Fifth Grade - American History - Overview - March

The Civil War is the theme of American History in March. There are five lessons and an assessment in the unit. Lessons 24 to 26 describe some events that led to The Civil War. Lessons 27 and 28 deal with two early battles of the war. Lesson 24, "Toward The Civil War (Part 1)" discusses two causes of The Civil War, the differences between the industrial North and the agricultural South and the issue of paid labor in the North versus slave labor in the South. Lesson 25, "Toward The Civil War (Part 2)" discusses two additional causes of The Civil War, the issue of slavery and the issue of states' rights. In Lesson 26, "Toward The Civil War (Part 3)" the focus is on Lincoln's election as president and how this pushed South Carolina and other Southern states to secede. Lesson 27, "The Civil War (Part 1)" discusses Confederate President Jefferson Davis and the attack on Fort Sumter. Lesson 28, "The Civil War (Part 2)" describes the First Battle of Bull Run also known as the Battle of Manassas. The assessment relates to all five lessons in the unit. The lesson or lessons which the activities relate to are indicated in parentheses in the Scoring Guide that is included with the assessment.

The Civil War is also the subject of Geography and Literature during the month of March. There are three lessons in the American Geography unit. They use maps and graphs to offer some background to American History this month. American Geography Lesson 14, "Regions of the USA" offers definitions of the terms "region," "North" and "South" and uses maps of the USA. Students will meet these three terms during American History lessons on The Civil War. American Geography Lesson 15, "North and South in the 1800s (Part 1)" uses special purpose maps to describe the differences in landforms, climate, and economy in the North and South in the 1800s. Lesson 16, "North and South in the 1800s (Part 2)" uses circle or pie graphs to compare the proportion of population, wealth produced, railroad mileage, factories, bank deposits, and farms in the North and South in the 1800s. Use Geography Lessons 14 and 15 before American History Lesson 24. Use American Geography Lesson 16 after American History Lesson 28.

If you plan to use the assessment provided for this month, ask students to carefully store all of the handouts they receive over the course of the unit. They will need to use them to study for this test, as it contains much content. You will also want to assign study of the materials on these sheets for homework, and may wish to review with students good study skills. It would be best for students if they were told to begin to study each of the handouts as it is received instead of trying to "cram" just prior to the administration of the assessment.

In Literature this month, there is one lesson on Frederick Douglass' Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written By Himself, a slave narrative that illustrates the conditions of slavery, one of the causes of The Civil War. Use the lesson on Frederick Douglass after American History Lesson 25.

The Civil War is the subject of American Geography and History in April.

Fifth Grade - American History - Lesson 24 - Toward the Civil War (Part 1)

Note: This lesson should be taught after American Geography Lesson 15.
 

Objectives

Identify two causes of the American Civil War: (1) different ways of life in the North and South, and (2) the issue of paid labor versus slave labor.

Evaluate the impact of the Mason-Dixon Line, the regional differences between the industrial North and the agricultural South, and the Missouri Compromise of 1820 on the division among Americans in the 1800s.
 

Materials

Sentence strip containing time-line begun in prior World History lessons

Classroom-size map of the USA

Map of Missouri Compromise of 1820, attached (one copy per student, or for transparency)

Fact sheet titled "Two Causes of the American Civil War," attached (one copy per student)
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Carter, Alden R. The Civil War. New York: Franklin Watts, 1992. This book contains fifty-six easy-to-read pages and many color pictures. Chapter 1 includes a brief discussion of the causes of The Civil War. Suggest this book to students who wish to read independently about the Civil War.

Kalman, Bobbie. Historic Communities: Life on a Plantation. New York: Crabtree, 1997.

This book examines life on Southern plantations in the nineteenth century. The text is simple. The pictures are in color. This book may be read independently by students. You may show the pictures or read extracts from it.

Ray, Delia. A Nation Torn: The Story of How The Civil War Began. New York: Lodestar, 1990.

Chapter 2 "America, North and South" contains black-and-white pictures that illustrate the differences in the ways of life of North and South. Show them to your students.

Robertson, James R., Jr. Civil War! America Becomes One Nation. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992. This book examines The Civil War. Chapter 1, "King Cotton and His Slaves" discusses the Southern economy and slavery. Although the book is intended for younger readers, students would benefit more from having you read excerpts from chapter 1. Show them the picture of South Carolina slaves picking cotton on page 4.

Ward, Geoffrey C. The Civil War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990. This book takes a comprehensive look at The Civil War. Pages 7 to 15 contain pictures of slaves at work, a slave auction, slave housing, etc. that students would learn from.
 

Teacher Reference

Hakim, Joy. A History of US: War, Terrible War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

This is the sixth in a ten-volume series on the history of the USA. It takes the form of a simple narrative. It contains many pictures of authentic documents of the period that students would enjoy viewing and learn from. The volume includes discussions of the causes of the American Civil War.

Hirsch, E. D., ed. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. This book contains brief discussions of aspects of The Civil War.

Stammp, Kenneth M. The Causes of The Civil War. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1974. This book provides background material on the causes of the Civil War and includes writings from the Civil War era.
 

Teacher Background

This is part of a series of lessons in History, Geography, and Literature about the American Civil War. These lessons continue through the month of April. This lesson must follow American geography Lesson 15 because it discusses how the differences in way of life between North and South and the issue of paid labor versus slave labor divided the United States and pushed the country closer to Civil War. In this lesson, students read for information a fact sheet that describes the economic and social differences between Northern and Southern States, and the Missouri Compromise of 1820.

The Mason-Dixon Line was drawn by two English surveyors. In the 1770s, Mason and Dixon surveyed the Maryland-Pennsylvania border in order to settle a boundary dispute between the two colonies. Unfortunately, by the early 1800s, Americans saw the Mason-Dixon Line as the unofficial boundary between the Northern and Southern states.

In the early 1800s, the Northern states were rapidly becoming industrialized. The population of Northern cities increased. Industry grew and factories employed thousands of workers. At the same time, the Southern economy remained largely agricultural. Though most people worked on small farms, large cotton, sugar, rice, and tobacco plantations based on slave labor were the most profitable.

These differences between North and South intensified with the passage of time and the issue of slave labor versus paid labor became a central issue of conflict. During the same period,

Western Expansion was proceeding rapidly. By the year 1819, when Missouri applied for

admission to the Union as a slave state, the possibility of its admission threatened the balance of power in Congress between the so-called slave states and free states. The Missouri Compromise resulted. According to its terms, with the exception of Missouri, no state north of the Missouri Compromise Line, a line drawn across the mainland at north latitude 36 30' and which includes the Mason-Dixon Line, was allowed to be a slave state. However, slavery was permitted in territories south of that line. This resulted in an America that was half free and half slave.

Students are familiar with boundary lines drawn on maps and so the Mason-Dixon Line will be easily understood. However, the division into North and South that it represents may be more abstract. Students may need to be reminded of the Treaty of Tordesillas during the Age of Exploration in World History. That treaty gave all the New World territories west of a given line of longitude to Spain and all those to the east of that line to Portugal. In both cases, a more or less arbitrary line was used to mark the boundary between two spheres of influence. In American History in the Third Grade, students got an introduction to the Civil War.

Procedure

Ask the students to recall that in prior World History lessons they learned that territories grow or shrink in size. Remind them of Czechoslovakia, a country in western Europe that broke up into smaller states in 1993. Tell the students that in the 1800s, the US fought the American Civil War and divided into two parts, the Union in the north and the Confederacy in the south. Write the words "Union" and "Confederacy" on the board. Explain that a civil war is a war that takes place inside a country, between different sides of the same nation. Ask the students to guess at possible reasons for the Civil War. (Answers may vary.)

Tell the students that first, they will read the fact sheet titled "Two Causes of the

American Civil War," which gives two reasons why the people of the United States were divided. Second, they will discuss the information they got from reading.

