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Fifth Grade - American Geography - Overview - March

The Civil War is the theme of American Geography in March. There are three lessons in the American Geography unit. They use maps and circle or pie graphs to offer some background to American History this month. American Geography Lesson 14, "Regions of the USA" offers definitions of the terms "region," "North" and "South" and uses maps of the USA. Students will meet these three terms during American History lessons on The Civil War. American Geography Lesson 15, "North and South in the 1800s (Part 1)" uses special purpose maps to compare the landforms, climate, and economy of the North and South in the 1800s. Lesson 16, "North and South in the 1800s (Part 2)" uses circle or pie graphs to compare the proportion of population, wealth produced, railroad mileage, factories, bank deposits, and farms in the North and South in the 1800s. Use Geography Lessons 14 and 15 before American History Lesson 24. Use American Geography Lesson 16 after American History Lesson 28.

The Civil War is also the subject of American History in March. There are five lessons in that unit. Lessons 24 to 26 describe the events that led up to The Civil War. Lessons 27 and 28 deal with two early battles of the war. Lesson 24, "Toward The Civil War (Part 1)" discusses two causes of The Civil War, the differences between the industrial North and the agricultural South and the issue of paid labor in the North versus slave labor in the South. Lesson 25, "Toward The Civil War (Part 2)" discusses two additional causes of The Civil War, the issue of slavery and the issue of states' rights. In Lesson 26, "Towards The Civil War (Part 3)" the focus is on Lincoln's election as president and how this pushed South Carolina and other Southern states to secede. Lesson 27, "The Civil War (Part 1)" discusses Confederate President Jefferson Davis and the attack on Fort Sumter. Lesson 28, "The Civil War (Part 2)" describes the First Battle of Bull Run also known as the Battle of Manassas.

In Literature this month, there is one lesson on Frederick Douglass' Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written By Himself, a slave narrative that illustrates the conditions of slavery, one of the causes of The Civil War. Use the lesson on Frederick Douglass after American History Lesson 25.

The Civil War is the subject of American Geography and History in April.
 

Fifth Grade - American Geography - Lesson 14 - Regions of the USA

Objective

Examine different ways of defining a region using special purpose maps of the USA.
 

Materials

Classroom-size map of the world

Classroom-size map of the USA

Worksheets, attached (one copy per student)

Maps, attached (one copy per student, or for transparency)

Sentence strip containing the following definition: Region: a region is a group of states that have one or more of the following in common: (1) location, (2) landforms, (3) climate, and (4) way of life, etc.
 

Suggested Books

Teacher Reference

Hirsch, E. D., ed. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

Nystrom. The Nystrom Atlas of Our Country. Chicago: Nystrom, 1996.

This atlas uses varying criteria to divide the USA into regions.
 

Teacher Background

This lesson (as well as Lesson 15) defines the key terms "region," "North," and "South" used in all American History and those Literature lessons for March and April that deal with the Civil War. Coming American Geography lessons examine various aspects of North and South. American History lessons this month show how the divisions between North and South in the 1800s led to the American Civil War.

Although this may be the students' first close look at the concept of regions, they should recall previous topics in geography and history and connect these topics to the definition presented here. Prior topics in Fifth Grade history and geography that suggest divisions into regions include: Central and South America, the Caribbean, Westward Expansion, Western Europe, Russia, the Pacific Rim countries, and Southeast Asia. Earlier in Fifth Grade geography and history, students were also introduced to climatic zones, time zones, and lake regions of the world.

You may copy the worksheets and the maps and distribute them to the students as a packet. This lesson may also be done as an entire class using transparencies. However, using transparencies will make it a teacher-directed lesson.
 

Procedure

Ask for student volunteers to identify Western Europe, Central America, the Pacific Rim, and the Caribbean on a map of the world. Tell the students that these areas are regions. Write the word "region" on the board. Explain that a region is a way of grouping places that are similar. Explain that in the above-mentioned cases, a region means two or more countries that are similar. Point out, for example, that the Caribbean is an archipelago of islands many of which are self-governing countries. Explain also that the term Western Europe refers to a group of self-governing countries. Tell the students that the Caribbean and Western Europe are two groups in which countries have similar locations or are located close to one another. Emphasize that countries with a similar location may be grouped as a region.

Ask for a volunteer to point out the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer on the map of the world. Remind the students that countries lying between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer are said to be in the Tropic Zone. Ask the students to point out areas on the map that are in the Tropic Zone (Caribbean, Central America, Southeast Asia) and to describe a tropical climate (very warm). Explain to the students that the Caribbean, Central America, and Southeast Asia that are in the Tropic Zone share a similar climate. Explain that countries with a similar climate may be grouped into a region.

