casey coming up to bat? (They let out a thunderous roar.) The crowd obviously respects and admires Casey. In what ways does Casey interact with the crowd? (He doffs his hat to them as he approaches the plate; he calms them after the umpire calls the first strike, and then again after the second strike.) Tell students that Thayer uses two words not in common use today to describe two of the other players: he calls Flynn a "hoodoo" and Blake a "cake." Ask: What do you think these words mean? How can you tell they are not complimentary? (The crowd was feeling sad because both of these players were to bat before Casey.)
On the board, begin a web and fill it out as students brainstorm how Casey felt at the end of the game. After each emotion is suggested, ask why the student thinks Casey would feel that particular way.
Ask: What year do you think this poem was written? (Accept all guesses.) Tell students that it was written by Mr. Thayer in 1888. Ask: Why is it hard to tell what in year it was written? (Many of the aspects described about baseball--the innings, umpires, crowd, etc.--remain the same today. If you read one of the books in which the illustrations portray uniforms and a crowd that look old-fashioned, students may have a better idea of what era this poem came out of, and of these insignificant changes in baseball.) Tell students that perhaps this is one of the reasons why the poem has remained so popular: it is timeless.
Ask: Do you think it would be as popular (or even more popular) if Casey had hit the third pitch into the stands? Why or why not? Tell students that three men had a hand in making "Casey at the Bat" the popular poem it is today. First, there was, of course, the author, who wrote the poem. (Point out Ernest Lawrence Thayer's name on the board.) Proceed to tell students the information in the Teacher Background regarding the suggestion of Gunter and the subsequent recitation of the poem by Hopper. (Write both of these men's names on the board as well.)
Place students into cooperative groups, and pose the following question for groups to discuss, and if possible, answer in consensus: Who, of these three men, is most responsible for the long popularity of "Casey at the Bat?" Is it Thayer, who wrote the classic, timeless poem? Or perhaps it is Gunter, who recognized it as something great when others had forgotten about it, or overlooked it. Or, is it Hopper, who recited it thousands of times all over the country? Once students have had an opportunity to discuss the question, ask groups to share their thoughts, justifying any consensus they were able to come to. (As a variation of this activity, have students independently journal a response to the question.) Tell students that as an interesting aside to this discussion, there was some debate as to who the real author of the poem was, because Thayer originally published it under the pseudonym of "Phin," his college nickname. Referencing last month's lesson on pseudonyms, ask: For what reason do you think Thayer used a pseudonym? (Answers will vary. You might suggest that Thayer never thought very much of his poetry and may have used a pseudonym because he wasn't proud of the work.)
To end class today, read the poem one more time. Either instruct students
to close their eyes and let Thayer's wonderful language create pictures
in their minds, or allow student volunteers to act out the descriptions
of Casey's expressions and actions as they are read.
Fifth Grade - Literature - Poetry - Casey at the Bat
"Casey at the Bat"
by Ernest Lawrence Thayer
The outlook wasn't brilliant for the Mudville nine that day:
The score stood four to two, with but one inning more to play,
And then when Cooney died at first, and Barrows did the same,
A pall-like silence fell upon the patrons of the game.
A straggling few got up to go in deep despair. The rest
Clung to that hope which springs eternal in the human breast;
They thought, "If only Casey could but get a whack at that--
We'd put up even money now, with Casey at the bat."
But Flynn preceded Casey, as did also Jimmy Blake,
And the former was a hoodoo, while the latter was a cake;
So upon that stricken multitude grim melancholy sat;
For there seemed but little chance of Casey getting to the bat.
But Flynn let drive a single, to the wonderment of all,
And Blake, the much despised, tore the cover off the ball;
And when the dust had lifted, and men saw what had occurred,
There was Jimmy safe at second and Flynn a-hugging third.
Then from five thousand throats and more there rose a lusty yell;
It rumbled through the valley, it rattled in the dell;
It pounded on the mountain and recoiled upon the flat,
For Casey, mighty Casey, was advancing to the bat.
There was ease in Casey's manner as he stepped into his place;
There was pride in Casey's bearing and a smile lit Casey's face.
And when, responding to the cheers, he lightly doffed his hat,
No stranger in the crowd could doubt 'twas Casey at the bat.
Ten thousand eyes were on him as he rubbed his hands with dirt;
Five thousand tongues applauded when he wiped them on his shirt;
Then while the writhing pitcher ground the ball into his hip,
Defiance flashed in Casey's eye, a sneer curled Casey's lip.
And now the leather-covered sphere came hurtling through the air,
And Casey stood a-watching it in haughty grandeur there.
Close by the sturdy batsman the ball unheeded sped--
"That ain't my style," said Casey. "Strike one!" the umpire said.
From the benches, black with people, there went up a muffled roar,
Like the beating of the storm-waves on a stern and distant shore;
"Kill him! Kill the umpire!" shouted someone on the stand;
And it's likely they'd have killed him had not Casey raised his hand.
With a smile of Christian charity great Casey's visage shone;
He stilled the rising tumult; he bade the game go on;
He signaled to the pitcher, and once more the dun sphere flew;
But Casey still ignored it, and the umpire said, "Strike two!"
"Fraud!" cried the maddened thousands, and echo answered "Fraud!"
But one scornful look from Casey and audience was awed.
They saw his face grow stern and cold, they saw his muscles strain,
And they knew that Casey wouldn't let that ball go by again.
The sneer has fled from Casey's lip, his teeth are clenched in hate;
He pounds with cruel violence his bat upon the plate.
And now the pitcher holds the ball, and now he lets it go,
And now the air is shattered by the force of Casey's blow.
Oh, somewhere in this favored land the sun is shining bright;
The band is playing somewhere, and somewhere hearts are light,
And somewhere men are laughing, and little children shout;
But there is no joy in Mudville--mighty Casey has struck out.
Fifth Grade - Literature - Poetry - I like to see it lap the Miles
Predict the subject of the poem, given the verbs of the poem.
Discuss the meaning of the adjectives the poet uses to describe the locomotive.
Listen to and read the poem.
Select a line or described action that is personally most effective.
Compare the locomotive to an animal other than a horse, and rewrite the title with a verb appropriate to the animal chosen.
Guess the animal chosen by classmates, given the verbs they selected to use in the title.
Respond to journal prompts. (optional)
"I like to see it lap the Miles" on transparency or chart paper
Dickinson, Emily. Poems for Youth. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1996. Contains "I like to see it lap the Miles" and features wonderful pencil illustrations by Thomas B. Allen.
Hall, Donald, chosen and edited by. The Oxford Book of Children's Verse in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985. "I like to see it lap the Miles" can be found on page 108.
Harmon, William, edited by. The Top 500 Poems. New York: Columbia
University Press, 1992. There is a small amount of background and commentary
to accompany "I like to see it lap the Miles" on page 735.
Emily Dickinson (1830-1886) was a spinster and a bit of a recluse who lived in Amherst, Massachusetts. She and her sister, Lavinia, kept house for their father. When not cooking or cleaning, Emily enjoyed taking walks in her garden and was a nature lover. She did not begin to seriously write poems until 1862, and though they soon became a passion for her, most of them she simply tucked away in boxes. Those that were shared with others were not published, but were sent to friends. Upon her death, her sister found the boxes of poems and recognized their worth. She contacted the wife of a local professor, and together, along with a professional writer, Thomas Wentworth Higginson, they published a collection of Emily's poems in 1890. Though never famous in her own lifetime, Emily Dickinson has become one of the most beloved poets of the 20th century.