Distribute copies of the fact sheet to the students, tell them they will be reading for information, and ask them to read carefully. Ask the students to pay attention to the title "Two Causes of the American Civil War," which tells them what they should know after they have finished reading. Ask the students to scan the title and decide what the fact sheet is about (causes of the Civil War). Ask the students for the number of causes the fact sheet discusses (two). Ask the students to pay attention to the numbered subheadings, which tell where the information on each of the two causes of the American Civil War is located. Tell the students that they may highlight or underline sections of the fact sheet that they think are important to the topic. Allow students to use dictionaries or discuss with their classmates while they read. Inform the students that you will help with any difficulties they may have reading the fact sheet. While students are reading, circulate among them to make sure that they stay on task. If a sufficient number of students in your class are experiencing difficulty reading the fact sheet, bring them together again as a whole class and have students read various paragraphs or lines aloud and attempt to explain them, or lead the reading and discussion. You may also assign the students to pairs so that they may read and discuss the fact sheet ahead of the class discussion.

When students have all read the fact sheet, ask for volunteers to place the important dates (1763-1767, 1799, 1820, 1827, 1861-1865) in the history time-line you have been keeping in the class. Ask: What is a civil war? (war between sides belonging to the same nation) Ask: When did the American Civil War take place? (1861-1865) Ask: What were the sides fighting the Civil War? (North and South) Remind the students that in a prior American Geography lesson, they learned that regions can be divided using climate, landforms, etc. Ask: What made the North and South regions? (location, way of life, slavery, industry, etc) Put up the transparency of the map of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 (attached), and indicate the Mason-Dixon Line, the Missouri Compromise Line, and the states of North and South.

Tell the students that when two nations go to war, it can happen very suddenly, but that the causes of a civil war may have begun many years before physical fighting breaks out. Ask: What are the two causes of The Civil War discussed in this fact sheet? (slavery, different ways of life) Ask: What events showed that North and South had different views about slavery (slavery lawful in the South but unlawful in the North) Ask: Why was slavery unlawful in the North? (slaves were not needed, people believed that slavery was wrong) Ask: Why were people in the North against slavery in the South? (took the jobs of white men, was wrong) Ask: Why was slavery lawful in the South? (slaves were used on plantations)

Ask: What is a plantation? (large farms in the South using slaves to grow tobacco, rice, sugar cane, and cotton) Ask: What is a compromise? (agreement in which each side gets less than what it originally wanted) Ask: What does the term "Union" refer to in the fact sheet? (USA)

Ask: How did the Mason-Dixon Line affect the divisions between North and South? (Answers may vary.) Ask: How did the settlement of Missouri affect the unity of the USA in 1820? (Answers may vary.)

Show students pictures of scenes that illustrate the differences between the ways of life of the industrial North and the agricultural South. "America, North and South," Chapter Two of A Nation Torn by Delia Ray includes black-and-white pictures that are suitable for this purpose. They include pictures of bustling traffic on Broadway in New York, a scene of travel by rail, a picture of heavy industry, and a contrasting image of a Southern town, Petersburg, Virginia. Read the captions attached to the pictures to the students. Show students pictures of slave and plantation life in the South and ask students for their comments on what they have seen and read in this lesson. Finally, suggest appropriate reading materials to interested students.
 

Fifth Grade - American History - Lesson 24 - Toward the Civil War (Part 1)

FACT SHEET: TWO CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
 

In this fact sheet, you will read about the divisions between the North and the South.
 

The American Civil War started in 1861 and ended in 1865. A civil war is fought by groups of people from the same nation. In America, these groups were the North and the South.

1. North and South

When the fighting began in 1861, the USA was divided into North and South. In the late 1700s, two American colonies, Pennsylvania and Maryland had a border dispute. They couldn't agree where one colony's territory ended and the other began. To solve this dispute, between 1763 and 1767, two English surveyors Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon drew a line to mark the border between Pennsylvania and Maryland. (See the attached map.) By the 1820s, life on either side of this line was quite different. Americans saw the Mason-Dixon line as a sort of boundary between North and South. In Pennsylvania and the states north of the Mason-Dixon Line, slavery was unlawful and many people worked in factories. In Maryland and the states south of the Mason-Dixon Line, slaves worked on plantations. Plantations were large farms in the South that grew one crop, sugar cane, tobacco, rice or cotton, and used slave labor.
 

The meaning of North and South

The terms "North" and "South" meant the Atlantic or east coast of the United States where the original states of the Union were located. On a map, the North was the area from the Maryland-Pennsylvania border north to the Canadian border. The South was the area south of the Maryland-Pennsylvania border. (See the attached map.)

North and South were similar in some ways. They were regions of the same country. They traded with each other. They spoke the same language. In both North and South most people were small farmers. However, there were two important differences between North and South. First, slavery had ended in the 1790s in most places in the North but continued in the South. Second, the North was rapidly becoming industrialized, which meant many workers earned their living producing iron, steel, machinery, and cloth in factories. Factory workers received pay for their labor and were free to work wherever they wished. In the South, most crops were produced on very large farms called plantations.

Plantations grew cotton, sugar, rice, and tobacco and held slaves. Slaves received food and lodging for their work but received no pay and had no freedom to stop working. In the 1850s, slaves did almost all the hardest work and 80% of skilled labor on these plantations. Slaves were considered as property, driven to do very hard work, forced to live in terrible conditions, and punished very harshly by their masters. Plantations using slave labor were the most profitable businesses in the South. When people thought of the North, they thought of Northern factories. When people thought of the South, they pictured Southern plantations.

That the North was becoming industrialized while the South remained agricultural affected how both sides viewed slaves. Some Northerners opposed slaves because they felt slaves took the jobs of white men. Some Southerners supported slavery because they felt they needed the slaves to make their plantations profitable.

2. Missouri Compromise of 1820

By the late 1700s and early 1800s, the Atlantic or east coast of the US became crowded and Americans started settling the West. Western territories could apply to Congress to become new states of the Union as the USA is also called. However, while the West was being settled, back east, Northern and Southern states were quarreling over slavery. The North did not want Western territories to enter the Union as slave states. The South wanted slavery to be lawful in the new states.

In 1819, Missouri, a western state applied to join the Union as a slave state. (See the attached map.) In Congress, angry quarrels broke out between the North and South. It took a year for North and South to reach a compromise. A compromise is a way of settling a dispute in which each side gets less than what it originally wanted. There were two agreements in this compromise. First, Missouri was admitted to the Union as a slave state but so was Maine, a northern territory where slavery was unlawful. States where slavery was unlawful were called "Free states." States where slavery was allowed were called "Slave states." Second, Congress drew a line across the US from east to west. This so-called Missouri Compromise Line included the Mason-Dixon Line. According to the compromise, states north of the Missouri Compromise Line, except Missouri would be free states while states south of the line would be slave states.

By the mid 1800s, America was divided into an industrial North using paid labor and an agricultural South where there were slaves.

Fifth Grade - American History - Lesson 25 - Toward the Civil War (Part 2)

Objectives

Identify two more causes of the American Civil War: (1) slavery and (2) states' rights.

Evaluate the effect of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, the Dred Scott Decision of the US Supreme Court, the John Brown incident, and slavery in dividing Americans in the 1800s.
 

Materials

Sentence strip containing time-line begun in prior American History class

Fact sheet titled "Two More Causes of the American Civil War," attached (one copy per student)

Classroom-size map of the USA

Map of the Missouri Compromise of 1820, (from Lesson 24)
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Edwards, Pamela Duncan. Barefoot: Escape on the Underground Railroad. New York: HarperCollins, 1997. This story of the Underground Railroad is from the perspective of the animals that help a runaway escape. The illustrations by Henry Cole are excellent. The story can be told and the pictures shown in class.

Hurmence, Belinda. A Girl Called Boy. New York: Clarion, 1982. This is the story of a girl who lives in the twentieth century but is magically taken back into slavery in the 1850s. Recommend the book for independent reading.