Remind the students that they have been introduced to Daniel Boone and Lewis and Clark in recent American History lessons. Ask the students: What did Daniel Boone and Lewis and

Clark explore? (American West) Ask for a volunteer to identify the American West on a map of the world or of the USA. Explain that the American West also is a region. Point out that the difference in the case of the American West is that this region is only a part of a country, and not individual countries as in the case of the Caribbean or Western Europe. Explain that the American West got its name because it is located in the western section of the contiguous USA. Write the word "contiguous" and its meaning on the board and explain by referring to the map of the USA that it means those states of the USA that touch each other, as opposed to Hawaii or Alaska that do not touch each other.

Next, assign the students to pairs, and write the following definition on the board. A region may be defined by: (1) location, (2) landforms, (3) climate, and (4) way of life. Then, ask the students to discuss for the next two minutes the meaning of the word "region" with their partners and prepare to answer the following question which you will write on the board.
Cuba is an island in the Caribbean. Spain is in Europe. Both countries speak

Spanish. Could Cuba and Spain be part of the same region? Explain your answer.

After two minutes, ask for volunteers to answer the question and have the students discuss the answer. Emphasize that language is part of our way of life and Cuba and Spain may be grouped into the same region, in this case, countries that speak Spanish.

Ask the students to think of one advantage of grouping places into regions. Allow two minutes for the students to discuss and invite volunteers to share their answers with the class. Write the answers on the board. Emphasize that grouping places into regions is a way of classifying and that makes it easier to see what these places have in common.

Next write the following definition on sentence strip. Explain that this definition relates to this part of the lesson.
Region: a region is a group of states that have one or more of the following in 

common: (1) location, (2) landforms, (3) climate, and (4) way of life, etc.

Explain that the word "region" is defined as a group of states because you are discussing the USA, which is made up of states. Explain that were the USA made up of provinces you would say that a region is a group of provinces, etc.

This lesson may be done using transparencies of the attached maps. In that case, put up the transparencies of the maps on the overhead, distribute the worksheets, and ask the class to complete each activity. Allow a minute for students to think and write, and ask for volunteers to read their answers. This may be done after a step or an activity has been completed. In each instance, sample some answers and have the class discuss them.

If you have made copies of the worksheets and the maps, distribute them and assign the students to pairs. Explain that pairs should work together and discuss the activities but tell them that every student is responsible for keeping a record of his or her work. When students have completed the exercise, ask for volunteers to read the answers aloud, and have the class as a whole discuss these answers. Next, ask for suggestions of other ways of grouping places into regions (islands, continents, vegetation, etc.).

Close by telling the students it would help for them to remember what the terms region, North, and South mean because in coming American Geography lessons you will discuss the differences between North and South and how these differences caused the bloodiest war in American History, the American Civil War of 1861 to 1865.
 

DIRECTIONS

A region is a group of states that have one or more of the following in common: (1) location, (2) landforms, (3) climate, and (4) way of life. The following maps show different ways of defining regions. Complete Activities 1 through 3 using the maps below.
 

Activity 1

Look at the map titled "North and South in 1820." This map divides North and South by their location. In 1820, many Americans considered the area north of the Missouri Compromise Line as the North. The South was the area south of the Missouri Compromise Line.
 

Step A

Write the names of two slave states and two states where slavery was not allowed.
 

States where slavery was not allowed:_____________________________________________
 

Slave states:___________________________________________________________________
 

Activity 2

Look at the map titled "Landforms of the Contiguous USA." The term "contiguous states" refers to states that touch each other. The height of the land is used to define regions in this map.
 

Step A

Pennsylvania is a Northern state. Louisiana is in the South. Contrast the landforms of Pennsylvania and Louisiana.
 

_____________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Step B

Suggest another landform that could be added to those used on the map.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

_____________________________________________________________________________
 

Activity 3

Look at the map titled "Climates of the Contiguous USA." This map uses climate to divide the USA into regions. Climate is the average weather of a place.
 

Step A

Contrast the climate of Pennsylvania and Louisiana.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 
 
 
 
 

Fifth Grade - American Geography - Lesson 14 - Regions of the USA
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Step B

Suggest another way of dividing the contiguous USA into regions.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Activity 4

Use information from any of the three maps to complete the following:
 

Step A

North and South are different regions geographically. Using the maps, state one other difference between North and South.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Step B

Contrast the states of Pennsylvania and Louisiana using two facts from the maps.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Fifth Grade - American Geography - Lesson 15 - North and South in the 1800s (Part 1)
 

Objective

Contrast the North and South in the 1800s using special purpose maps.
 

