Fifth Grade - Geography - Overview - November/December

November's two lessons, 8 and 9, are part of a four-lesson, two-month-long (November-December) unit entitled 'Political Geography of Europe.' It includes a unit-long research project. The unit looks at the geography and history of western Europe. Each lesson builds on the previous one. They culminate in Lesson 11, which takes place in December.

In November, Lesson 8 deals with the physical geography of Europe. It includes a phys-ical map of Europe depicting the mountains and rivers, etc. to be studied. Hand out the attached list of research topics to students at the end of Lesson 8. They will select a topic. Lesson 9 deals with the countries of Europe. It includes a political map. Students' reports on their selection of a topic will be due at this time.

In December, Lesson 10 traces the rise of European nation-states from Charlemagne to the present. The lesson uses six maps to show the changes in national boundaries over the same period. At this time, students will report on the progress of their research. Lesson 11 focuses on the location of European national capitals and includes a political map depicting national bound-aries and city locations. Sometime after Lesson 11, students complete their research.

The unit offers many opportunities to make connections across the curriculum, including Science (Science Biographies), History, Literature (Story Settings), Visual Arts, and Music. It also emphasizes students' personal responses to the geography of Europe and a geography pro-ject. Please tailor the personal response questions on students' ancestry to the needs of your classroom population. Not doing so might embarrass your students. Also, feel free to modify these lessons to suit the research needs of your students. Invite students to select their research topics as early as possible and use subsequent lessons to guide students towards the completion of their chosen projects. Research should be a step-by-step activity. The help students need will depend on their experience with independent work. Every effort should be made to guide students along each step of the way. At the start of their projects, the time line is indicated by their geography schedule. Should the interval between lessons prove insufficient for students to complete their assignments, feel free to make the necessary changes. Also, it would help if students could be exposed to samples of the work they are expected to produce. Counting books, picture post cards, travel books, and travel brochures would do. Finally, set aside a place and time that do justice to students' research efforts.
 

Sample Time Line
 

1. Start date: ............................................................. (Lesson 8)

2. Explain the topic by: ........................................... (Lesson 9)

3. Research from: ........... to: .................................... (Lesson 10)

4. Writing/Construction from:................ to: ............

5. Editing from: ................................... to: ...............

6. Submission by: ..................................................... (Lesson 11)

7. Presentation on: ....................................................
 
 
 

Fifth Grade - Geography - Lesson 8 - Physical Geography of Europe
 

Objectives

Recognize types of maps: physical, and political.

Recognize map conventions; land, water, etc.

Recognize Europe on a map of the world.

Recall locations of major oceans, seas, peninsulas, mountains, and rivers on a map of Europe.

Recall definitions of geographical features: peninsula, ocean, channel, archipelago.

Select a research topic.
 

Materials

Classroom-size physical map of the world or

Classroom-size physical map of Europe

Outline physical map of Europe (for transparency and one copy each per student) attached

Outline physical map of Europe annotated for teacher (attached)

List of topics for students' research (attached)

Sample Cover Sheet, Table of Contents, and Time Line for students' projects (attached)

Crayons for coloring students' maps
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Bender, Lionel. Simon & Schuster Picture Pocket Geography. New York: Simon and Schuster

Books for Young Readers, 1991. This book contains population and other data, maps, flags, currency information and is presented in an easy-to-read format.

Sipiera, Paul. I can be a Geographer. Chicago: Children's Press, 1990. This picture dictionary teaches what Geographers do. This understanding of the field may help students generate ideas independently.
 

Teacher Reference

Encyclopedia Americana. Danbury: Grolier, 1997.

Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs To Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

Nystrom. The Nystrom World Atlas. Chicago: Nystrom, 1995.

World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago: World Book, 1994.

Zeman, Anne and Kate Kelly. Everything You Need to Know About World History Homework.

New York: Scholastic, 1995. World History presented succinctly.
 

Teacher Background

This lesson reviews certain oceans, seas, peninsulas, mountains, rivers and the location of Europe. It introduces others. Do not insist that students memorize isolated facts. Aim instead for students to gain a sense of the size, location, and physical landscape of Europe by reading maps. Deliver this lesson at a brisk pace.

In World Civilization, the following topics have already been presented: the geography related to Western Europe in the Fourth Grade, the geography of the Mediterranean region in the Third Grade, the history of Ancient Greece in the Second Grade, and the geography of the seven continents in Kindergarten.

