Fifth Grade - World History - The Renaissance - Overview
In November, students study the Renaissance. This study includes its origins and prominent figures, and centers on its impact and influence within Italy. Students are given a long-term project, to develop their own Renaissance persona, which is to be done in installments. At the end of each lesson, they are given another part of the project to complete which ties into the content taught during that lesson. The last lesson of the unit is reserved for students to make oral presentations that summarize the project and introduce their personas to the class. An important aspect of the project is the student participation in the design of rubrics to evaluate the various parts. Each of the five parts of the project is allotted twenty points, for a total of one hundred points, which should make grading easy. The students, with teacher guidance, will decide how these twenty points will be categorized when they design the rubric for each part.

It should be noted that the lessons in this unit may run over the typical time alotted for world history, and you should teach them, or aspects of them, as time allows and as your experience deems necessary. Additionally, some of the same content in this unit is covered as a part of Visual Arts in October and November, and care should be taken not to overlap information that has already been taught.
 

Fifth Grade - World History - Lesson 11 - Introduction to the Renaissance

Objectives

Explain why the name "Renaissance" is given to the era from approximately 1300 to 1650.

Describe the changes in popular thought that took place in this time.

Actively listen to and read the roles that various sectors of society played in the transition from the Dark and Medieval ages to the Renaissance era.

Receive and discuss the requirements of the first part of the extended world history project.

Examine a rubric designed to evaluate student performance on the first element of the project.
 

Materials

A sentence strip to continue the time line done in history in previous months

Student copies of societal roles, attached

One copy of the attached rubric for each student

One copy of the attached project assignment sheet for each student
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Caselli, Giovanni. The Renaissance and the New World. New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1986.

This book contains lots of illustrations of Renaissance architecture, items and clothing.

Goodenough, Simon. The Renaissance: The Living Past. New York: Arco Publishing, Inc., 1979.

There are many splendid Renaissance art reproductions in this text, as well photographs of existing Renaissance sculpture and architecture. The drawings of Renaissance life are engaging, and there is a useful section of biographies, as well as a time line, at the back.

Harris, Nathaniel. Spotlight on Renaissance Europe. East Sussex, England: Wayland (Publishers) Ltd., 1986. Though the illustrations are not in color, this book is well organized and gives a clear explanation of the transition into the Renaissance.

________. Leonardo and the Renaissance. New York: The Bookright Press, 1987. This book gives concise descriptions of elements of the Renaissance and would be considered easy reading by most fifth graders

Howarth, Sarah. Renaissance People. Brookfield, Connecticut: The Millbrook Press, 1992. This book is divided into short chapters, each describing a different role in Renaissance society. This book may be especially helpful for students as they complete the first part of their extended history project.

Pierre, Michael. The Renaissance. Morristown, New Jersey: Silver Burdett Press, 1987. The illustrations in this book are intriguing and give a good idea of what life during the Renaissance was like.

Wood, Tim. The Renaissance. New York: Penguin Books U.S.A. Inc., 1993. This book does a good job of addressing the areas covered in this unit, and includes lots of colorful illustrations, including four "see through" scenes (plastic sheets that lift to give the reader a cross-section of the building pictured).

Teacher Resource

Hirsch, E.D. What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. Within this book is excellent background material for today's lesson.

The Renaissance: Maker of Modern Man. Washington D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1970.

This book is a detailed overview of the Renaissance. It features gorgeous photos of the geography, architecture and sculpture of the times, and includes excerpts from da Vinci's notebook and Machiavelli's Prince. Helpful maps are contained as well.
 

Teacher Background

In this lesson, students learn about the origins of the Renaissance. Through active listening, they are cued to read assigned parts that various members of society played in the transformation from Dark and Medieval ages to Renaissance times. Prior to the start of the lesson, students should be put into nine small cooperative groups. Each group will receive an assigned role and the information they need to convey. The roles and information are attached, and each member in a cooperative group should receive a copy of the group's role. For example, one of the ten groups will be Islamic scholars. Each of the students in this group will have a copy of the information on Islamic scholars, and as you speak about the beginning of the Renaissance, they will listen for the cue words, "Islamic scholars." (Cue words have been typed in bold in this lesson plan.) When they hear these words, they should read the information on the sheet provided to them out loud for the class to hear. In this way, students tell each other the parts each group played in bringing on the Renaissance. As soon as the roles and information are passed out, students should be given a few minutes to become familiar with them, and to decide how they want to read them. (They may want to read the entire selection together, chorus style, or they may want to divide the information to be read among themselves so that each reads a sentence.) The roles are on sheets that should be copied, then cut apart.