Johnston, Tony. The Wagon. New York: Tambourine, 1996. This picture book tells of a Carolina slave boy who dreams of freedom. The paintings are by James E. Ransome. This book should be recommended to students who are interested in the theme of resistance to slavery.

Kalman, Bobbie. Historic Communities: Life on a Plantation. New York: Crabtree, 1997.

Kent, Zachary. Cornerstones of Freedom: The Story of John Brown's Raid on Harper's Ferry.

Chicago: Children's Press, 1988. This book contains thirty easy-to-read pages and many

pictures. The story contains graphic details of violence.

Langstaff, John, ed. Climbing Jacob's Ladder: Heroes of the Bible in African-American Spirituals. New York: Margaret K. McElderry Books, 1991. This book contains texts, pictures and music of some African-American Spirituals. Captioned texts explain the

Biblical characters that appear in the featured Spirituals.

McKissack, Patricia C. and Frederick, L. Rebels Against Slavery: American Slave Revolts. New York: Scholastic, 1996. This book covers slave resistance quite comprehensively. It includes chapters on Nat Turner, Harriet Tubman, John Brown, and the Amistad uprising. Recommend it to students who wish to read independently on the topic.

________. Christmas in the Big House, Christmas in the Quarters. New York: Scholastic, 1994.

This is a picture book contrasting the life of slaves and their owners in the South. The illustrations are by John Thompson. Recommend this book for independent reading.

O'Dell, Scott. My Name Is Not Angelica. New York: Dell, 1989. This is the story of a young slave girl who experiences a slave uprising on a Caribbean island. Recommend it for  independent reading.

Paulsen, Gary. Nightjohn. New York: Delacorte, 1993. This is a young adult novel about a slave who suffers dismemberment for teaching other slaves how to read and write. Recommend the book for independent reading. The book has been adapted for film.

Robertson, James R., Jr. Civil War! America Becomes One Nation. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992. Chapters 2 and 3 contain black-and-white pictures of Harriet Beecher Stowe, John

Brown, Harriet Tubman, slave quarters, and a slave's scars from flogging. Show them to your class.

Rosen, Michael J. A School For Pompey Walker. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1995. This is a picture book based on the true story of how an ex-slave and a white friend tricked their way into getting the money to start a school for black children. The color illustrations are by Aminah Brenda Lynn Robinson. Recommend this book for independent reading.

Rosenburg, John. William Parker: Rebel Without Rights. Brookfield: Millbrook Press, 1996. This is a fictionalized account of the Christiana, Pennsylvania slave uprising of 1851. Recommend this book for independent reading.

Webb, Robert N. The Raid on Harper's Ferry, October 6, 1859: A Brutal Skirmish Widens the Rift Between North and South. New York: Franklin Watts, 1971. This is a sixty-two page account of the attack on Harper's Ferry that can be recommended for independent reading.
 

Teacher Reference

Evitts, William J. Captive Bodies, Free spirits: The Story of Southern Slavery. New York: Julian, Messner, 1985. Use excerpts from this book with your lesson. It includes clever ways in which slaves resisted or escaped slavery, including the man who shipped himself from slavery in a box.

Hakim, Joy. A History of US: War, Terrible War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

________. A History of US: Liberty for All? New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

This is the fifth in a ten-book series on the history of the USA. This volume contains detailed information on slavery in America.

Hirsch, E. D., ed. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

Lester, Julius. To Be a Slave. New York: Scholastic, 1968. This book is organized topically. It contains nineteenth-century slave narratives about slave life. Use this book as a source of narratives on slavery. The illustrations are by Tom Feelings.

Lyons, Mary E. Letters from a Slave Girl. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1992. This is the fictionalized account of Harriet Jacobs, a North Carolina slave as she plans her escape in 1842. The story is told in letters. You will find excerpts that illustrate the life of a slave.

Teacher Note

The Great Blacks in Wax Museum at 1603 E. North Avenue, Baltimore, features exhibits on the Middle Passage, slavery, and the Civil War. The telephone number is (410) 682- 6122.
 

Teacher Background

In Lesson 24, students were introduced to two causes of the American Civil War: (1) the differences in the ways of life between North and South and (2) the issue of paid labor versus slave labor. In this lesson, students will read about two more causes of The Civil War: (1) slavery and (2) states' rights, and how the Harriet Beecher Stowe novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin, the Dred Scott Supreme Court Decision, the harshness of slave life, and the John Brown incident further divided and pushed America to the brink of Civil War.

Reading Mastery IV, Lessons 76 to 82, contains extracts from a story of Harriet Tubman, titled "Slave Life." In Fifth Grade World History, students learned of the 'Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade.' In Third Grade, American History, students were introduced to 'Slavery in the Colonies.' Students were introduced to 'The Civil War' in American History in the Second Grade. They should be able to relate the central issues of serfdom in Russia to slavery in America, having read about serfdom in the Fourth and Fifth Grades in World History. Students will need a basic understanding of how American Government works in order to understand the issue of states' rights. In the Second and Fourth Grades in American History, students were introduced to the principles of American constitutional government.

In this lesson, students will read a fact sheet titled "Two More Causes of the American Civil War" which identifies two additional causes of the American Civil War: (1) slavery, and (2) states' rights. States' rights refers to the demands made by Southern states for state governments to decide whether or not to make slavery legal. The fact sheet contains information on what life was like on a plantation and some ways in which slaves resisted slavery or adapted to it. It contains a description of the role of Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin in convincing Northerners that slavery was an evil system. It discusses the Dred Scott Decision which re-opened the question of whether or not states had the right to decide whether to make slavery legal or illegal. The fact sheet also describes the John Brown attack on Harper's Ferry and how it convinced Southerners that Northerners were determined to end slavery by force if that was needed.
 

Procedure

Ask for a volunteer to read aloud the starting date of The Civil War from the time-line you have been keeping in class. Ask for students to recall the definition of a civil war (war between sides belonging to the same nation) to identify the sides involved in The Civil War (North and South) and the two causes of the war they read about in the previous American History class (different ways of life between the industrial North and the agricultural South, paid labor in the North versus slave labor in the South).

Ask for the names of some Northern states (New York, New Jersey, Illinois, Indiana, etc.) and for the names of some Southern states (Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, etc.) Put up the transparency of the map of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and indicate the location of the states mentioned.

Ask: What did the North and South have in common? (same country, language, trade between them) Ask: How were the two regions different? (more industrialized North, more agricultural South, after 1820, slavery unlawful in North, lawful in South) Ask: What were the most profitable businesses in the South in the 1800s? (plantations) Ask: What is a plantation? (large farm in the South growing one crop and depending on slave labor) Ask: What were the main plantation crops in the South in the 1800s? (rice, tobacco, sugar cane, cotton) Ask: Did small farms depend on slaves? (no)

Ask: How did most people in the North earn their living? (working on small farms) Remind the students that more and more Northerners began working in factories in the 1800s. Ask the students to identify the products these factory workers produced (iron, steel, machinery, cloth). Ask the students to compare slave labor in the South and paid labor in the North. (Slaves received food and lodging, had no freedom to stop working, were considered property, were forced to do hard work, were punished harshly while paid workers received a wage and were free to work wherever they wished.)

Ask: How did the Mason-Dixon Line get its name? (names of the surveyors who drew it) Ask: Why was the Mason-Dixon Line drawn? (to settle a territorial dispute between two American colonies, Pennsylvania and Maryland) Ask the students to discuss the view that the

Mason-Dixon Line helped divide the USA in the 1800s. (Answers may vary.)

Ask: What is a compromise? (settlement where each side gets less than it originally wanted) Remind the students that they read about the Missouri Compromise of 1820. Ask: Why was the agreement named after Missouri? (Missouri had applied to become a slave state of the Union and its application worsened the conflict between North and South.) Ask the students to discuss the statement that the Missouri Compromise further divided the USA. (Missouri Compromise created an America that was half free and half slave.)

Tell the students that they will now read the fact sheet titled "Two More Causes of the American Civil War," which describes some events that further divided the people of the United States.