This lesson marks the start of a two-month-long research project for students. Circulate the attached list of suggested topics. Ask students to select from that list or to generate their own research topics. Students should complete their research projects in a step-by-step fashion. Allow

students sufficient time to prepare each step of their assignments and guide them in their search and use of the resources they might need to carry out their projects. You may do this by first helping students to identify materials and resource persons, research institutions, sections of libraries, types of resources, key words, etc. Show students samples of the work expected of them.
 

Procedure

First, distribute the maps to the students. Tell them that geography is the study of the earth and its inhabitants. Explain that geography can be divided into two branches; physical geography (the study of the land) and human geography (the study of people). Tell them that in discussing the two, physical geography is presented before human geography. This is so because physical geography shapes human geography. To illustrate this point, ask: Can you explain why the Eskimos of Canada need warm clothing? (They live in a cold climate.) Explain that cold climates cause humans to wear warm clothing. Tell students that for the next two months, they will study the nations of Europe and their relation to one another. Tell them that this is called political geography.

Explain that this lesson is a study of the land. The next, Lesson 9 deals with the countries of Europe. Lesson 10 looks at the history of these countries. Lesson 11 deals with the capitals and other important cities of Europe. Tell students that in this lesson, they will learn the location of some mountains and rivers of Western Europe. Display a physical map of the world or a map of Europe, or refer to the inset map of the world on the attached map (a transparency of which should be made), and point out Europe or ask a student to do so. Ask: What is Europe? (continent) Ask: What is a continent? (one of the seven great land masses of the earth) Ask another student to identify Europe on a political map of the world by tracing its limits with a ruler. Draw attention to the compass rose on the upper left hand corner of the map, and ask: What continent is Europe north of? (Africa) What continent is Europe west of? (Asia) What ocean is Europe east of? (Atlantic) Is Europe in the northern or southern hemisphere? (northern) Name a line of latitude that Europe lies on? (50N) Ask: What name is given to the people who live in Europe? (Europeans) Explain that a physical map is a map that shows aspects of the land such as mountains and rivers. A political map shows countries including their boundaries and capitals. Some maps focus on both the physical and the political at the same time. Ask students to identify the type of map used in this lesson (physical).

Explain that commercially prepared maps use standard colors (point this out if possible). On a physical map, green stands for low-lying land, brown for mountains, and blue for bodies of water such as seas and lakes. Point to it and ask: Which ocean is to the west of Europe? (Atlantic) Ask students to color that area blue on their handouts of the physical map of Europe. Point out the Mediterranean sea on the map and ask students to color that area blue on their maps. Tell students they might remember the name by recalling that the Mediterranean lies midway between, or 'in the middle of' Europe and Africa. Point out the Black Sea and ask students to figure out how the Black Sea got its name. Explain that the Black Sea got its name from the dense fogs and frequent storms that occur there. Tell students to color that area blue. Explain that the Black Sea is to the east of the Mediterranean and almost surrounded by land. Point to the Caspian Sea and remind students that they studied the Caspian Sea earlier in Fifth Grade Geography. It is to the east of the Black Sea and totally surrounded by land. Ask: What is the name of a body of water surrounded by land? (lake) Explain that the Caspian Sea is really a lake. It is the world's largest lake. It is not a freshwater lake, but a salt lake. Ask students to

recall the Fifth Grade Science topic 'Distillation.' Explain that the Caspian Sea is similar to the boiling flask of impure water during distillation. Ask: What happens in the boiling flask during the process of distillation? (Water evaporates and leaves mineral salts behind so that the concentration of minerals in the remaining liquid increases.) After years of constant evaporation, the concentration of salts becomes so high in the lake that it loses its freshness. Explain that the Caspian Sea is between Europe and Asia and ask students to color it. Point to the Adriatic Sea which touches the Mediterranean and is located between the Italian peninsula and the European coast, and ask students to color that area blue. Next, point to the North Sea and ask students to describe its location (between England's east coast and European coast). Ask students to paint the North Sea blue. Point out the Baltic Sea and explain that the Baltic is almost enclosed by Scandinavia and the European coast. Ask students to color that area blue. Ask: What is the location of the English Channel? (between south coast of England and European coast) Point to the two larger bodies of water, the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea that the English Channel connects and ask students to color those areas blue. Ask: What is a channel? (waterway connecting two larger bodies of water)