Materials

Worksheets, attached (one copy per student)

Maps, attached (one copy per student, or for transparencies)

Sentence strip containing the following definition: Region: a region is a group of states that have one or more of the following in common: (1) location, (2) landforms, (3) climate, and (4) way of life, etc. (from Lesson 14)
 

Suggested Books

Teacher Reference

Hirsch, E. D., ed. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

Nystrom. The Nystrom Atlas of Our Country. Chicago: Nystrom, 1996.
 

Teacher Background

This lesson builds on Lesson 14 which dealt with different ways of defining a region and introduced the terms "region," "North," and "South." In this lesson, students will read special purpose maps of the North and South during the early 1800s, interpret information from these maps and use this information to explain the differences between the North and the South in the 1800s.

This lesson may be completed as home assignment or by groups or individuals during class. It may also be done as an entire class using transparencies of the maps. However, because Activities 4 and 6 require students to compare maps, it would be easier if students had individual copies of the maps in question. American History Lesson 24 "Toward the Civil War (Part 1)" should be used after this lesson.
 

Procedure

Remind the students that the North was the area north of the Missouri Compromise Line and the South was the area south of that line. Indicate the line to the students and tell them they will learn more about it in the next American History lesson (Lesson 24) but for now they should simply consider it as the unofficial boundary between North and South in the early 1800s. Ask the students to recall some examples of Northern states (New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, etc.) and some examples of Southern states (Louisiana, North Carolina, Georgia, etc.) from the previous American Geography lesson. Ask the students to recall some basic differences between North and South (slavery, climate, landforms, etc.).

Tell the students that this lesson introduces the differences in the ways of life between the North and the South in the early 1800s. Tell the students that "way of life" refers to the work people do to earn their living. Explain that in the 1800s, some people earned their living by farming or grazing animals. Explain that these activities are agricultural. Tell the students that others worked in factories where goods were manufactured. Write the word "manufacturing" on the board and explain that manufacturing means making a new product using raw materials. Explain to the students that making cloth out of cotton is an example of manufacturing as is making iron and steel from iron ore. Tell the students that people who work in manufacturing are industrial workers. Write the word "industrial" on the board.

Display the sentence strip containing the definition of the word "region" from the prior American History lesson. Draw the students' attention to the sentence strip and ask them to refer

to it if they need to. If students will be completing the exercise as group work, assign the students to pairs and remind students that each of them is responsible for recording his or her answers. If students are using individual copies of the worksheets with copies of the maps, distribute these to the students.

If you are using transparencies of the maps, put them on the overhead and distribute the worksheets. Explain that the maps used in this lesson are used not just to show the location of the North and South but to provide specific information about these regions. Tell the students that they should pay attention to the titles (point them out) and keys (point them out) to the maps, because they tell what the purpose of the map is. Explain, for example, that the map titled "Landforms of the North and South" shows where mountains, hills, and plains, etc. are located in the North and South.

Also, point out the connection between maps. (This comparison would be easier if students had the maps in question laid out side by side. This requires copies of the maps for individual students' use. Activities 4 and 6 call for comparisons of two or more maps.) Use two maps, for example the maps titled "Cotton Production and Industry in 1860" and "Slave Population in 1860." Draw attention to the fact that these are two different maps of the same regions, the North and South, in the same year, 1860. Show the students that the areas where cotton is produced and those where slaves make up a majority of the county population are similar. Explain that this similarity between the maps should set them thinking whether there is any connection between slaves and cotton in 1860 (slaves provided labor on cotton plantations).

Point to the Directions and Activity 1. Have a student read them aloud. Allow a minute for students to think and write, and ask for volunteers to read their answers. Continue in this manner to complete the worksheets. Close by telling the students that in upcoming American History lessons they will see how these and other differ-ences between North and South led to the bloodiest war in American History, the American Civil War of 1861 to 1865.
 

DIRECTIONS

A region is a group of states that have one or all of the following in common: (1) location,

(2) landforms, (3) climate, and (4) way of life, etc. North and South are the areas on either side of the Missouri Compromise Line. Use the maps to complete the following activities in the space provided.
 

Activity 1

Look at the map titled "Landforms of the North and South." It shows the height of the land.
 

Step A

Describe the landforms of the South.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Activity 2

Look at the map titled "Climates of the North and South." It shows climates of the North and South. Climate is the average weather of a place.
 

Step A

Describe the climate that affects most of the North.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 
 
 

Activity 3

Look at the map titled "Cotton Production and Industry in 1860." It shows where cotton was grown and factories were located.
 