Distribute copies of the fact sheets to the students, and tell them they will be reading for information. Tell the students that when reading for information they may use strategies that are different from the strategies they use when they are reading for entertainment. Explain that in reading for information, they must locate the most important facts. In doing so, they may highlight or underscore paragraphs or lines that they think are important. Tell the students that they may re-read a line or a paragraph and discuss the contents of the fact sheet with one another.

Preview the fact sheet with the students by asking individuals to read aloud the headings "Slavery" and "States' rights," then the sub-headings and tell the students that these headings and subheadings organize the information in the fact sheet. Illustrate this point by telling the students, for example, that under the heading "Slavery," they will find information related to slavery. Inform students that you are available to help with difficulties they may have reading the fact sheet. Go around the room and ensure that students stay on task. Bring the students together again as a class if they are having difficulties reading the fact sheet independently. In that case, you may lead the reading, or ask volunteers to read the fact sheet aloud. Discuss the information as you go along.

After students have read the fact sheet, bring them together as a class for discussion. Ask for volunteers to suggest where to place the important dates (1831, 1852, 1857, 1859) on the history time-line you have been keeping in the class.

Ask the students to talk about the most interesting piece of information they have read in the fact sheet. Ask: Did they expect that a novel would make people want to take up arms against slavery? (Answers may vary.) Ask: What are people who fought for the end of slavery called? (Abolitionists) Ask students whether they recall the names of any famous abolitionists? (Sojourner Truth, Frederick Douglass, etc.) Ask the students to think of whether the abolitionists had a difficult task convincing Americans that slavery was evil and to describe the challenges they faced doing so. (Answers may vary.) Ask: Would you consider Harriet Beecher Stowe an abolitionist? (Answers may vary.) Ask the students to explain their answers and inform them that Harriet Beecher Stowe is considered an abolitionist. Ask the students to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using a novel to convince people that slavery was wrong. (Answers may vary.) Ask the students to discuss what Harriet Beecher Stowe would have to know in order to write about slavery in such a way as to convince readers that slavery was wrong. (Answers may vary.) Ask: How did Harriet Beecher Stowe have learned about slavery? (on visits to her friends in the slave state of Kentucky) Ask the students to discuss how they would convince fellow Americans that slavery was wrong had they been abolitionists in the 1800s. (Answers may vary.)

Ask the students to explain the term "resist" (fight against). Ask for their opinion on which was easier for a slave, resisting or adapting to slavery. (Answers may vary.) Ask the students: What qualities would someone need to resist slavery? (Answers may vary.) Ask the students to think of the uses to which they put songs and music in their own lives. (Answers may vary.) Ask the students to discuss how easy or difficult they think it might have been for slaves to imagine themselves free while they were still slaves. (Answers may vary.) Invite the students to discuss those aspects of slavery they find most difficult to understand. (Answers may vary.) Ask the students what they would have dreaded most had they been slaves. (Answers may vary.) Ask the students whether the Africans kept any aspect of their African culture while they were slaves (music). Ask the students to describe what Spirituals are (a kind of song made from the music of Africa and stories from the Bible).

Ask: What is a decision? (in this piece, a ruling by a court) Invite the students to discuss the Dred Scott Decision and why it pleased people in the South but enraged people in the North. (Answers may vary.) Ask the students whether they consider John Brown a hero or a villain and to explain their answers. (Answers may vary.) Ask the students what message should both the North and the South have received from John Brown's attack on Harper's Ferry. (Answers may vary.) Ask the students to discuss what the attack on Harper's Ferry might suggest about how determined people were both to defend and to fight against slavery. (Answers may vary.)

Ask the students to summarize the two causes of The Civil War that they read about in this fact sheet (slavery and states' rights). Ask the students to explain what they understand by the term "states' rights." (the right of states and not the federal government to decide certain issues) Ask: What did the Missouri Compromise of 1820 do about slavery? (restricted slavery to the South) Ask: How did the Dred Scott decision affect the Missouri Compromise of 1820? (ruled that it was unlawful) Ask: What did the Dred Scott Decision do for states' rights? (advanced states' rights in matters of slavery)

Finally, ask the students to discuss what they think is likely to happen next in the conflict between the North and the South. Tell them that in the following lesson, they will read about how some states in the South seceded or broke away from the USA.

See the "Suggested Books" section above for materials that can be used with this lesson.

FACT SHEET: TWO MORE CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
 

In the fact sheet titled "Two Causes of the American Civil War," you read that in the early 1800s America was divided between an industrial North that depended on paid labor and an agricultural South that depended on slave labor. In this fact sheet, you will read about two more causes of the Civil War.
 

SLAVERY
 

The Missouri Compromise of 1820 turned America into a country that was half slave and half free. Some people in the North were against slavery. They argued that: (1) slavery took the jobs of whites, and (2) slavery was wrong. Many in the South were for slavery. They felt that: (1) slavery was profitable, and (2) slavery was not wrong. Some people fought to end slavery. They were called "Abolitionists."

1. Harriet Beecher Stowe's Novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin

A teacher wrote a novel that convinced many Northerners that slavery was wrong. She was Harriet Beecher Stowe. Harriet Beecher Stowe was born in Massachusetts, a free state. She had friends in the slave state of Kentucky. On her visits to her friends in Kentucky, she witnessed slavery. Harriet Beecher Stowe published Uncle Tom's Cabin in 1852. It was the story of Uncle Tom. Uncle Tom was a kind and religious slave who saved the life of a white girl, but who was later sold to a cruel master. One night, two slaves escaped from the plantation and Uncle Tom refused to say where they were hiding. His master whipped Uncle Tom to his death for this. 300,000 copies of Uncle Tom's Cabin were sold in one year. One copy of a book is often read by more than one person so this added up to a lot of readers. In fact, Uncle Tom's Cabin has been called the biggest bestseller of all time. The novel made Northern readers angry and want take up arms to force the South to end slavery.
 

2. Slave Life and Resistance

The slaves themselves resisted slavery. To resist means "to fight against." Some slaves resisted peacefully. Others were violent. Some slaves ran away to the North. Some runaways helped others escape. This was the case of Harriet Tubman who helped run the Underground Railroad, a series of places where slaves could get help to run to freedom. Slaves deliberately damaged work tools or farm equipment. Slaves poisoned their masters. Some slaves revolted. Nat Turner, for example, led a slave revolt in Virginia in 1831. Others acted lazy. Even killing oneself was a way of resisting slavery!

However, many slaves adapted to slave life. Some became Christians and looked to heaven as a reward for their suffering on earth. Others imagined themselves free even while they were still slaves. This they did through Spirituals, a new kind of song made from the music of Africa and the stories of Christianity. Spirituals are still sung today and include "Swing Low Sweet Chariot" and "Go Down, Moses." They are often based on Bible stories of how the people of Israel were delivered from slavery in Egypt.
 

STATES' RIGHTS

The USA is a union of states. Federal and state governments share power. In the 1800s, some Southern states argued that it was the right of the state to decide whether or not to allow slavery. This right and others are sometimes referred to as "states' rights."
 

1. The Dred Scott Supreme Court Decision

Dred Scott was a slave whose master took him from the slave state of Missouri to the free state of Wisconsin. There, Dred Scott married Harriet. They had two daughters. Then, his master moved back to Missouri and took Scott and his family back as slaves. Dred Scott sued his master. He argued that he was free because he had lived in a free territory. Abolitionists (people fighting for the end of slavery) paid his legal bills. Abolitionist lawyers argued his case before the Supreme Court. They were disappointed. In 1857, the Supreme Court, the highest court in the land ruled against Scott. A ruling by a court is called a decision. This ruling was called the Dred Scott Decision. The court felt that Scott was property so he could not sue. Also, the court declared the Missouri Compromise of 1820 to be unlawful. The Missouri Compromise of 1820 had restricted slavery to the South. Under the Dred Scott Decision, it became a state's right to decide whether or not to allow slavery. The South was happy for the Dred Scott decision, but the North was enraged. Fortunately, Dred Scott and his family were freed by a later owner and got jobs in St. Louis, Missouri. Dred Scott died one year later.
 