Next, present the major peninsulas and archipelagoes of Europe. Remind students that earlier in Fifth Grade, they met the term 'archipelago' when they studied the Spice Islands and the term 'peninsula' when they studied the Malay peninsula. Point to the British Isles, and ask students to observe that it includes more than one island. Ask students to recall the definition of archipelago (islands clustered together in ocean or sea). Point to the Iberian Peninsula, ask them to observe its outline, and recall the definition of a peninsula (body of land that juts into the ocean or sea). Ask students to identify other peninsulas on the maps and point out the Iberian and Balkan peninsulas. Tell students that Greece is on the Balkan peninsula. The Iberian peninsula contains Spain and Portugal, the sea powers of the Age of Exploration which they studied earlier in Fifth grade Geography.

Next, identify the Alps mountains on the map and ask students to describe their location (north of the Italian peninsula). Ask: What is the highest peak of the Alps? (Mt. Blanc) Point it out on the map as the dark triangle, and tell them that 'blanc' is a French word meaning white. Ask: Why might the peak be called white? (snow) Ask: How high do you think Mt. Blanc is? (nearly 16,000 feet (5,000 meters) above sea level) Ask: What is the highest peak in the United States? (Mt. McKinley) Which is taller, Mt. Blanc or Mt. McKinley? (Mt. McKinley at over 20,000 feet (6,000 meters) above sea level) Ask: What might a mountain peak with a French name tell you about that peak? (in French-speaking country, France; explored by or named after French person) Identify the Pyrenees on the map and ask students to describe their location (south and west of the Alps, at the 'neck' of the Iberian peninsula)

Finally, ask: How is a river shown on a map? (blue or black branch-like line) Tell students that there are many large rivers in Europe and that the source of a river is where it begins and the mouth where it ends. Tell the students that in this lesson, they will learn four things about each river: the location of its mouth, the location of its source, the direction in which it flows, and a country it passes through. Ask: Where do rivers usually have their sources? (mountains) Why? (area rich in rain, snow melt, or springs) Where do they usually have their mouths? (oceans, seas) Point to it, and ask: Where the source of the Rhine? (Alps) Where is the the mouth of the Rhine? (North Sea) In what direction does the Rhine flow? (northwest) Tell students that the Rhine flows through Germany and Holland on its way to the North Sea.

(Germany and Holland are countries they will study in the next lesson.) Point to it and ask: Where is the source of the Danube? (close to the Rhine's in the Alps) Where is the mouth of the Danube? (Black Sea) In what direction does the Danube flow? (southeast) Tell students that the Danube flows through Germany, Austria, and Hungary (countries to be studied in the next lesson) among other countries on its way to the Black Sea. Ask: Where is the source of the Rhone? (near the Rhine's, in the Alps) Where is the mouth of the Rhone? (Mediterranean) In what direction does it flow? (south) Tell students that the Rhone is in France. Identify the Oder river on the map. Ask: What should we know about the Oder? (Where is its source? (middle of Europe) Where is its mouth? (Baltic Sea) In which direction does the Oder flow? (north) Explain to students that the Oder flows through Poland (to be studied in the next lesson). Inform students that none of the rivers discussed is as long as the Mississippi River in the United States.

Close by telling students that in the next lesson, they will study some European countries located in the same area.
 

Research Project

The following is a list of research topics. Read them in order to select a topic that you will research over the next two months. You will present your research at the end of December. Once you have selected a topic, you will decide what you and your classmates would like to know about that topic. What you want to know about the topic makes up a table of contents. Turn to the front of a text book you use in class and you will see an example of a table of contents. You will also decide how you would like to present your research project. Books, drama, lectures, pictures, writing, drawings, graphs, audio cassette recordings, etc. are some ways in which to present your research. You will research your topic and at some time during the month of December, you will display, demonstrate and present that information to your class.

You are responsible for every aspect of your research project. This includes planning and setting time-lines by which to complete your activities. You will monitor your progress and report it to the teacher. Try to present information that is interesting and meaningful to your class. For example, if you are leaving for a visit to Italy, what sites would you visit, and why? Present your information in ways that make it easy to understand. You may imagine yourself a journalist at a newspaper or on television during your presentation. You may play the role of teacher. Use writing, drawing, measurements, photographs, newspaper clippings, brochures, sounds, colors, objects, and artefacts where possible. These will make your presentation clear and interesting.