In today's lesson, students read her poem "I like to see it lap the
Miles," about the locomotive. They read Dickinson's poem "Bee! I'm Expecting
You" in Second Grade, and "A Bird Came Down the Walk Today" in January
of Fifth Grade. This lesson complements the study of the Transcontinental
Railroad in American History Lesson 34 and should be taught after that
Tell students that today, they will be reading a poem by Emily Dickinson (write this name on the board). Inform them that she was born in 1830 in Amherst, Massachusetts and died in the same town in 1886. (Write these dates on the board as well.) Not only did she live in the same town most of her life, she rarely left her house! She and her sister kept house for their father, and when Emily did leave the house, it was usually to take walks in the garden. Emily loved nature, and because she was a recluse, the birds, trees, flowers and butterflies were her best friends. Inform students that Emily did not begin to seriously write poetry until 1862. Ask: How old was she when she began? (thirty-two) Tell students that Emily rarely showed her poetry to anyone else--she usually just put it into boxes. When she died, her sister found boxes of the poetry, and after reading it, decided it was so good, it should be shared with others. With some help from friends, Emily's sister published some of the poetry in 1890. Soon, Emily Dickinson's poetry became well known, and today she is one of America's most popular poets.
Tell students that to begin the study of today's poem, they will play a guessing game. As you list the verbs from the poem, they are to guess what the subject of the poem is. As they read the verbs, they should think about what (type of thing) would perform these actions. Write this list on the board, pausing as you write to accept guesses from students: (define any of the words your students do not know)
It is anticipated that some students will guess "horse" when you write the word "neigh" on the board. After writing "stop" on the board, congratulate those students who guessed horse, and tell them that the poem is indeed about a type of horse: an iron horse. Proceed to tell students that "iron horse" is the name Native Americans who lived during Emily Dickinson's lifetime gave to something when they first saw it moving through their territory. They called it an "iron horse" because it was made of metal and traveled quickly, like a horse. Ask: What do you think they called an "iron horse"? (the locomotive) Ask students to look again at the list of the poem's verbs on the board. Ask: Can you imagine a locomotive doing any of these actions? If so, which ones? Can you imagine a horse doing any of these actions? Which ones? Tell students that in the poem, Dickinson cleverly describes the locomotive as a horse, doing each of these things.
Tell students that Emily Dickinson also uses some creative adjectives to describe the locomotive, and write this list on the board, discussing the meaning of each word with students:
prodigious: extraordinary in size (large)
supercilious: proud, snobbish and arrogant
punctual: very observant of time; not late: prompt
docile: easily managed or handled
omnipotent: having great power
Ask: Which of these adjectives can you imagine being true of both a train and a horse? Which ones only a horse? Which ones only a train? Tell students that there is only one additional word they need to know the meaning of before reading the poem: Boanerges (BO ah NUR jeez). (Write this word on the board.) Tell students that this is a word for a noisy preacher or orator, and comes from the Hebrew language, in which it means "sons of thunder."
Now display the poem and read it aloud to students, as they follow along. Ask: Now that you've read the poem, which of the actions that Dickinson describes the locomotive doing is easiest to picture in your mind: lapping up miles, licking the valleys up, stepping around a pile of mountains, peering into roadside shanties, or one of the other actions? What is the locomotive doing when Dickinson writes that it "neighs like Boanerges"? (blowing its whistle) She also writes that the train is both docile and omnipotent. How is it possible for a train, and a horse, to be both? In the last stanza, Dickinson writes that the locomotive is "punctual as a Star." How are stars punctual? What is the rhyme scheme of this poem? (There is none.) In what ways do you think that Emily Dickinson thought that the locomotive was like a horse? (Answers will vary but may include, based on descriptions in the poem, the way it moved, its large size, its speed, its need to refuel itself, the loud noise it makes, and its power. Encourage students to back up their responses with references to the poem.) List their responses on the board. Point out to students that train of Emily Dickinson's time was a steam engine, so it needed water, just as horses do. Ask: What line in the poem mentions this need? ("And stop to feed itself at Tanks") Additionally, the steam engine had steam that streamed out behind it, like a horse's mane. Remind students that the title of the poem is "I like to watch it lap the Miles." Ask: Do you imagine horses lapping? What other creatures might lap? Why do you think Dickinson chose this unlikely verb? (Answers will vary, but point out to students that when an animal is lapping, there is usually a rhythm to the drinking that is similar to the rhythm of a train's wheels on the track.)
Next, tell students that a locomotive can be compared to other animals as well. For example, it might be compared to a centipede, because it has many wheels just as the centipede has many legs. Ask: If the poem were comparing the locomotive to a centipede, how could you fill in this blank to make the title appropriate: I like to see it ___________ the miles? (Answers will vary but may include crawl, creep or slither.) As another example, tell students that a locomotive may be compared to an owl because of the hooting sound of the whistle. Ask: How could the blank in the title be filled in if the poem compared a locomotive to an owl? (Again, answers will vary but may include fly, swoop down on or soar.) Place students into pairs and instruct them to think of an animal to compare the locomotive to other than a horse, centipede or owl. The comparison may be based on any aspect of the locomotive, not just the way it moves, the number of wheels it has or the way it sounds. Once a comparison is made, pairs should discuss and conclude how they would change the title to make it appropriate to their comparison. When all pairs have finished their discussions, or after adequate time, ask pairs to share their amended titles with the class, and to ask their classmates to guess what animals they selected. After each animal has been correctly guessed, pairs should tell the class on what basis they made the comparison.
To conclude class today, reread the poem to students, asking them to imagine the locomotive performing the various activities Dickinson describes.
Suggested Follow-up Activity
Assign either or both of these journal prompts to students:
In the last stanza of "I like to see it lap the Miles," Dickinson writes
that the locomotive "neighs like Boanerges." As you were told, Boanerges
comes from the Hebrew language in which it means "sons of thunder." How
are both the horse and the locomotive like "sons of thunder"?
Many of the poets of the 1800s disliked the new machinery being invented
and used during this time period. Emily Dickinson, and another poet named
Walt Whitman, however, appreciated and enjoyed the locomotive. Why do you
think so many poets felt such distaste for new machinery? What about the
locomotive do you think made it attractive to Dickinson and Whitman?
Fifth Grade - Literature - Poetry - I like to see it lap the Miles
I like to see it lap the Miles
by Emily Dickinson
I like to see it lap the Miles--
And lick the Valleys up--
And stop to feed itself at Tanks--
And then--prodigious step
Around a Pile of Mountains--
And supercilious peer
In Shanties--by the sides of Roads--
And then a Quarry pare
To fit its Ribs
And crawl between
Complaining all the while
In horrid--hooting stanza--
Then chase itself down Hill--
And neigh like Boanerges--
Then--punctual as a Star
Stop--docile and omnipotent
At its own stable door--
Fifth Grade - Literature - Myths and Legends - Morning Star and Scarface
Listen to the legend "Morning Star and Scarface."
Summarize the story.
Design a page for a cultural catalogue featuring items found in the story.
Categorize the conflicts Scarface overcame, and the solutions he used to overcome them.