2. John Brown at Harper's Ferry

In October, 1859, John Brown tried to capture weapons in a Federal weapons storeroom at Harper's Ferry. Harper's Ferry was part of what was then Virginia but is now West Virginia. John Brown was accompanied by eighteen men. This included five free African-Americans and two of his sons. They intended to arm slaves and urge them to revolt against their masters. Federal and local troops got wind of his plans and waited for John Brown and his men. Brown's sons were killed in the attack and he was captured, tried, and sentenced to be hanged. In the North, people made a hero out of John Brown. On the day of his death, church bells tolled and cannons were fired in celebration of his bravery.

Many Southerners, however, were angry that the North had made a hero out of John Brown. They felt the whole North was like John Brown, ready to use violence to end slavery in the South. Southerners wanted to maintain their way of life. They argued that the only way to preserve their way of life was to secede, or break away from the rest of the USA. Southern states felt it was a state's right to allow slavery or not. They felt they had the right to leave the Union as well. The North held the opposite point of view. The North felt that no state had a right to leave the Union.
 

Fifth Grade - American History - Lesson 26 - Toward the Civil War (Part 3): Lincoln
 

Objectives

Examine the events (including the election of Lincoln as president) that led to the outbreak of the American Civil War.

Discuss a settlement that would have prevented the American Civil War from happening.
 

Materials

Fact sheet titled "The Union is Dissolved!," attached (one copy per student)

Sentence strip containing time-line continued from previous American History lessons

Map of the Union and the Confederacy
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

D'Aulaire, Ingri and Edgar Parin. Abraham Lincoln. Garden City: Doubleday, 1970. A classic picture book about Abraham Lincoln that every student interested in Lincoln should read.

Jacobs, William Jay. Lincoln. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1991.This is a forty-one-page easy-to-read book with many black-and-white pictures. It should be recommended reading for students interested in Lincoln.
 

Teacher Reference

Freedman, Russell. Lincoln: A Photobiography. New York: Clarion, 1987. This book contains black-and-white pictures from different periods in Lincoln's life. Show the students some of these pictures.

Hakim, Joy. A History of US: War, Terrible War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Hirsch, E. D., ed. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

Meltzer, Milton, ed. Lincoln: In His Own Words. New York: Harcourt Brace, and Co., 1993.

This is a source of some of Lincoln's speeches, writings, and public papers. Excerpts can be read to students to illustrate the life of Lincoln.
 

Teacher Background

This lesson deals with the election of Abraham Lincoln as the sixteenth president of the United States. Lincoln's election led to the secession of some Southern states. In Lessons 24 and 25, students were introduced to the ways in which America was divided between North and South. They also read about four causes of the American Civil War. This lesson describes some events that occurred before the outbreak of the Civil War. It includes an explanation of Lincoln's statement that "a house divided against itself cannot stand." In Second Grade, American History, students were introduced to Abraham Lincoln in the context of the Civil War.

Procedure

Ask the students to recall the issues that divided North and South in the 1850s (paid labor versus slave labor, industrial North versus agricultural South, slavery, states' rights). Ask the students to think of the incidents that most people in the North and South would be discussing in the late 1850s (Dred Scott Decision, slavery, John Brown's attack on Harper's Ferry and his execution). Ask the students to state what attitudes they think North and South held toward each other after the publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin, the Dred Scott Decision, and especially the execution of John Brown (distrust, suspicion, hostility).

Write the title on the board and tell the students that they will read the fact sheet "The Union is Dissolved!" Preview the fact sheet by asking the students to read the title and explain what the term "Union" means (USA) and why the USA is called a union (grouping of states). Ask: What does the term "dissolved" mean? (broken) Ask: What would you expect to read about in a fact sheet titled "The Union is Dissolved!" (Answers may vary.) If students do not explain the title, tell them that in reference to the Union, "dissolved" means "broken."

Ask the students to think of the types of events that might push states to secede from the Union. (Answers may vary.) Ask the students to think of which region, the North or South, might secede from the Union. (Answers may vary.) Ask the students to recall the information in previous American History lessons and decide what events or issues suggest that states had for some time been considering breaking away (issue of states' rights). Explain that the issue of states' rights included the question of whether a state had the right to leave the Union, or secede.

Distribute the fact sheet to the students, ask them to read it, and ensure that students stay on task. Assist students who might have difficulty reading the fact sheet by explaining difficult words or suggesting the use of a dictionary. You may circulate materials containing pictures of Abraham Lincoln at this time. See the "Suggested Books" section above for materials that you may use with your lesson.

After students have read the fact sheet, ask for volunteers to suggest where to place the important dates on the history time-line you have been keeping in the class (1809, 1858, 1860, 1861). Ask the students to discuss the character of president Lincoln. (Answers may vary.) Ask the students to comment on a similarity between Lincoln's boyhood and his adulthood (public-speaking ability). Ask the students to use the fact that Lincoln lost an election and still ran for office two years later to describe his character (courageous, constant). Ask the students to use what they have read about Lincoln to decide whether or not they consider Lincoln an abolitionist. (Answers may vary.) Ask the students to explain why they decided Lincoln was or wasn't an abolitionist. (Answers may vary.)

Ask the students to use information from the fact sheet to list ways in which people running for public office in the 1800s got their message across to the voters (handbills, posters, public debates, newspaper reports). Ask the students to list some of the means of communication available now but not available to Lincoln and Douglas (radio, TV) and to discuss the difficulties Lincoln and Douglas might have faced reaching voters outside their states and how they might have overcome these difficulties. (Answers may vary.)

Ask the students to think of reasons why voters in any period in history might select one candidate over an another in an election to public office. (Answers may vary.) Ask: What character traits might voters in the 1800s have appreciated in a candidate running for public office that might still be important today. (Answers may vary.) Ask the students to think of the advantage Douglas might have had over Lincoln in their campaign for the Senate seat in 1858 (better known, experienced). Ask the students to think of how a candidate's fame might help in getting him or her elected to office. (Answers may vary.) Ask the students: What did Lincoln tell the nation about his plans for slavery after his election? (He would not end slavery where it already existed.) Ask: Did the South trust Lincoln? (no) Ask the students to think of reasons why the South might not have trusted Lincoln's plans for slavery? (Answers may vary.)

Ask: Which was the first state to secede or break away? (South Carolina) Put up the transparency of the map of the Union and the Confederacy, explain that the map shows Confederate states and Union states and territories, and ask the students to describe South Carolina's location (Southern state bordering North Carolina, Tennessee, and Georgia). Remind the students that by 1861, eleven states had broken away from the Union. Ask the students to identify those states and locate them on the map (South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina). Ask the students to recall the name given to the new republic formed by the states that had broken away from the Union (Confederacy, Confederate States of America) and to identify and locate its capital on the map (Richmond, Virginia).

Remind the students that in prior American History lessons, the unofficial boundary of the North and South was the Missouri Compromise Line of 1820 which included the Mason-Dixon Line. Point out to students that not all the states that had been considered Southern states in earlier lessons seceded. Point to the fact that Maryland, Missouri, and Kentucky, all slave states, did not secede. Tell them that this means not every Southern state or every slave state joined the Confederate States of America. Ask the students to think of reasons why Southern states such as Maryland, Missouri, and Kentucky might not have seceded but stayed with the Union. (Answers may vary.) Point also to the fact that since the Missouri Compromise of 1820, the map of the USA had changed and that by 1861, several western states such as California and Oregon (point them out) had joined the Union. Remind the students that the admission of western states to the Union and the issue of whether they should enter as slave states or free states had posed a problem for the USA from the time of the Missouri Compromise of 1820.
 

Discussion

You may ask your students to discuss the following scenario in class.