Here's how you should go about doing your project. First, consider two or three topics you feel strongly about. Do not choose a topic that bores you. It will bore others, too. At home, think of the things you might want to say about each topic. Remember that whatever you say while presenting on your topic should stick to that topic and relate to it. Second, select one topic on your short list. It should be the topic that interests you most or one that you will find most information about. Third, decide on the contents of that topic. Do this at home. Fourth, report your selection to the next class' meeting. At this time, you will submit the following four items to your teacher who will advise you on what you need to do next. Here's what you should submit to your teacher.

1. Title Page (draft) including student's name, teacher's name, school name and address, and research topic.

2. Map of region, country or city.

3. Draft of the table of contents.

4. List of sources (books, films, newspapers, individuals) you plan to consult for information.
 

Here are some research topics you might like to consider:

1. The currency of ..... (presenting one or more denominations, including explanations, etc.)

2. Journey of my favorite character in a movie or book (across one or more countries).

3. A Tourist Guide to .... (one country, region, city, or site, etc.)

4. Postcards of .... (one country, region, city, or site, etc.)

5. Alphabet book of.... (one country, region, city, or site, etc.)

6. Counting book of ... (one country, region, city, or site, etc.)

7. Student's interview and other research of a school friend or neighbor's European roots.

8. The music of .... (one country)

9. Specialty products (watches) of ... (one country, region, city).

10. Sailing, Cruising, Shipping or Fishing on the Adriatic Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caspian Sea, English Channel, North sea, Norwegian Sea, Mediterranean Sea, the Danube, the Rhine, the Rhone, the Oder (may involve more than one country).

11. Mountain climbing in the Alps (may involve more than one country).

12. The names of Baltimore streets, neighborhoods, restaurants, monuments, etc. and their European origins (may involve more than one country).

13. Famous persons from Europe: scientists, composers, entertainers, film actors (may involve more than one country).

14. European Cars (may involve more than one country).

15. Interview, and possibly tape, or write your parent or friend's first hand account or their impressions (tourist, etc) of any feature of Europe discussed in class.

16. Castles of ...

17. Wild Animals of ...

18. World War I in ......

19. World War II in ...

20. Machines of World Wars I and II

21. Stamps of ...
 

Countries and cities

Norway (Oslo), Sweden (Stockholm), Denmark (Copenhagen), Finland (Helsinki), Poland (Warsaw), Czech Republic (Prague), Hungary (Budapest), Turkey (Istanbul), Greece (Athens), Italy (Rome, Florence), Switzerland (Bern), France (Paris), Spain (Madrid), Portugal (Lisbon), Germany (Bonn, Berlin), Belgium (Brussels), Holland (Amsterdam), England (London), Scotland (Glasgow), Wales, Ireland (Dublin), Northern Ireland (Belfast).
 

Sample cover page

School name

School address

Academic year
 
 
 

Research Topic
 

by
 

Student's name

Teacher's name

Class
 

Fifth Grade - Geography - Lesson 8 - Physical Geography of Europe
 

Sample table of contents
 

Introduction: ................................................................................................... i

Map: ....................................... ....................................................................... 1

(You decide the contents.): .............................................................................

(You decide the contents.): .............................................................................

(You decide the contents.): .............................................................................

Sources (books, etc.): .....................................................................................
 
 
 

Sample Time Line
 

1. Start date: .............................................................

2. Explain the topic by: ......................................

3. Research from: ........... to: ....................................

4. Writing/Construction from:................ to: ............

5. Editing from: ................................... to: ...............

6. Submission by: .....................................................

7. Presentation on: ....................................................
 

Fifth Grade - Geography - Lesson 9 - Political Geography of Europe: Countries
 

Objectives

Recognize types of maps: physical and political.

Recognize map conventions: boundaries, etc.

Recognize countries on a political map.

Recall locations of specific countries on a contemporary political map of Europe.

Locate specific countries on a contemporary political map of Europe.

Recognize the influence of physical geography on political geography.

Recognize the influence of physical geography on human settlement.

Recognize the terms given to nationals of European countries under study.

Respond personally to geographical features of Europe.

Report on selected research topic.
 

Materials

Classroom-size political map of the world or

Classroom-size political map of Europe

Outline political map of Europe, attached (for transparency and one copy each per student)

Outline political map of Europe annotated for teacher (attached)
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Bender, Lionel. Simon & Schuster Picture Pocket Geography. New York: Simon and Schuster Books for Young Readers, 1991.