Create a wedding invitation for Scarface and his bride-to-be.
Classroom-size map of the United States
A copy of the legend "Morning Star and Scarface" (attached, also see Suggested Books below)
For each student
A copy of the "Cultural Catalogue" worksheet (attached)
A sheet of white or light-colored blank paper
Crayons, markers or colored pencils
McCaughrean, Geraldine. The Golden Hoard. New York: Margaret K. McElderry Books, 1995. Within this collection of myths and legends, the story of Scarface is told under the title "Brave Quest."
San Souci, Robert, adapted by. The Legend of Scarface: A Blackfeet Indian Tale. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1978. Daniel San Souci has illustrated this version of the story with beautiful, luminous pictures.
Hirsch, E.D., edited by. What Your Fourth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell Publishing, 1992. Is the source of the attached version of the myth.
Taylor, Colin F., editorial consultant. Native American Myths and Legends. New York: Smithmark Publishers Inc., 1994. The story is summarized on page 44.
Moen, Christine Boardman. Better Than Book Reports. New York:
Scholastic Professional Books, 1992. Contains a variety of ideas for responding
Listening to the legend "Morning Star and Scarface" complements the study this month in American History of Native American culture. The legend may be read to students before, during or after the historical study of Indian culture (American History Lesson 36).
The legend is known by a variety of titles, which include "The Legend
of Scarface," "Brave Quest," "The Adventures of Scar Face," and "Morning
Star and Scarface: The Sun Dance." The versions of the story do differ
in their accounts of events, but the activities described in the lesson
should be suitable for any of the versions used.
Begin today's lesson by telling students that they are going to hear a legend told originally by Plains Indians. (If you have already taught American History Lesson 36 you may wish to take this opportunity to review with students what they know about Plains Indians, such as the type of shelter they used, their primary food source, etc.) On the U.S. map, ask a student to point out the location of the Great Plains, the area the Plains Indians inhabited. Inform students that the legend is known under a variety of titles, and write the title you are using on the board.
Ask: Why do you think the story is known under so many titles, with differences in every version? (It was passed from one Indian generation to the next orally--not in written form--so changes took place as the story spread and was retold.)
Depending on the version of the story read to students, you may need
to define some story vocabulary. Once that has been done, read the story
Once the story has been read, draw a large circle on the board, and
within it, draw the Sun's face (in honor of the importance of Sun in the
story). At the top of the circle, draw one triangular ray. Tell students
that together, they will summarize the story, putting each event into a
ray around the sun. Ask: What event should be written in this first ray?
(Answers will vary depending on the version of the story read.) When students
have come to a consensus regarding the first event to be recorded, write
it within the ray you drew at the top of the circle. Continue to draw one
ray at a time around the circle as students summarize the story, until
the story has been summarized and the circle has been surrounded by rays,
making it look like a sun.
Cultural Catalogue Adapted from Better Than Book Reports by Christine Boardman Moen
Point out to students that there are items mentioned within the story
that are unique to the culture of Plains Indians. Ask students to name
these items, rereading the story to them if necessary. As students name
the items, list them on the board. The list will vary, depending on what
version of the story you read, but may include some or all of the following
a hide bag
a quiver and arrows
When the list is complete tell students that they are going to create
a page from a cultural catalogue, a publication that describes items from
various cultures. The page they will create will be on the culture of the
Plains Indians, and should feature any three of the items on the board.
Distribute the "Cultural Catalogue" worksheet and the crayons, markers
or colored pencils to students. Tell them that in the boxes, they should
draw the three items they would like to describe. On the lines next to
each box, they should name the item, write a description of it (how large
it is, what color it is, what it is made of, etc.) and describe, if they
know, how it was used by the Plains Indians. Students may need to make
inferences, based on information in the story, in order to describe the
items and their uses. If you have reference books that were used in American
History classes this month on Native Americans, allow students, if time
permits, to use the reference books to look up the items of their choice
so that their descriptions of the items and their uses are as accurate
as possible. When students have completed this activity, read down the
list on the board, allowing students to share what they wrote about each
of the items. Before collecting these worksheets for grading purposes,
instruct students to write their names at the bottom of the page, on the
line next to the word "By." Display a collection of the pages on a bulletin
board entitled: "A Cultural Catalogue: Plains Indians."
Ask: What problems did the main character, Scarface, have in this legend? (Answers will vary but may include: he was poor; he was ridiculed by others; he was disfigured; he loved a girl who was promised to the Sun; he did not know the way to the Sun's lodge; etc.) As students describe Scarface's problems, list them on the board. Then, ask: Does anyone know the term used for a problem in a story? (conflict) Ask students to look at the list of conflicts from the legend, and tell them that the conflicts need to be put into two or three groups. Have students Think-Pair-Share about how to group the conflicts into two or three categories according to their characteristics. Once pairs have shared ideas with one another, ask pairs to share their ideas with the rest of the class. Though there are many possibilities for categorizing the conflicts, students' ideas may include categorizing them according to the type of danger they presented (bodily or emotional), according to the type of foe they involved (other people, mythical characters or animals), or categorizing them according to where they took place (in the village, on the way to the Sun's lodge, or in the land of the Sun and Morning Star).
Next, direct students' attention back to the list of conflicts on the
board. For each conflict, have a volunteer identify how it was overcome,
and write a list of these solutions next to the list of conflicts. Repeat
the same process used to categorize the conflicts, except this time, have
students think of ways to categorize the solutions. When pairs have done
so, they should share their ideas with the rest of the class. Prompt the
students to compare and contrast their groupings. Did any grouping of conflicts
remain intact when categorized according to solution? (For example, were
all of the conflicts that involved the possibility of emotional harm solved
by asking others for help?) Which types of solutions solved the most problems?
What might this imply about the culture that told this tale?
A Wedding Invitation
Tell students that they are going to design and create a wedding invitation
for Scarface and his bride-to be. Discuss with students information that
should be on the invitation, and make a list of this necessary information
on the board. (The list may include the bride's and groom's names, the
date, the time, and the place.) Students should also decorate the invitations
with appropriate signs and symbols, keeping in mind the culture of the
Plains Indians and the events of the story. Once students understand the
assignment, distribute the crayons, markers or colored pencils and the
white or light-colored blank paper. Students may choose to fold the paper
in half so that the invitation is in the format of a card, or they may
want to use one entire side of the paper for the invitation. Display the
invitations on a bulletin board entitled "A Legendary Wedding!".
Fifth Grade - Literature - Myths and Legends - Morning Star and Scarface
Fifth Grade - Literature - Myths and Legends - Morning Star and Scarface
The Sun Dance
from What Your Fourth Grader Needs to Know by E.D. Hirsch
For many of the Plains Indian tribes, the Sun Dance is the way to ask for or repay a favor granted to them by one of the great powers or gods, such as the Great Mystery (Wakan Tanka) of the Sioux or Tirawa of the Pawnee. Because the dance involves great effort, and sometimes even pain, the dancers undertake it only for the most important reasons. Some dance so that a sick friend might be healed. In the past, some celebrated war victories with the Sun Dance.
Many of the tribes tell stories that explain the origin of the dance.
The story of Feather Woman, Morning Star, and Scar Face is a tale told
by the Blackfoot Indians.