America is close to civil war between North and South. You have been given unlimited power to negotiate a settlement to prevent a war between North and South. Keeping in mind that slaves do all of the hardest work and eighty percent of the skilled work in the South, describe how you would end slavery in a way that slaves, the North, and the South would accept. Consider the impact of the changes you propose.
 

FACT SHEET: THE UNION IS DISSOLVED!
 

In the two previous fact sheets, you have read about the divisions between North and South. In this fact sheet, you will read about the election of Abraham Lincoln as sixteenth president of the USA and how his election pushed some Southern states to leave the Union.
 

1. Abraham Lincoln

One person who knew Abraham Lincoln described him as a long and skinny kid with big feet and dark hair. Abraham Lincoln was born in the slave state of Kentucky in 1809. Growing up, he loved to play pranks, and tell jokes and stories. Sometimes, he stood on a tree stump and pretended he was a preacher or a public speaker.

Lincoln's family were poor Baptists who felt slavery was wrong. They moved to the free state of Indiana while Abraham was still a boy. Later, they moved on to Illinois, where Abraham became a shopkeeper, and a self-trained lawyer. Soon his friends persuaded him to run for political office. His friends knew that he was an honest man. He was a shopkeeper who once walked six miles to return a few pennies to a customer whom he had overcharged. Abraham Lincoln was a skillful public speaker. And, he believed that slavery was wrong.
 

2. Lincoln-Douglas Debates

In 1858, Lincoln ran for a seat in the Senate. He lived in Illinois, a free state on the northern boundary of the Missouri Compromise Line, the line that separated free states from slave states. Lincoln was backed by the Republican Party. His opponent was Stephen Douglas. Douglas was a member of the Democratic Party. Douglas held that seat and was seeking re-election. This meant that Douglas was much better known than Lincoln. On the night the Republican Party chose him as its candidate in the race for the Senate, Lincoln made a speech. In that speech, he said: "A house divided against itself cannot stand."

In those days, candidates who wished to be elected used mainly posters and handbills to take their message to the voters. However, Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of public debates. In these debates, Lincoln argued that slavery was wrong. Douglas argued that each state should decide whether to continue or end slavery. Lincoln said Douglas was pro-slavery. The debates drew very large crowds. Newspaper reporters printed the texts of the debates and wired them all over the country. It seemed that the public speaking skills Lincoln had been developing from his boyhood days were being put to the best possible use.

Unfortunately, Lincoln lost the Senate race. He described how he felt about his defeat. Lincoln compared himself to a boy who had stubbed his toe. He explained that he was too big to cry and too badly hurt to laugh. Even though Lincoln had lost the elections, he had scored a victory. The debates had made him famous.
 

3. "A house divided against itself cannot stand"

When he stated that "a house divided against itself cannot stand," Lincoln used the term "house" to refer to the United States of America. Lincoln felt that the division of the USA into a free North and a slave South was not good for America. He explained that America would not forever remain half slave and half free. He believed the Union had to become one thing or the other, either completely slave or completely free.
 

4. Lincoln elected president, Southern states secede

In 1860, two years after he failed to get elected senator from Illinois, Lincoln ran for president of the USA. Once again, his opponent was Stephen Douglas, the senator who had defeated Lincoln in 1858. Lincoln remained opposed to slavery. He felt that blacks were equal to whites and that slavery was evil. In 1860, Lincoln was elected sixteenth president of the USA. He had not won the support of a single Southern state in the elections.

Before taking office, Lincoln promised not to interfere with slavery in the South. He intended only to prevent slavery from spreading to the new territories in the West. Southerners did not believe Lincoln. They thought of him as a friend of John Brown, the man who had launched the attack on Harper's Ferry. They felt that their Southern way of life was threatened by Lincoln's election. Lincoln's term as president would begin in March, 1861. Even before that date, in December 1860, South Carolina became the first state to secede or break away from the Union. A Charleston, South Carolina newspaper, the Charleston Mercury, ran a headline that read: "The Union is Dissolved!" This break-up of the Union was not what Lincoln had wanted.

During January and February 1861, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas seceded. This brought the total of states that had seceded to seven. And Lincoln was yet to take office. In February 1861, the states that had seceded formed a new republic. They called it the Confederate States of America, also known as the Confederacy. In March 1861, when Lincoln took office, the Southern states of Virginia, North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, and Maryland still had not seceded. During the months of April and May, 1861, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee and North Carolina seceded. This brought the total of states that had seceded to eleven. In May 1861, Richmond, Virginia was chosen as the Confederate capital. Virginia broke into two. The people in the western part of the state remained loyal to the Union. They seceded from Virginia, formed the state of West Virginia, and joined the Union.
 

Fifth Grade - American History - Lesson 27 - The Civil War (Part 1)
 

Objectives

Examine the events surrounding the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter and its relation to the Civil War.

Describe the leadership of Jefferson Davis, Confederate president, at the start of the Civil War.
 

Materials

Classroom-size map of the US

Sentence strip containing time-line begun in prior American History lessons

Map of the Union and the Confederacy, (from Lesson 26)
 

Suggested Books

Student reference

Carter, Alden R. The Civil War. New York: Franklin Watts, 1992. Page 17 contains a classic picture of the attack on Fort Sumter. Recommend it for reading. Show the picture to students.

Pratt, Fletcher. The Civil War. Garden City: Doubleday, 1955. This is a picture book about the battles of The Civil War. Page 10 contains a picture of the attack on Fort Sumter. Page 12 contains a brief description of the attack on Fort Sumter. You may read the account to your class and show the picture. Lee J. James is the illustrator.

Ray, Delia. A Nation Torn: The Story of How The Civil War Began. New York: Lodestar, 1990.

Chapter 1 "A Storm in the Harbor" contains black-and-white pictures of Fort Sumter, the attack, Jefferson Davis, etc. Show them to your students.

Robertson, James R., Jr. Civil War! America Becomes One Nation. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992. Pages 7 to 9 contain pictures of Fort Sumter in ruins after the attack. Recommend the text for independent reading. Show the students the pictures.

Smith, Carter, ed. The First Battles. Brookfield: The Millbrook Press, 1993. Page 18 contains a brief narrative of the attack on Fort Sumter. Page 19 contains a classic color picture of the attack. Recommend the text or read excerpts to the class. Show the class the picture.
 

Teacher Reference

Hakim, Joy. A History of US: War, Terrible War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Show the students the map of the attack on Fort Sumter on page 62.

Hirsch, E. D., ed. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

Show the students the classic picture of the attack on Fort Sumter on page 172.

Kennedy, Frances K., ed. The Civil War Battlefield Guide. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1990. Page

4 contains a historic map of Fort Sumter. Pages 5 and 6 contain a color photograph taken of the Fort in 1990. Show them to your students.

Ward, Geoffrey C. The Civil War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990. Pages 36 to 40 contain pictures of the attack on Fort Sumter, the ruins, and the men involved in the attack.

Show them to your students.
 

Teacher Background

Lessons 24-26 provide the student's background for this lesson. This lesson describes how the physical fighting began in the Civil War. It started with the attack on Fort Sumter, a small fort on an island off Charleston Harbor, South Carolina that both the Union and the Confederacy claimed. Abraham Lincoln decided to bring in supplies of food to the fort. This angered the Confederacy and prompted Confederate president Davis to fire on Union positions, thereby starting the Civil War.

The lesson also deals with the leadership of president Jefferson Davis of the Confederacy. It introduces some of the disadvantages that would plague Confederate soldiers as the Civil War stretched on. Supplement the lesson with pictures from the "Suggested Books" section and other materials where available.

Procedure

Tell the students that this lesson describes the president of the Confederate States of America, Jefferson Davis, and how the Civil War started. Tell the students that first, they will look at a map of the site of the first battle, and pictures of the fighting. Then, they will listen to what happened.

Put up the transparency of the map of the Union and the Confederacy and point to South Carolina and Fort Sumter. Circulate pictures showing the fight and ask students to comment on the details of the fort, the men, and the weapons involved. See the "Suggested Books" section above for list of materials that can be used with this lesson.