Step A

State whether most manufacturing going on in the USA took place in the North or South.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Step B

Give one reason to explain the location of iron and steel centers on the map.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Fifth Grade - American Geography - Lesson 15 - North and South in the 1800s (Part 1)
 

Step C

State where the major cotton producing areas were located in 1860.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Step D

People's way of life includes how they earn their living. Use the map to contrast how some people in the North and South earned their living.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 
 
 

Activity 4

Compare the map titled "Landforms of the North and South" with the map titled "Climates of the North and South" and the map titled "Cotton Production and Industry in 1860."
 

Step A

Describe the landform on which cotton was grown in the 1800s.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Step B

Describe the climate in which cotton was grown in the 1800s.
 

_____________________________________________________________________________
 

_____________________________________________________________________________
 
 
 

Step C

Give two reasons why cotton was not grown in the North.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Activity 5

Look at the map titled "Slave Population in 1860." It shows the counties where the majority of the people were slaves in 1860.
 

Step A

State whether the slave population was located in the North or the South in 1860.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Step B

Use the location of the slave population to describe one difference between North and South.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 
 
 

Activity 6

Compare the map titled "Cotton Production and Industry in 1860" with the map titled "Slave Population in 1860." Note where manufacturing and iron and steel centers, cotton producing areas, and the slave population are located on both maps.
 

Step A

State whether the industries of the North used slave labor in 1860. Explain your answer.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Step B

State whether the cotton plantations of the South used slave labor in 1860. Explain your answer.
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 

Fifth Grade - American Geography - Lesson 16 - North and South in the 1800s (Part 2)

Note: This lesson should be used after American History Lesson 28.
 

Objectives

Read information on circle or pie graphs.

Contrast the North and South in the 1860s using information from circle or pie graphs.

Evaluate which side would have been better prepared for a war based on the information in the graphs.
 

Materials

Pie graphs, attached (for transparency)

Sentence strip containing the following definition: Region: a region is a group of states that have one or more of the following in common: (1) location, (2) landforms, (3) climate, and (4) way of life, etc. (from Lesson 14)
 

Suggested Books

Teacher Reference

Hirsch, E. D., ed. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

Nystrom. The Nystrom Atlas of Our Country. Chicago: Nystrom, 1996.
 

Teacher Background

Pie graphs are used to compare various parts of a whole, in this case the American North and South in the 1860s. Where more than one graph is presented, the information may be used to make general statements about the whole. In this lesson, students will read, compare and interpret information on circle or pie graphs showing six aspects of economic life in the North and South during the 1860s: (1) population, (2) wealth produced, (3) railroad mileage, (4) factories, (5) bank deposits, and (6) farms. Use transparencies to do this lesson as an entire class. It should follow American History Lesson 28 (The Civil War Part 2).

Procedure

Tell the students that this lesson is about the regions of the North and South in the USA in the 1860s. Draw students' attention to the sentence strip which contains a definition of the word "region." Remind students that the North and South were different in many ways. Refer to the definition, and remind the students that the regions were different geographically. Ask the students to describe the location of the North (north of the Missouri Compromise Line of 1820) and to name some Northern states (Illinois, Maine, etc.), to describe the location of the South (south of the Missouri Compromise Line of 1820) and to name some Southern states (Kentucky, Mississippi, etc.). Remind the students that the landforms of the North and South were different and ask the students to describe those landforms (mainly mountains, hills, and some plains and basins in the North and mainly plains and basins with some hills and mountains in the South). Ask the students: Which region had a milder climate? (South)

Tell the students that in this lesson, they will read information from circle or pie graphs, they will use this information to discuss some differences in the way of life between North and South, and also to evaluate which side would have been better prepared for a war. Ask the students to list what is needed to fight a war: troops, weapons, money, food, ships, etc.

Put up the transparency of the graphs on the overhead and tell the students that these are circle graphs. Explain that circle graphs are used to compare parts of a whole. Tell the students that in this case, the whole is the USA in the 1860s and the parts are the regions of the North and South. Point out the relevant graph and explain that the North and the South are being compared in six areas: (1) population, (2) wealth produced, (3) railroad mileage, (4) factories, (5) bank deposits, and (6) farms.

Next, discuss these six concepts with which some or all students may be familiar. Point to the "population" graph. Ask the students to identify who has the larger population (North). Ask for volunteers to explain the term "population." Emphasize that "population" refers to the total number of people living in an area. Ask the students to decide whether a larger or smaller population would be an advantage in a war. (Answers may vary.)