One summer night, a young girl named Feather Woman left her airless tepee to sleep in the sweet-smelling breeze of the plains. When she woke, she found the Morning Star winking back at her. She lay under his spell, and laughing said, "Morning Star, I would like to wake to your bright welcome every morning." Then she rose to help her sister gather berries and herbs for the dyeing of buffalo skins.
The sisters wandered far into the woods. They had drifted a great way from each other, when Feather Woman discovered a tall young man standing in the midst of a juniper bush before her. His head was crowned with eagle feathers, and his hands and face glistened as though he had passed through a spider's web.
"Feather Woman," he said, "I am Morning Star. Would you come away with me?"
Feather Woman laughed so hard that she spilled all of her berries on the ground. "Oh, you foolish boy," she said. "Why would I leave my family for a stranger?"
As Morning Star took her hand, Feather Woman felt the warmth of the sun on her skin. "Feather Woman," he said. "I have tried to read your thoughts during the many early mornings that you have lain dreaming on the plain. I would like to marry you and take you to Star Country."
Taking his other hand, Feather Woman stepped onto the silk gloss of a spider web. And together they flew into the sky as magically as the spider casts his silken threads.
Feather Woman discovered a country much like her own. The prairie grasses sang in the wind, the star people stitched soft, white deerskins, and women dug for roots to dye them. Morning Star took her to the tepee of his parents, Sun and Moon. Moon welcomed her with smiles; when Sun returned in the evening, weary from his passage across the sky, he bid her to learn the ways of his people if she wanted to stay in the Country of the Stars. He said that Moon would teach her.
Morning Star and Feather Woman were married, and soon had a child, Star Boy. Whenever she went with Moon and the other star women to do their daily work, she would bundle her child in soft clothes and carry him with her.
Moon showed her which roots were edible, and which cast the perfect colors for a painting. She also pointed to a large turnip root, which grew nearly as high as the trees, and told her never to dig there. The turnip root was a mystery known only to Sun.
One afternoon, Moon returned Feather Woman's smiles only weakly, and asked her to go to gather the roots alone while she rested. Feather Woman wandered into the woods, taking her child for company. She sang the songs of her own people, and wondered if her sister had married. Deeply homesick, she discovered that she had wandered near the turnip root. Curious, she forgot Moon's warning and began to dig.
She had made little progress, when two white cranes alighted beside her. They cooed, "Can we help you? Our bills are sharp. We can unearth the root for you."
Not knowing that there was a terrible history between the cranes and the star people, Feather Woman consented. The cranes tore at the turnip's roots, and finally the plant fell to its side, pulling up a great chunk of ground. Gathering her baby close, Feather Woman jumped away from the opening. Urging Feather Woman to "Look, look," the cranes lifted their wings and disappeared.
Feather Woman lay on the ground and peered into the yawning doorway to the earth. Far, far below, she saw her sisters running on the prairie. Her father was returning from a hunt, and echoes of her mother's welcome reached her ears. Her heart yearned for home.
That night when she returned to the tepee, Sun gazed on her face and saw her sadness. Harshly he asked, "You have seen below the turnip root to the earth and your people?" When Morning Star heard her say yes, his hands turned cold.
Sun sighed and said, "There can be no sorrow in the Country of Stars. You must return to earth."
Morning Star and Moon begged him to allow her to stay, but Sun refused. "She must go," he said. "You can talk to her as you used to, when you traverse the sky."
That night, as Feather Woman's family lay in the prairie grass, they saw a star falling toward them. When they awoke, Feather Woman lay beside them. Her child, scarred on the face by their rapid journey, was crying.
Feather Woman missed Morning Star more and more as the years went by. To protect her son from hurt, she did not tell him who his father was. They spent much of their time alone. Then one day, when Star Boy tried to wake her, he found that her spirit had left for the sandhills.
Because of the mark on his face, the boy now called Scar Face was treated unkindly by many people in the tribe. His birth was mysterious, and they did not want to be near him. In time, so many called him "Scar Face" that everyone forgot his real name.
When Scar Face was a young man, he fell in love with the daughter of the chief. She talked to him kindly when they met, and she never looked away from his face, but smiled and looked into his eyes. Scar Face wanted to marry her.
But when he asked she said, "I have seen the Sun in my dreams and he told me to wait for him."
Scar Face knew that many men wanted to marry her. They held dancing contests in which each tried to dance better than the others to gain her attention. Scar Face knew that she could marry anyone she chose. Ashamed of asking, he turned away.
Several days later she met him near the river where she was gathering water. "Scar Face," she said. "If you find Sun and ask him, I will marry you. But you must bring me some proof that he has agreed."
"But Sun lives far in the West," he cried. "No one knows how to reach him."
The young woman gave him moccasins she had made and a new shirt. "You will find him," she said.
Scar Face traveled far into the mountains. He climbed until he reached the highest peak
farthest to the west. Hoping that he might receive a message from the great forces, he began to fast and pray. One night, the Milky Way seemed to reach down to the peak where he was sitting. Scar Face stepped into the air, and journeyed into Star Country.
Scar Face waited in the path of the Sun until he saw that Sun had risen, made his day's journey, and was home to rest. Then he entered the tepee of Sun. "My name is Scar Face," he said. "And I love a young woman who was told by you that she must follow your word all of her life. I have come to ask your permission to marry her."
Sun knew who Scar Face was, for it was Sun who had marked the boy's face as he fell to earth. He wanted to know him as he traveled overhead.
Looking at her husband, Moon knew that Sun felt kindly toward the boy. She smiled and said, "Stay with us while Sun decides. You can keep our son, Morning Star, company."
In Star Country people do not age as they do on earth, so Morning Star was only slightly older than his son Scar Face, whom he did not recognize. The two became good friends, and both received the words of wisdom that were given to them by Sun.
One day, Sun explained why the cranes were so feared by the stars. "They wait until a star begins to cross the sky, and then they attack, using their bills to tear the fragile ladder that Spider has spun for the stars to climb."
Morning Star explained that the cranes had attacked his brothers when they were very young. Falling, his brothers burst into fire and then disappeared in the black sky.
One afternoon, when Morning Star and Scar Face were hunting, the cranes appeared and began swooping down on them. Morning Star frantically ran for cover. Scar Face waved his spear at them, daring them to come closer. As the birds closed in, Scar Face turned to meet them. He did not care if they threatened to hurt his face; it had always hurt him. He felled them one by one.
When Morning Star saw that his friend had saved him, he gathered the heads of the cranes and scalped them. He was afraid that no one would believe his friend's bravery.
When Sun heard the story, he danced a celebratory dance and Moon sang praises for the young man's courage. Sun took Scar Face to a hole in the sky, and together, they looked down upon the earth. Sun traced its shape with his hand, and when they returned, Moon had gathered willows and used them to build a lodge in the earth's shape. She dug a hole in the center of the lodge and filled it with heated stones. When the people had raised a sun pole outside, the family entered the lodge. Moon poured water over the hot rocks, and the steam rose up to cleanse them.
When they emerged from the lodge, the scar was gone from the boy's face. Instantly, Morning Star knew him as Star Boy, his son. The father and son walked to the edge of the Milky Way and bid each other good-bye. "In the morning," Morning Star said, "look up. I will be watching you and your good wife."
Star Boy found the chief's daughter near the river. When she saw him,
she knew that Sun had consented to their marriage, and she was happy. Together,
they returned to tell the others. And from Star Boy the people learned
the Sun Dance.