Sipiera, Paul. I can be a Geographer. Chicago: Children's Press, 1990.
 

Teacher Reference

Encyclopedia Americana. Danbury: Grolier, 1997.

Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs To Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

Nystrom. The Nystrom World Atlas. Chicago: Nystrom, 1995.

World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago: World Book, 1994.

Zeman, Anne and Kate Kelly. Everything You Need to Know About World History Homework.New York: Scholastic, 1995.
 

Teacher Background

This lesson focuses on the countries of western Europe. It provides a base for building new knowledge in Geography. It builds upon Lesson 8, Physical Geography of Europe, which should precede it. The overall aim of this lesson is not memorization but future recognition of names and symbols on a map. Deliver this lesson at a brisk pace.

In World Civilization, the following topics were introduced: the geography related to Western Europe in the Fourth Grade, the geography of the Mediterranean region in the Third Grade, the history of Ancient Greece in the Second Grade, and the geography of the seven continents in Kindergarten.

Students should submit the assignment handed out in Lesson 8 in order to receive feedback on their work. They will research their topics and prepare drafts of their projects for submission by the next class.

Procedure

First, distribute the maps to the students. Ask: What is a country? (the territory of a nation or people) Ask: How is a country shown on a map? (within solid or broken lines) Sometimes, a country is an island or archipelago such as the British Isles (point it out on the map). In addition to being a territory, a country also has a history. That history is made up of events that have taken place on that territory. Ask: What are two outstanding events in the history of the USA? (Accept reasonable responses, including the adoption of the Constitution in 1776, and the Civil War from 1861 to 1865.) Explain that some countries have many ethnic groups and many languages. A country has one government, and common symbols such as a national flag. Explain that a country is ruled by one government. Illustrate this point by mentioning that (fill in name of current office holder) is the president of the USA. Remind them that in Lesson 7, Geography, students learned that some islands contain more than one country. Hispaniola island in the Caribbean, for example contains the Dominican Republic and Haiti. Some countries, Indonesia for example, include many islands. Canada, the USA, and Mexico, for example, are three countries which are separated by borders but which occupy the same continent.

Explain that Western Europe comprises some thirty-two countries with a combined population of more than six hundred million. The tiniest of these countries is Vatican City, which is within the city of Rome, Italy (point it out). Explain that in this lesson, students will learn the names and locations of twenty countries of Europe. In presenting these countries, you will pretend you are traveling in circles clockwise from the north (demonstrate this). You will start with the peninsulas and archipelagoes on the fringes of Western Europe.

First, identify Scandinavia on the map. Scandinavia is not a country but a group of countries or a region. Indicate Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark on the map. Point to Finland and show that Finland has no coast on an open ocean. Point to it, and ask students to recall from the previous lesson the name of the sea that touches the coast of Finland? (Baltic) Explain that a national of a country is the same as a citizen of that country. Ask: What are nationals of Finland called? (Fins/Finnish) Norway? (Norwegians) Denmark? (Danes/Danish) Sweden? (Swedes/Swedish) Ask: Is there anyone with a parent, or ancestor from Scandinavia? (If this question is irrelevant it should be ignored throughout the lesson.)

Remind students that in Fifth Grade History and Geography, they studied the silk road used by Muslim traders to take silk to Europe from Asia during the Age of Exploration. Tell them that these included traders from Turkey and explain that Turkey is between Asia and Europe, and southwest of the Black Sea (point to it). Ask: What are citizens of Turkey called? (Turks/Turkish) Ask: Is there anyone with a parent, ancestor, or friend from Turkey? Call on volunteers to identify Italy on the map and have them observe that the Italian peninsula looks like a high-heeled boot. Italy juts into the Mediterranean Sea. Ask: What are citizens of Italy called? (Italians) Tell students that Greece is a country near the heel of the boot that is the Italian peninsula and point it out on the map. Ask: What is a citizen of Greece called? (Greek) Tell students that Greece was the original birthplace of the Olympic games. Ask: Is there anyone with a parent, ancestor, or friend from Greece or Italy? Remind students that in earlier in Fifth Grade Geography, they studied European explorers Da Gama and Christopher Columbus. Ask: Which nation did Columbus discover the New World for? (Spain) Call on volunteers to identify Spain on the map. Ask: What are nationals of Spain called? (Spaniards/Spanish) Ask: For which nation did Vasco Da Gama, Magellan, and Cabral explore? (Portugal) Ask a volunteer to indicate Portugal on the map. Ask: What is a citizen of Portugal called? (Portuguese) Refer to the physical map of Europe (used in the previous lesson), and point out that the Pyrenees mountains form a natural border between Spain and France. Ask: Is there anyone with a parent or ancestor from Spain or Portugal?