Explain to the students that Fort Sumter was a fort operated by the United States of America but located on South Carolina territory. Tell the students that the first cannon of the Civil War was fired because of a dispute over who owned that small fort on a tiny island in the harbor at Charleston, South Carolina. Explain that the two parties in the dispute were the state of South Carolina and the United States of America and that the state of South Carolina said the fort was hers and the federal government said it belonged to all of the United States.

Remind the students that president Abraham Lincoln felt South Carolina had no right to break away from the Union in the first place. Remind the students that obviously, South Carolina felt it had the right since South Carolina felt that it was a state's right to decide whether or not to be part of the Union. Tell the students that South Carolina demanded that control of Fort Sumter be transferred to her. Ask the students: What do you expect Lincoln's answer to be? (no) Emphasize that president Lincoln responded that Fort Sumter belonged to all the American people. Ask: Why was Fort Sumter so important to both sides? Explain that: (1) not only was it a fort that any side could use in a war, but (2) it guarded one of the most important shipping ports in the South, Charleston harbor.

Explain that in the meantime, supplies were running short at Fort Sumter. If president Lincoln sent no supplies in, the soldiers on Fort Sumter would not have been able to fight and would have had to turn the fort over to South Carolina. On the other hand, if Lincoln sent in supplies, the South would start a war. Tell the students that Lincoln decided to send food in. Ask the students to think of South Carolina's reaction to Lincoln's decision not to turn Fort Sumter over to her but to send in supplies instead. (Answers may vary.)

Tell the students that the Confederacy felt Lincoln's decision to send food to Fort Sumter was an act of war and demanded that the soldiers at the fort surrender before the food supplies arrived. Ask the students to think of the soldiers' response. (Answers may vary.) Emphasize that Union soldiers at Fort Sumter refused to give in. Ask the students to predict the Confederacy's reaction to the soldiers' refusal to surrender. (Answers may vary.) Tell the students that on April 12, 1861, Confederate president Davis ordered the Confederate Army to attack Fort Sumter. Explain that after thirty-four hours, the Confederate Army stopped shelling, Fort Sumter was reduced to ruins, no one was killed, but the Civil War had begun. Explain to the students that the man who made the decision to fire on Fort Sumter was Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederacy. Ask the students: Who would be president Davis' opponent? (Lincoln)

Explain to the students that like Lincoln, Jefferson Davis was born in a log cabin in Kentucky. Tell them that Davis was born in 1808 to a poor family who moved to Louisiana and then to Mississippi. Ask the students whether this was similar to the Lincoln family's experience (yes). Tell the students to state whether or not Davis and Lincoln were alike as kids in the following areas. Then, tell them that Jefferson was a boy who loved to play pranks (alike), that he was slim (alike), and honest (alike).

Explain that Jefferson Davis attended the Military Academy at West Point and later turned himself into a very learned man. Ask the students to recall Lincoln's previous professions (shopkeeper, lawyer, politician) and how he had become a lawyer (trained himself).

Tell the students that Jefferson Davis believed that states had the right to secede and that slavery should be allowed into the Western territories of the USA. Ask the students to contrast Lincoln's views on states' rights to secede and whether slavery should be allowed in the Western territories. (Lincoln argued against a state's right to leave the Union and against extending slavery to the West.) Ask the students to recall the name of the new republic formed by the break-away states (Confederate States of America). Ask the students to recall the divisions between the North and the South and to state what they expected the Confederacy to decide in regard to slavery (allowed it). Ask the students to recall the name and location of the Confederate capital (Richmond, Virginia), point out Richmond's location on the map of the Union and the Confederacy, and the location of Washington D.C. the Union capital a 100 miles away.

Tell the students that as a leader, Davis was quite different from Lincoln. Explain that he was difficult to work with, often ill, had little power to rule, and that unlike Lincoln, he couldn't write well, express himself well, or inspire people. Ask: Why is it important for a leader to be able to write and express himself well? (Answers may vary.) Ask: Why is it important for a leader to be able to inspire people? (Answers may vary.) Ask the students whether it would be even more important for a leader to be able to express himself well and inspire people in times of war and why. (Answers may vary.) Ask: Would you expect Jefferson Davis to be make an effective leader during a war? (Answers may vary.) Ask the students to explain their answers. Emphasize that partly because of Davis' poor leadership, soldiers fighting in the Civil War were not getting the guns, the food, the clothes, and the shoes they needed to fight.

Next, ask the students what they thought was most surprising about the account of the attack, what they thought was most interesting, and to summarize one thing they had learned from the lesson that they had not known before.
 

Fifth Grade - American History - Lesson 28 - The Civil War (Part 2)
 

Objectives

Discuss the lessons that North and South should have learned from the First Battle of Bull Run.
 

Materials

Classroom-size map of the USA

Sentence strip containing time-line begun in prior American History lessons

Map of the Union and the Confederacy, (from Lesson 26)
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Carter, Alden R. The Civil War. New York: Franklin Watts, 1992. Pages 18 to 20 describe the First Battle of Bull Run. Page 19 contains a picture of the battle. You may read the narrative to the students or recommend that they read it. Show the students the picture.

Haskins, Jim. The Day Fort Sumter Was Fired On: A Photo History of The Civil War. New York: Scholastic, 1995. Pages 26-29 describe the First Battle of Bull Run. Show the students the pictures of the battle.

Lord, Francis A. Uniforms of the Civil War. New York: Thomas Yoseloff, 1970. This book contains black-and-white pictures of uniforms of the Civil War. Use it to illustrate specific aspects of the war.

Polacco, Patricia. Pink and Say. New York: Philomel, 1994. This is a picture book about the meeting of a black soldier and a white soldier during the Civil War. Recommend it to your students.

Ray, Delia. Behind the Blue and Gray: The Soldier's Life in The Civil War. New York: Lodestar, 1991. Chapter 1 "Wakening to War" includes a description of the First Battle of Bull Run. There is a picture of Bull Run creek on page 11 and a picture of the battle on page 13. Recommend the chapter to your students and show them the pictures.

Smith, Carter, ed. The First Battles. Brookfield: The Millbrook Press, 1993. Pages 36 and 37 contain a brief narrative of the First Battle of Bull Run. Page 37 contains a picture of the battle. Recommend the text or read excerpts rom it to the class. Show the class the picture.

Travis, L. Union Army Black: Ben and Zack Series, Book 4. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1995.

This is a young adult novel about a black drummer boy in the Union Army. Recommend it to your students.
 

Teacher Reference

Hakim, Joy. A History of US: War, Terrible War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Hirsch, E. D., ed. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

Ward, Geoffrey C. The Civil War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990. Pages 62 to 66 contain a description of the First Battle of Bull Run. There is a painting of the battle on page 66.

Show it to your students.
 

Teacher Background

Lesson 27 provides the students' background for this lesson. In this lesson, students will discuss the first big battle in the Civil War, the First Battle of Bull Run, including the weather, location, and material conditions of the battle.

Procedure

Ask the students to recall the start of the American Civil War. Ask: Where did the first battle of The Civil War take place? (Fort Sumter, South Carolina) Ask: How long did the attack on Fort Sumter last? (little more than a day) Ask: Who won the attack on Fort Sumter? (the Confederacy) Ask: Did anyone die in the attack on Fort Sumter? (no) Ask: Is that typical of battles, that no one dies in them? (no) Remind the students that at the end of the attack on Fort Sumter, Union forces headed for New York. Ask the students whether they expected that to be the end of The Civil War? (Answers may vary.)

Tell the students that this lesson is about the first big battle of The Civil War, the First Battle of Bull Run. Write the name of the battle on the board. Ask the students to think of how the attack on Fort Sumter got its name, and to use this information to explain how the Battle of Bull Run got its name (from the site of the battle). Ask the students to predict whether this battle would be bloodier than the attack on Fort Sumter and to explain the reasons for their answers. (Answers may vary.)