Fifth Grade - Literature - Myths and Legends - American Indian Trickster
Retell a story using symbols on a "buffalo hide" made from a paper bag.
Create a puzzle using information on, and illustrations of, one of the tricksters.
Complete a story tepee.
Design a shoe box float depicting one of the scenes from a trickster story.
Compare and contrast different tricksters.
Retell one of the trickster stories to classmates. (optional)
Trickster stories from the list of Suggested Books, and/or copies of "Coyote Goes to the Land of the Dead" (attached)
(Vary according to activity--see the list under each activity.)
Brown, Dee. Dee Brown's Folktales of the Native American. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1979, 1993.
Bruchac, Joseph, told by. Native American Stories. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing, 1991.
Cohn, Amy L., compiled by. From Sea to Shining Sea: A Treasury of American Folklore and Folk Songs. New York: Scholastic Inc., 1993.
Dixon, Ann, retold by. How Raven Brought Light. New York: Margaret K. McElderry Books, 1992.
Duncan, Lois. The Magic of Spider Woman. New York: Scholastic, Inc., 1996.
Goldin, Barbara Diamond. Coyote and the Firestick. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1996.
Hausman, Gerald, collected and retold by. Coyote Walks on Two Legs: A Book of Navajo Myths and Legends. New York: Philomel Books, 1995.
Mayo, Gretchen Will. Big Trouble for Tricky Rabbit. New York: Walker and Company, 1994.
________. Earthmaker's Tales: North American Indian Stories About Earth Happenings. New York: Walker and Company, 1989.
________. Here Comes Tricky Rabbit! New York: Walker and Company, 1994.
________. Meet Tricky Coyote! New York: Walker and Company, 1993.
________. Star Tales: North American Indian Stories About the Stars. New York: Walker and Company, 1987.
________. That Tricky Coyote! New York: Walker and Company, 1993.
Mayo, Margaret, retold by. When the World Was Young. New York: Simon and Schuster Books for Young Readers, 1995.
McDermott, Gerald. Coyote: A Trickster Tale from the American Southwest. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1994.
________. Raven: A Trickster Tale from the Pacific Northwest. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers, 1993.
Monroe, Jean Guard and Ray A. Williamson. They Dance in the Sky: Native American Star Myths. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1987.
Rose, Anne, adapted by. Spider in the Sky. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1978.
Ross, Gayle. How Rabbit Tricked Otter and Other Cherokee Trickster Stories. New York: HarperCollins, 1994.
Sage, James. Coyote Makes Man. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994.
Stevens, Janet, retold by. Coyote Steals the Blanket. New York: Holiday House, 1993.
________. Old Bag of Bones: A Coyote Tale. New York: Holiday House, 1996.
Strauss, Susan, adapted by. Coyote Stories for Children: Tales from Native America. Hillsboro OR: Beyond Words Publishing, 1991.
Suter, Joanne. World Myths and Legends: Native American. Belmont, CA: Fearon/Janus, 1992.
Hirsch, Jr., E.D., ed. What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.
Taylor, Colin F., editorial consultant. Native American Myths and Legends. New York: Smithmark Publishers Inc., 1994.
American Indian Activity Book. Dana Point, CA: Edupress.
Hoven, Leigh. Thematic Unit: Native Americans. Huntington Beach, CA: Teacher Created Materials, Inc., 1990.
Moen, Christine Boardman. Better Than Book Reports. New York: Scholastic Professional Books, 1992.
Strohl, Mary and Susan Schneck. Native Americans: Cooperative Learning
Activities. New York: Scholastic Inc., 1991.
This lesson complements the study in American History this month of Western Native American culture. It may be done before, during or after American History Lesson 36, which focuses on this topic. The trickster stories listed under Suggested Books may be read aloud to students, or may be assigned to students for independent or small group reading. There is also a trickster story attached to this lesson which may be copied and given to each student. Ideally, students will read selections that introduce them to several different tricksters, such as rabbit, coyote and raven. The activities that follow may be used with any of the stories, with the exception of the Trickster Comparison and Contrast, which should be done after students have read several stories featuring different tricksters.
Related to this lesson, students have read about another Native American
trickster figure in Second Grade, Iktomi.
Tell students that they will be reading Native American trickster stories this month, and write "trickster stories" on the board. Ask: What do you expect trickster stories to be about? (Answers will vary, allow a few minutes for students to share ideas and predictions.) Tell students that in many Native American cultures, stories were told that took place when the world was very young. During this time, animals looked just like human beings, and like human beings they experienced thoughts and emotions. They could talk, live in lodges and marry, just as human beings. When they wished, they could put on their animal skin and take on the appearance of an animal. They also had the ability to make the world respond when they spoke. These animal people had personalities like that of the animals they were. Some of the animals were "tricky." Ask: What does it mean if something is "tricky" (Answers will vary, but may include: clever, difficult, crafty, cunning, sly, wily, deceptive, complicated and misleading.) Ask: What animals do you think Native Americans considered tricky? (Accept all guesses.) Tell students that Indians in various parts of the continent assigned the characteristic of tricky to different animals. In the northwest and far north, Raven was considered the trickster, on the Great Plains it was Coyote, and in the southwest, Rabbit was the main trickster. In trickster stories, the trickster is usually clever, and uses his cleverness to make up for a lack of something else. Though the trickster may seem weak, he is known to have the ability to get the better of someone strong and powerful. True to his name, the trickster is frequently involved in tricks and pranks, and is often found breaking the rules to get what he wants. Trickster stories sometimes tell how the trickster gets mixed up in a series of events that explain why things exist as they do, or why they came to be, for example, how light was brought to earth, or why the bear has a short tail.
After introducing trickster stories to the students by sharing the above
information, read, or have them read, some of the trickster tales. Then,
complete the following activities.
Buffalo Hide Re-telling Adapted from Native American Indian Activity
For each student
A brown paper grocery bag
A copy of the Symbol Sheet (attached)
For each small group of students
A small container of water
Tempera paints in natural/earth colors (such as red, brown, black, orange)
or crayons in these colors
Tell students that though Native Americans did not use written language to pass on their trickster stories, they did have symbols they used to record events within the tribes. Often these symbols were painted on a buffalo hide that was suspended between tree trunks. The Plains Indians called this form of record keeping "Winter Count" (write on the board). Winter Counts were passed on from generation to generation as a record of what had occurred, the history of the tribe. Tell students that instead of using symbols to record tribal events, they will use them to summarize the story.
Tell students that the first step is to create a "buffalo skin." Distribute the paper bags and scissors and show students how to cut open their bags (along a seam) and lay them flat on their desks. Next, distribute the paintbrushes and the containers of water. Instruct students to dip their paintbrushes in the water and paint a wavy water line about one inch away from the edge of the bag. Bags should then be torn along this water line to give them a ragged, rough edge. Next, students should crumble their bags into a ball to give them a wrinkled surface, and again lay them flat on their desks.
Now distribute the Symbol Sheet and tell students that they can select
symbols from this sheet, as well as make up their own, to re-tell the trickster
story they read. Distribute paints for students to use to paint the symbols
on their "buffalo skins." (Or allow students to draw the symbols with crayons.)