Point to the "wealth produced" graph. Ask the students to identify who produced more wealth (North). Ask for volunteers to explain "wealth." Emphasize that wealth refers to all those things that can be bought and sold or exchanged in any way. Ask the students whether maize represents wealth. Explain that maize can be bought and sold and is a material form of wealth. Ask the students whether a doctor's care is a form of wealth. Emphasize that a doctor's care can be paid for with money and so represents a form of wealth. Explain that materials such as maize and iron are referred to as "goods" and a doctor's care and a teacher's work are referred to as "services." Ask the students to list other goods and services that are consumed in peace time and in war. Explain to the students that "wealth produced" means all articles of value created on farms, in mines, by fishing, in factories, etc.

Point to the "bank deposits" graph. Ask the students to identify who has more bank deposits (North). Ask for volunteers to explain "bank deposits." Explain that bank deposits are a form of wealth that is not needed for immediate use and so is put away as a savings. Ask the students: What are savings or bank deposits good for? (Answers may vary.)

Point to the "railroad mileage" graph. Ask the students: Who has more railroad mileage? (North) Ask the students whether railroads help produce wealth and if so how. Ask the students to imagine a world without such means of transportation as rails, roads, etc. and ask whether it would be a richer or poorer world. Explain that "railroad mileage" is another way of saying the total number of miles of railroad track. Ask: How can a railroad be used in a war? (transport troops, supplies, etc.)

Point to the "factories" graph. Ask: Who has more factories? (North) Explain that "factories" are facilities where manufactured goods such as cloth or iron or steel are produced from raw materials such as cotton or iron ore. Ask: How can factories be used in a war? (produce army uniforms, weapons, etc.) Point to the "farms" graph. Farms are places where animals are raised or crops are grown. Ask: Who has more farms? (North) Ask the students to explain how farms could be used in a war (for providing food).

Tell the students that in order to compare the North or the South, they must read the information from the graphs. Remind the students that the graphs shown are called circle graphs and ask them to explain their name (shape of the graph). Tell the students that the same graphs are also called pie graphs and ask them to justify that name. Explain that when divided into sections, these graphs look like pies that have been cut into pieces.

Draw their attention to the types of information recorded on the graphs by asking the students for the place (USA), and the time (1860s) that the information relates to, and the purpose of the graphs (comparing the North and South). Remind the students that circle or pie graphs are used to compare the parts of a whole. Point to the "population" graph and ask the students to state what represents the whole in that graph (circle) and what the circle represents (total population of the USA in the 1860s). Ask the students: What represents the parts in this graph? (sections) Ask the students: How many parts are there in this graph? (two) Emphasize that each part is represented by a different color. Point out the key to the graphs and ask them to explain what the color black represents (the North) and what the color white represents (the

South). Ask: In each of these graphs, what part of the circle or pie graph is larger? (black) Point out the percentages on the graph, their position within the portion they refer to, and ask students to add them up (100). Emphasize that the whole or the circle, totals a hundred percent.

Ask the students: What is being compared in the population graph? (population of North and South) Ask: Which population is larger? (North's) Ask the students to explain how they got their answer (relative size of black and white parts, percentages) Ask: How much of the whole is the North's population? (61%) Ask: How much of the whole is the South's population? (39%) Explain to the students this means that if there were one hundred people living in the USA in the 1860s, sixty-one of them lived in the North and only thirty-nine of them lived in the South.

Ask the students to express the information contained in the population graph in the form of a complete sentence. Write the following sentence on the board as an example: In 1861, the population of the North was larger than that of the South. To check that they have understood the graphs, ask the students to think of and share sentences that express the information contained in each graph. Allow a minute for students to think and share their answers.

Tell the students that the information shown in the graphs is limited. To illustrate this point, ask the students: What doesn't the population graph tell you about the American population of 1860? (actual size of the population, its gender or racial make-up, etc.) Tell the students, however that the graph offers information that can be used to tell, for example, which side, based on population size only, is likely to have had a larger army (North).

Tell the students that the six graphs can help them compare the North and South in more general ways. Ask the students to identify the graph they would use to decide whether the North or the South was more industrialized (factories) and which was wealthier (wealth produced).

Finally, ask the students to look at the information in the graphs and decide which region would have been better prepared for a war (North). Ask the students to suggest what other information they would need in order to predict which side would have been more likely to win a war between North and South. (Answers may vary.) Ask the students to describe how they would get this information. (Answers may vary.)

Bibliography

Teacher Reference

Hirsch, E. D., ed. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. (0-385-31464-7)

Nystrom. The Nystrom Atlas of Our Country. Chicago: Nystrom, 1996. (0-7825-0589-9)