Remind students that the USA was once a colony ruled by a country in Europe. Ask: Which nation colonized the USA? (Britain, United Kingdom) Call on volunteers to identify England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland on the map. Explain that these make up the United Kingdom or Great Britain, one country with one government. Point out Ireland on the map. Ask: What are nationals of Britain called? (Britons/British) What are inhabitants of Scotland called? (Scots/Scotsmen/Scottish) Tell students that Conan Doyle, author of The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes studied earlier in Fifth Grade, was a Scotsman. What are nationals of England called? (Englishmen/English) Shakespeare and Blake stand out as famous Englishmen. Also, the Calvert family, the first European settlers of Baltimore, were English. And Maryland is named after the wife of a former English King. Ask: What are inhabitants of Wales called? (Welshmen/Welsh) Ask: What are nationals of Ireland called? (Irishmen/Irish) Ask: Is there anyone with a parent, ancestor, or friend from the British Isles?

Tell students that they have just looked at some countries that are located on the fringes of Europe. Identify Germany (point to it) as a country which is located in the center of Europe. Ask: What is a citizen of Germany called? (German) Ask: Is there anyone with a German parent, ancestor, or friend? Remind students that the Rhine river flows through Germany. Show that Germany shares boundaries with eight countries. Tell students that you will present Germany's neighbors by going in a clockwise direction around Germany. Present Poland (point it out), Germany's neighbor to the northeast, and recall that it is the native land of a famous astronomer studied in the Fifth and Third Grades, Copernicus. Ask: How are natives of Poland called? (Poles/Polish) Remind students that the Oder river flows through Poland. Pulaski Highway, a street in Baltimore is named after a Polish General. Present Germany's neighbor to the east, the Czech Republic (point it out). Ask: How are natives of the Czech Republic called? (Czechs) Present Germany's neighbor to the southeast (point it out), Austria. Ask: Is there anyone with a parent or ancestor from Austria? Ask: What are natives of Austria called? (Austrians). Point out Hungary on the map and explain that it does not border on Germany but Austria, and that its citizens are called Hungarians. Ask: Is there anyone with Hungarian ancestry in the class?

Next, present Germany's neighbor to the south (point it out) as Switzerland, and ask: How are citizens of Switzerland called? (Swiss) Ask: Is there anyone with an ancestor from Switzerland? Present France, Germany's neighbor to the southwest (point to it). Show that the Rhone river flows through France. Ask: How are natives of France called? (Frenchmen/French) Ask: Is there anyone with ancestors from France? By comparing the political map and the physical map of Europe (used in the previous lesson), show that the Alps form natural boundaries for France, Switzerland, Austria, and Italy. Ask: What is the highest peak of the Alps called? (Mt. Blanc) Ask: In which country is Mt. Blanc located? (France) Present Germany's neighbor to the northwest (point to it) as Belgium and ask: How are natives of Belgium called? (Belgians) Does anyone have a Belgian ancestor? Present the Netherlands or Holland (point to it) as Germany's neighbor to the north-west. Ask: In Fifth Grade History and Geography, what are the Netherlands or Holland known for? (spice trade with the East Indies) Point out that Holland or the Netherlands are a coastal country, a fact which might help explain why they have been great sea traders. Ask: What are citizens of Holland or the Netherlands called? (Dutchmen/Dutch) Point to Denmark and tell the students that it is the eighth country to border Germany. Remind them that it is part of Scandinavia.Tell students that Germany's location in the middle of Europe and the fact that it has so many neighbors have been very important in two ways. First, the German language is spoken in some neighboring countries such as Switzerland and Austria. Second, Germany has gone to war with some of its neighbors this century. Poland, Austria, France, Belgium, and Holland are some of these countries. The disputes that led to war began as disputes over territory.
 

On-going Project

Students should submit the assignment handed out in Lesson 8 and receive feedback on their work. They should research their topics and prepare drafts of the remainder of their projects. They should also prepare a time-line for completing their projects. Both the draft and the time-line should be submitted by the next class.