A Trickster Puzzle
For each pair or small group of students
A copy on heavy paper of the puzzle sheet, attached
Crayons, markers or colored pencils
Put students into pairs or small groups and tell them to think about the personality of the trickster in the story they read. How would they describe him? Tell students that they will create a puzzle based on this trickster. Distribute the puzzle sheet and instruct pairs to use the middle block to write a paragraph describing the trickster. What are his strengths? Is he clever? Quick? What are his weaknesses? Is he foolish? Irresponsible? Once this paragraph has been written, students should take turns drawing illustrations in the other blocks, of scenes in the story which serve to support the descriptions they gave in the paragraph. For example, if they describe him as heroic, they should have a picture of him performing a heroic deed from the story.
Once the paragraphs and pictures are complete, instruct students to turn the paper over and draw lines to create up to ten interlocking pieces on the back. They should then cut the paper apart along the lines to create a puzzle, and put all of the puzzle pieces into the envelope. Groups can then exchange puzzles, put them together, read what other classmates have written and look at the accompanying illustrations.
Note: If more than one trickster story has been read, allow students
to select the trickster they would like, and tell them to write the name
of the story above the paragraph in the middle box.
A Parade of Shoe Box Floats
For each small group
A shoe box
Construction paper in a variety of colors
Place students into small groups of two or three. Tell them to think back over the trickster story (or stories) and recall memorable scenes. Allow groups several minutes to share what scenes they found most memorable. Then, tell students that they will be creating a shoe box float depicting one of the memorable scenes. (If necessary, discuss with students what a float is.) Distribute the materials and allow students to cut figures and shapes out of the construction paper to create a scene on top of the shoe box. All figures and shapes should be made with a base that can be folded and glued to the top of the box, which should be covered with an appropriate color construction paper. When the floats are complete, students should describe on a piece of lined or light-colored paper what the float is depicting, and should attach this description to the side of the float. Allow groups to show their floats to the class, then line the floats up in a parade along a
A Trickster Comparison and Contrast
Lead your students in a discussion in which they compare and contrast
the different tricksters they have met in the trickster stories. Discuss
answers to the following questions:
What characteristics do the tricksters have in common?
How are they different?
Who is the trickiest? Why?
Which trickster caused the most trouble?
Which trickster seems most human?
Which trickster would you be the most likely to trust? Who the least likely?
Did any of the tricksters seem to learn from their mistakes? If so, what do you think they learned? If not, why not?
Different tribes chose different animals to take on the role of trickster.
What do you think it was about the animals in the trickster stories you
read that led to them being chosen as tricksters? What animal would you
choose to be a trickster? Why?
For each student
A sheet of lined paper
Challenge students to record information about the trickster story by following these instructions:
Oral Retelling (optional)
Tell students that the way a story was told among Native Americans was very important. Tribal rules and guidelines had to be followed. For example, the Blackfoot insisted that legends be told after dark, and the Yavapai considered it dangerous to tell their stories during the summer months when snakes and spiders might hear and bite them. Many times stories were told with the tribe gathered in a circle around a fire.
Tell students to select a trickster story to tell to the rest of the class. Students should read and reread the story until they know it well. They should then practice telling it to family and friends at home, using different voices and appropriate gestures. Encourage students to throw themselves into the stories to make them lively! In addition to memorizing the story and preparing to tell it, students should do some research on the tribe from which the story comes. Where did they live, and what was the environment like there? What did they eat? What type of shelter did they use? What types of art did they create? Prior to telling the story, students should share this information with the class as background.
When students are ready to tell their trickster stories, allow the class to sit in a circle, on the floor if possible. The teller should also be in the circle, and may want to hold a "talking stick" that designates him or her as the person others should be listening to. Joseph Bruchac, in Native American Stories, suggests that the teller involve the listeners by occasionally pausing in the story and asking "Ho?" to which the listeners should respond "Hey!". Remind tellers to speak slowly so that the audience can fully enjoy the story.
As an extension to this activity, you may want to invite a class of
younger students in for an afternoon of story telling. Your students could
pair off with younger students and tell them the stories they have memorized,
or younger students may enjoy listening in a circle, as described above.
Fifth Grade - Literature - Myths and Legends - American Indian Trickster Stories
Coyote Goes to the Land of the Dead
from What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know by E.D. Hirsch
It had been a bitter winter, filled with sickness and death. Coyote's wife fell ill, then died. Coyote wept.
Eagle tried to cheer him. "Spring will soon be here," he said. "Soon the ice on the river will break and the bears will fish again." But still Coyote wept. His lonely howls filled the night.
One day the Death Spirit came to Coyote and said, "You feel great pain because your wife is dead. I will take you where she has gone. Follow me. But listen: you must do exactly what I tell you."
"Of course, of course, whatever you say," promised Coyote. "But it is very hard to see you." It was hard, because the Spirit was invisible in the daylight.
"I will carry something for you to follow, then," said the Spirit. "Give me something your wife loved." Coyote hated to give away anything that reminded him of his wife. Reluctantly he gave the Spirit a feather his wife had worn when she danced.
They set off. In the daytime Coyote could see the feather. At night, he could not see the feather but he could see the shimmering Death Spirit.
Soon they were in a vast plain. The wind blew swirls of snow. Then the Spirit stopped. "Now," it said, "do as I do." The Spirit pointed ahead and said, "What a fine group of strong-looking horses there."
Coyote saw nothing, but pointed and said, "Yes, what a fine group of strong-looking horses there."
They walked on for some time, until the Spirit said, "There, just ahead, is the longhouse."
"Yes," said Coyote, though he saw nothing, "there is the longhouse."
The Spirit walked ahead, then bent down as if to lift a skin-covered door and crawl into a longhouse. Coyote did the same.
"Take a seat there, next to your wife," the Spirit ordered. Coyote sat, though he saw nothing around him but open plain.
"Now, your wife will serve us something warm," the Spirit said. Coyote looked around eagerly but could see nothing. He cupped his hands before his chest, as the Spirit did. Then both drank from their hands. Strangely, Coyote felt warmed.
"Now we must wait for nightfall," said the Spirit. Coyote slept. When he woke, he heard the sounds of drums. When he looked around, he saw shadowlike figures in the darkness, dancing. He recognized his old friends who had died in the hard winter and in years past. Then he saw his wife. He greeted her with joy, then they all talked and danced till morning. When the sun rose, the spirits disappeared.
By day, Coyote slept fitfully on the open ground in the bitter air. At night, he woke to find himself in the great longhouse surrounded by the spirits of his loved ones. Night after night they talked and danced.
Then the Death Spirit came to Coyote and said, "It is time for you to go." Coyote began to protest but the Spirit silenced him. "Listen: your wife may go with you. She may leave the Land of the Dead and return to the Land of the Living, but only if you do exactly as I say. Follow your wife for five days over five mountains. On the sixth day, when you have crossed all five mountains and see the fires of home, only then may you touch her. Do not touch her before then.
If you do anything foolish then the spirits of the dead will never again be able to return to the Land of the Living."
The Death Spirit tied the feather that had belonged to Coyote's wife to her hair so Coyote could follow her spirit in the daytime. In the morning Coyote set off, following the feather as it floated along. On the first day they crossed the first mountain. On the second day they crossed the second mountain. As they went on, Coyote no longer needed to watch the feather, for the farther they went, the more clearly he could see his wife.