Tell the students that Northerners and Southerners used nicknames to refer to each other. Remind the students that Southerners called Northerners "Yankees," or "Yanks" and Northerners referred to the war as a "rebellion" and to Southerners as "Rebels." Explain that when shortened, these names became "Yanks" for Yankees, and "Rebs" for Rebels. Remind the students that the Union Army chose blue for their official color and the Confederate Army chose gray for its official color and that was often how they are remembered: the North in blue, the South in gray.

Explain however, that at first, soldiers tended to wear the uniform of the militia from their home state or city and these uniforms were either blue, gray, red, black, brown, or some other color. Ask: Why did soldiers wear the uniforms of the their state militias and not the Confederate Army colors? (not enough uniforms) Ask the students to guess at the number of soldiers who fought in the Civil War from 1861 to 1865 (hundreds of thousands) and to imagine how much time, money, and work were needed to make sufficient uniforms for these men. Explain that as the war dragged on, the South had fewer and fewer uniforms for all its soldiers. Ask the students: In your opinion, who should be blamed for these problems? (Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederacy) Remind students that Davis had little power to get much done.

Put up the transparency of the Union and the Confederacy on the overhead and point to Bull Run. Explain that the battlefield is located in Virginia, not far from Washington, near a muddy stream called Bull Run. Tell the students that the Confederates called it the Battle of Manassas because Manassas was a town near where the fighting took place. Tell the students that there was a railroad junction close to the town of Manassas and the rail line led to Richmond. Ask the students to recall the reason why Fort Sumter was important to both the North and the South and to use the information to find out why the town of Manassas was important. Ask the students to look at the map on transparency for clues to explain the importance of Manassas. Emphasize that Union Army generals planned to capture the nearby town of Manassass and then travel to Richmond, Virginia by rail. Ask: Why was Richmond important to the Union army? (Confederate capital) Remind the students that in prior World History lessons, they learned that a capital is the seat of government of a country. Ask: What effect might it have on the Confederacy had the Union army captured its capital? (possible early defeat)

Tell the students that many Americans were still taking the war lightly. Explain that while the soldiers were preparing for the First Battle of Bull Run, Washingtonians or people from Washington (point to Washington on the map) took it all as a spectacle and came in on horseback and wagons with their picnic baskets, sat by, and watched the goings-on. Tell the students that the battlefield was part woods and part meadows with very steep slopes on both sides leading down to the river. Ask the students what does the fact that some Washingtonians brought picnic baskets tell about the season and the weather conditions (a hot summer day) on the battlefield.

Ask the students to visualize the preparation for battle on this site and to describe their visualization in terms of the colors, the numbers of people, the movements, the sounds, etc. Ask the students to guess at how the hot summer weather affected the soldiers. Explain that the weather combined with the heavy wool uniforms they wore made it difficult for the soldiers. Ask the students to guess at the other conditions that might have made it difficult for soldiers preparing for battle (fear, hunger, fatigue, confusion, weight carried, etc.).

Tell the students that after nearly a day of fighting, many men had been lost yet no side seemed to be winning. Tell the students that fresh Confederate troops arrived by rail and that made all the difference in this battle. Explain that these Confederate soldiers gave a battle cry that terrified the Union soldiers and sent them packing and that as a result of this railroad and the fresh troops it brought in, the South won the First Battle of Bull Run. Tell the students that five thousand men were injured or killed in that battle.

See the "Suggested Books" section above for materials that can be used with this lesson.

Discussion

Ask your students to discuss the following issue.

No one died in the attack on Fort Sumter. However, the First Battle of Bull Run or the Battle of Manassas claimed many lives. Yet, the American Civil War went on until 1865. Discuss what both sides should have learned from the First Battle of Bull Run and how the North and the South should have responded to these lessons.
 

Bibliography
 

Student Reference

Carter, Alden R. The Civil War. New York: Franklin Watts, 1992. (0-531-2039-6)

D'Aulaire, Ingri and Edgar Parin. Abraham Lincoln. Garden City: Doubleday, 1970. (0-385-07674-6)

Edwards, Pamela Duncan. Barefoot: Escape on the Underground Railroad. New York: HarperCollins, 1997. (0-06-027138-8)

Haskins, Jim. The Day Fort Sumter Was Fired On: A Photo History of The Civil War. New York: Scholastic, 1995. (0-590-46397-7)

Hurmence, Belinda. A Girl Called Boy. New York: Clarion, 1982. (0-395-31022-9)

Jacobs, William Jay. Lincoln. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1991. (0-684-19274-8)

Johnston, Tony. The Wagon. New York: Tambourine, 1996. (0-688-13537-4)

Kalman, Bobbie. Historic Communities: Life on a Plantation. New York: Crabtree, 1997. (0-86505-435-5)

Kent, Zachary. Cornerstones of Freedom: The Story of John Brown's Raid on Harper's Ferry.Chicago: Children's Press, 1988. (0-516-04734)

Langstaff, John, ed. Climbing Jacob's Ladder: Heroes of the Bible in African-American Spirituals. New York: Margaret K. McElderry Books, 1991. (0-689-50494-2)

Lord, Francis A. Uniforms of the Civil War. New York: Thomas Yoseloff, 1970.

McKissack, Patricia C. and Frederick, L. Rebels Against Slavery: American Slave Revolts. New York: Scholastic, 1996. (0-590-45735-7)

________. Christmas in the Big House, Christmas in the Quarters. New York: Scholastic, 1994. (0-590-43027-0)

O'Dell, Scott. My Name Is Not Angelica. New York: Dell, 1989. (0-440-40379-0)

Paulsen, Gary. Nightjohn. New York: Delacorte, 1993. (0-385-30838-8)

Polacco, Patricia. Pink and Say. New York: Philomel, 1994. (0-399-22671-0)

Pratt, Fletcher. The Civil War. Garden City: Doubleday, 1955.

Ray, Delia. A Nation Torn: The Story of How The Civil War Began. New York: Lodestar, 1990. (0-525-67308-3)

________. Behind the Blue and Gray: The Soldier's Life in The Civil War. New York: Lodestar, 1991. (0-525-67333-4)

Robertson, James R., Jr. Civil War! America Becomes One Nation. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992. (0-525-67308-3)

Rosen, Michael J. A School For Pompey Walker. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1995. (0-15-200114-X)

Rosenburg, John. William Parker: Rebel Without Rights. Brookfield: Millbrook Press, 1996. (1-56294-139-9)

Smith, Carter, ed. The First Battles. Brookfield: The Millbrook Press, 1993. (1-56294-292-X)

Travis, L. Union Army Black: Ben and Zack Series, Book 4. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1995. (0-8010-4037-X)

Webb, Robert N. The Raid on Harper's Ferry, October 6, 1859: A Brutal Skirmish Widens the

Rift Between North and South. New York: Franklin Watts, 1971.

Bibliography

Teacher Reference

Evitts, William J. Captive Bodies, Free spirits: The Story of Southern Slavery. New York: Julian, Messner, 1985. (0-671-54094-7)

Freedman, Russell. Lincoln: A Photobiography. New York: Clarion, 1987. (0-89919-380-3)

Hakim, Joy. A History of US: War, Terrible War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. (0-669-36837-7)

Hirsch, E. D., Jr. ed. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. (0-385-31464-7)

Kennedy, Frances K., ed. The Civil War Battlefield Guide. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1990. (0-395-52282-X)

Lester, Julius. To Be a Slave. New York: Scholastic, 1968. (0-590-42460-2)

Lyons, Mary E. Letters from a Slave Girl. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1992. (0-684-19446-5)

Meltzer, Milton, ed. Lincoln: In His Own Words. New York: Harcourt Brace, and Co., 1993. (0-15-24-5437-3)

Stammp, Kenneth M. The Causes of The Civil War. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1974. (0-13-121194-3)

Ward, Geoffrey C. The Civil War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990. (0-394-56285-2)