On the fifth night they camped on the fifth mountain. Coyote sat and watched the glow of the fire on his wife's face and hair. He could see her well, so well. Then--who can say what drove Coyote to do this?--he jumped across the fire and gathered his wife into his arms. As he touched her, she vanished. He cried out as the feather dropped to the ground.
The Death Spirit appeared before Coyote and said sternly, "See what you have done. Because of you, no spirit will ever again return from the dead."
Coyote ran howling back over the five mountains till he came again to the open plain. Though he saw nothing but swirling dust and snow, he stopped and said, "What a fine group of strong-looking horses there." Then he went on and said, "There, just ahead, is the longhouse." Then he bent as though to lift a skin-covered door and crawled in on his knees. Then he cupped his hands and drank from them but felt nothing. He waited through the night to hear drums and see spirits dancing. But he heard only wind, and saw only darkness.
The next day, he began the long walk home.
Fifth Grade - Literature - Myths and Legends - American Indian Trickster
A CHARACTER PUZZLE
Fifth Grade - Literature - Speeches - "I Will Fight No More Forever"
Hear background to Chief Joseph's speech "I will fight no more forever."
Read the speech.
Generate a new title for the speech.
Rewrite parts of the speech in modern language.
Interpret the meaning of aspects of the speech.
Classroom-size map of the United States
For each student
A copy of "I Will Fight No More Forever" (attached)
A copy of the worksheet "I Will Fight No More Forever"
"Joseph, a Chief of the Nez Percé." Cobblestone, September 1990. This issue of the popular children's magazine is all about the life of Chief Joseph. Issues can be ordered by calling (603) 924-7209 or by writing Cobblestone Publishing, Inc., 30 Grove Street, Peterborough, NH 03458.
Duncan, Dayton. People of the West. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1996. Contains an entire chapter on Chief Joseph, written at a level appropriate for fifth graders and containing plenty of pictures.
________. The West: An Illustrated History for Children. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1996. Pages 96-100 contain the story of Chief Joseph's flight and eventual surrender to army forces.
Griffin-Pierce, Trudy. The Encyclopedia of Native America. New York: Viking, 1995. Pages 113-115 focus on Chief Joseph and include interesting excerpts from other speeches that he made.
Murdoch, David. Eyewitness Books: North American Indian. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995. There is a picture of Chief Joseph on page 39 and information about him and the Nez Perc on pages 38-39.
Upton, Harriet. Indian Chiefs. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Publications, Inc., 1990. Contains a succinct chapter entitled, "Chief Joseph, Nez Percé Pacifist."
Hirsch, Jr., E.D., ed. What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know.
New York: Doubleday, 1993. Is the source of the excerpt of the speech attached.
In this lesson, students take a closer look at a specific example of conflict between the U.S. government and army and a Native American tribe. The tribe was the Nez Percé, led by Chief Joseph. After listening to the historical background, students read part of the speech made by Chief Joseph when he surrendered. Students then respond to a variety of questions based on the speech.
Note that this lesson should be taught after American History Lesson 37. The speech itself has been printed twice on the page to reduce duplication time and materials.
Tell students that today, they will learn about the conflict that occurred between the Nez Percé (write the name of this tribe on the board), a Native American tribe that lived on the Plateau, and the U.S. government and army. Tell students to think back to American History Lesson 36, on the culture of Western Native American tribes. Ask: Since the Nez Percé were a Plateau tribe, what do you already know, or remember, about their culture and way of life? (They lived north of the Great Basin in an area in between the Rocky Mountains and the Cascade Mountains, where winters are quite cold but springs and summers are mild; they were well-known as horse traders and for the corn-husk bags they wove, and traded with the tribes of the Northwest and with settlers; they lived in partly underground shelters and in tepees; they lived near water and ate fish, beaver, wild corn and roots.) Remind students that unlike many of the tribes of the Great Plains, who frequently raided one another's villages, most of the tribes of the Plateau, including the Nez Percé, valued a peaceful way of life. In fact, the Nez Percé promised the first white men they met, Lewis and Clark, that they would never make war on white men.
Tell students the following historical background:
In the mid-1800s, there were small groups of Nez Percé living where the states of Oregon, Washington and Idaho meet (point out on the map of the United States). Each small group, or band, had its own chief. One of these chiefs was Old Joseph, who lived with his band in the northeastern corner of Oregon. In 1855 Old Joseph and many other chiefs of the Nez Percé signed a treaty with the U.S. government that determined which land would remain the territory of the tribes, and which was open to white settlers. Because of their religious beliefs, the land they lived on was very important to the Nez Percé. Eight years after this treaty was signed, in 1863, the U.S. government again approached the Nez Percé with another treaty that would give money to the tribes to give up more of their land. Some of the tribes were willing to sign the treaty and accept money in exchange for land, but Old Joseph was not. Though the government tried to convince Old Joseph and his tribe to move out of the beautiful Wallowa Valley in Oregon, they refused. The woods and rivers of this land provided them with plenty of food, and they knew well how to use the resources in this area to make clothing and shelter.
When Old Joseph died, his son, also named Joseph, assumed leadership of the tribe. Before Old Joseph died, however, he gave his son instructions never to sell the land they lived on--land that contained the burial grounds of Joseph's relatives. Old Joseph's son came to be known as Chief Joseph, and the U.S. government soon found out that he was no more willing to give up the land than his father had been. Chief Joseph found it difficult to keep the land without going to war, but continued to try to argue that his tribe had a right to stay where they were. The U.S. government said that because some Nez Percé chiefs had signed the 1863 treaty, all the Nez Percé tribes were bound to follow it. Chief Joseph argued that this reasoning was along these lines: A newcomer wanted to buy a particular horse belonging to a man. The man was unwilling to sell the horse, but the man's neighbor said, pay me money and I will sell you the horse. After listening to Chief Joseph, some whites in the government became convinced that he was right, but settlers wanted the land badly, and in 1877 the government ordered the army to force Chief Joseph's tribe and the other Nez Percé tribes still in the territory to move.
Chief Joseph decided comply with the army and move--he and the other chiefs did not want to fight. With heavy hearts, they prepared to make the journey to their new home. Before they could leave, however, several angry, young Nez Percé men decided to take revenge, and attacked some white settlers. When Chief Joseph and the other chiefs heard what had happened, they realized that they would be punished or killed, and decided that war could not be avoided. The Nez Percé tribes began to head for the villages of the Crow Indians, who they hoped would join in on their side of the war. On their way to Crow territory, they engaged in several battles with the army. When they reached the Crow, however, the Crow refused to join in the fight; they were afraid of the U.S. army.
Chief Joseph and the other chiefs now decided to head for Canada, where they would be able to live without the interference of the U.S. government. The Nez Percé tribes, now tired and facing the increasing cold of winter, pushed to try to stay ahead of the army. Troops caught up with them just thirty miles from the Canadian border, where Joseph and the only other chief to survive the war, White Bird, finally surrendered.
Tell students that what they are about to read is the speech Chief Joseph
made when he surrendered. After reading it, they should respond to the
questions on the worksheet entitled "I Will Fight No More Forever." Distribute
both the speech and the worksheet to students. Once students have completed
the worksheet, discuss their responses to each of the questions.
Suggested Follow-up Activities
And then what happenend?
Instruct students to use the resources above under Suggested Books,
or other appropriate resources, to find out what happened to Chief Joseph
after he surrendered. Students able to find this information should prepare
a brief oral report to share with the class.
Research Other Chiefs
Instruct students to do independent research to find out more about
other prominent Indian chiefs. Possible chiefs to research include Tecumseh,
Sequoyah, Black Hawk, Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull, Geronimo, and Osceola.
"I WILL FIGHT NO MORE FOREVER"
A speech by Chief Joseph of the Nez Percé
"I WILL FIGHT NO MORE FOREVER"
What did Chief Joseph mean when he said, "From where the sun now stands,
I will fight no more forever."? Rewrite this statement in your own words.
Chief Joseph faced a conflict: his ancestors had promised that his tribe
would not make war on white men, but his father, Old Joseph, had told him
not to give up the tribe's land. As he felt more pressure from the U.S.
government, he could not keep both of these promises. Which promise do
you think was more important to Chief Joseph, and why? Use information
you heard today in class to support your answer.
The title of this speech by Chief Joseph is a line from within the speech:
I will fight no more forever. Give the speech a new title, and write it
on the line(s) below, then explain why your new title is appropriate.
What is the mood of this speech? Describe it, using words from the speech
to explain your answer. (Use the back if necessary.)
Dickinson, Emily. Poems for Youth. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1996.(0-316-18435-7)
Hall, Donald, chosen and edited by. The Oxford Book of Children's Verse in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985. (0-10-503539-9)
Harmon, William, edited by. The Top 500 Poems. New York: Columbia
University Press, 1992.(0-231-08028-X)
Read Aloud/Student Titles
Brown, Dee. Dee Brown's Folktales of the Native American. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1979, 1993. (0-8050-2067-X)
Bruchac, Joseph, told by. Native American Stories. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing, 1991.(1-55591-094-7)
Cohn, Amy L., compiled by. From Sea to Shining Sea: A Treasury of American Folklore and Folk Songs. New York: Scholastic Inc., 1993. (0-590-42868-3)
dePaola, Tomie. Strega Nona. New York: Prentice-Hall Books for Young Readers, 1975.(0-13-851600-6)
________. Strega Nona Meets Her Match. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1993.(0-399-22421-1)
Dixon, Ann, retold by. How Raven Brought Light. New York: Margaret K. McElderry Books, 1992. (0-689-50536-1)
Duncan, Lois. The Magic of Spider Woman. New York: Scholastic, Inc., 1996. (0-590-46155-9)
Goldin, Barbara Diamond. Coyote and the Firestick. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1996. (0-15-2004386)
Hausman, Gerald, collected and retold by. Coyote Walks on Two Legs: A Book of Navajo Myths and Legends. New York: Philomel Books, 1995. (0-399-22018-6)
Mayo, Gretchen Will. Big Trouble for Tricky Rabbit. New York: Walker and Company, 1994.(0-8027-8275-2)
________. Earthmaker's Tales: North American Indian Stories About Earth Happenings. New York: Walker and Company, 1989. (0-8027-6839-3)
________. Here Comes Tricky Rabbit! New York: Walker and Company, 1994.(0-8027-8273-6)
________. Meet Tricky Coyote! New York: Walker and Company, 1993. (0-8027-8198-5)
________. Star Tales: North American Indian Stories About the Stars. New York: Walker and Company, 1987. (0-8027-6672-2)
________. That Tricky Coyote! New York: Walker and Company, 1993. (0-8027-8200-0)
Mayo, Margaret, retold by. When the World Was Young. New York: Simon and Schuster Books for Young Readers, 1995. (0-689-80867-4)
McCaughrean, Geraldine. The Golden Hoard. New York: Margaret K. McElderry Books, 1995.(0-689-80741-4)
McDermott, Gerald. Coyote: A Trickster Tale from the American Southwest. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1994. (0-15-220724-4)
________. Raven: A Trickster Tale from the Pacific Northwest. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers, 1993. (0-15-265661-8)
Meddaugh, Susan. Hog-eye. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1995. (0-395-74276-5) Monroe, Jean Guard and Ray A. Williamson. They Dance in the Sky: Native American Star Myths. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1987. (0-395-39970-X)
Rose, Anne, adapted by. Spider in the Sky. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1978.(0-06-025073-9)
Ross, Gayle. How Rabbit Tricked Otter and Other Cherokee Trickster Stories. New York: HarperCollins, 1994. (0-06-021285-3)
Sage, James. Coyote Makes Man. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994. (0-689-80011-8)
San Souci, Robert, adapted by. The Legend of Scarface: A Blackfeet Indian Tale. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1978. (0-385-13247-6)
Stevens, Janet, retold by. Coyote Steals the Blanket. New York: Holiday House, 1993.(0-8234-0996-1)
________. Old Bag of Bones: A Coyote Tale. New York: Holiday House, 1996.
Strauss, Susan, adapted by. Coyote Stories for Children: Tales from Native America. Hillsboro OR: Beyond Words Publishing, 1991. (0-941831-62-0)
Suter, Joanne. World Myths and Legends: Native American. Belmont, CA: Fearon/Janus, 1992.(0-8224-4640-5)
Thayer, Ernest Lawrence. Casey at the Bat. New York: Workman Publishing, 1987.(0-89480-303-4)
________. Casey at the Bat. New York: Atheneum Books for Young Readers, 1994.(0-689-31945-2)
________. Casey at the Bat. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1977. (0-486-23461-4)
________. Casey at the Bat. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1988. (0-399-21585-9)
________. Casey at the Bat. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, Inc., 1978.(0-698-20457-3)
Van Allsburg, Chris. Jumanji. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1981. (0-395-30448-2)
Westcott, Nadine Bernard. I Know an Old Lady Who Swallowed a Fly. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1980. (0-316-93128-4)
Willard, Nancy. The Sorcerer's Apprentice. New York: The Blue
Sky Press, 1993.(0-590-47329-8)
"Joseph, a Chief of the Nez Perce." Cobblestone, September 1990.
Duncan, Dayton. People of the West. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1996.(0-316-19633-9)
________. The West: An Illustrated History for Children. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1996. (0-316-19632-0)
Griffin-Pierce, Trudy. The Encyclopedia of Native America. New York: Viking, 1995.(0-670-85104-3)
Hirsch, E.D., edited by. A First Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1989, 1991. (0-395-59901-6)
Murdoch, David. Eyewitness Books: North American Indian. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995. (0-679-96169-0)
Upton, Harriet. Indian Chiefs. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Publications,
Inc., 1990. (0-86625-400-5)
Hirsch, Jr., E.D., ed. What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.(0-385-41119-7)
________, edited by. What Your Fourth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell Publishing, 1992. (0-385-31260-1)
Room, Adrian, revised by. Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 1995. (0-06-270133-9)
Taylor, Colin F., editorial consultant. Native American Myths and
Legends. New York: Smithmark Publishers Inc., 1994. (0-8317-6290-X)
American Indian Activity Book. Dana Point, CA: Edupress.
Hoven, Leigh. Thematic Unit: Native Americans. Huntington Beach, CA: Teacher Created Materials, Inc., 1990. (1-55734-285-7)
Moen, Christine Boardman. Better Than Book Reports. New York: Scholastic Professional Books, 1992. (0-590-49213-6)
Strohl, Mary and Susan Schneck. Native Americans: Cooperative Learning Activities. New York: Scholastic Inc., 1991. (0-590-49151-2)