The time line begun in September and continued in October will be added to this month.

During this month, students will be assigned a long-term project, due at the end of the month. In this initial lesson, they are introduced to the project and receive their first assignment to complete. Students are also exposed to the rubric which has been designed to evaluate their performance on this first piece of the project. The rubric (attached) serves only as a suggestion and should be altered by you as you see fit.

Students have had limited exposure to the ideas behind the Renaissance. In Grades One and Two, they learned about some of the art of the Renaissance. This year in Grade 5, their study of Renaissance art continued last month and runs in conjunction with the historical study this month. In Fourth Grade, they studied Medieval history, and that should help them appreciate the information contained in today's lesson.
 

Procedure

Begin today's lesson by telling students that in November, they will be studying a time period called the Renaissance. (Write "Renaissance" on the board.) Ask: Does anyone know the origin and meaning of the word "Renaissance?" (It is a French word that means "rebirth.") Direct students' attention to the time line that has been begun and continued in history. Ask: Where do you think the Renaissance will go on the time line? (in between the existence of the ancient civilizations of South America and the accomplishments of the explorers) On the sentence strip, write "Renaissance 1300-1650." Point out to students that some exploration did begin in the last half of the Renaissance. Have students look to the time line and ask them: Which explorers' journeys took place during the latter part of the Renaissance? (Answers will vary, based on which explorers the students collectively decided to put on the time line.) Insert the strip with the Renaissance information into the time line.

Tell students that as they learn about the beginning of the Renaissance today, they will, in their small groups, be assigned a role to play. Each of the roles is a different group within society, and all have something to do with the beginning of Renaissance times. As the discussion progresses, they will need to listen for the name of their group to be said, which is their cue. When they hear it, they should read the information on the paper provided. While others are reading, they also need to listen carefully, not only because what is being read is important

information, but also because some cues will be contained in what other students read. Tell students that the information can be read in any way they like--all together or divided so that each member of the group reads a portion individually. When they get their assigned role, they should read it silently first to make sure they are familiar with all of the words, then they should discuss as a group how they want to read the information to the rest of the class. Pass out roles to groups and give them time to do so.

Once students have become familiar with what they are to read and have decided how it should be read, begin the discussion of the foundation of the Renaissance. Tell students that, as they now know, Renaissance means "rebirth." Ask: What is the prefix of the word "rebirth?"

(re-) Ask: What does this prefix mean? (If necessary, give students clues about the meaning of this prefix by discussing the meaning of words such as retry, redo, and reexamine. They should be able to conclude that re- means "again.") So, if re- means "again," and if Renaissance means "rebirth," then something must have been born again in the Renaissance. Ask: What do you think this could be? (Answers will vary.) Tell students that what was reborn was an interest in old ideas. These ideas were popular long ago, and they became popular again. They were the ideas of the ancient Greek and Roman artists and scholars. (Give time for this group to read.)

As these artists and scholars have just told us, their work was left unappreciated and unused by most of Europe for many years. Not until the Renaissance was a popular interest in what they did reborn. Have students notice that you said most of Europe did not appreciate or use the knowledge left by the ancient artists and scholars. A group of people did, in fact, use the many books which came out of ancient Greece and Rome. This group, while most of Europe was in the Dark Ages, continued to study and learn. Tell students that as a clue to the identity of this group, they should think back to the history lesson in which they made a quadrant. Have them recall that a quadrant was very useful because it could show sailors their location based upon their position in relation to heavenly bodies. Ask: Who showed the Portuguese sailors how to use a quadrant? (Shortly after Prince Henry's time, Muslim scholars taught the Portuguese how to measure their course by the position of the stars.)

As the Muslim scholars have just told you, while they were busy learning all they could from the ancient Greek and Roman scholars, most of the rest of Europe was in a time period called the "Dark Ages." The time period from the fall of Rome to about 1000 A.D. is called the "Dark Ages." This is a another clue as to why the Renaissance has the name it does: the Dark Ages were called such because the light of learning was not glowing very bright. In the Renaissance, a love of learning was reborn. Ask: Why do you think that people in the Dark Ages were not interested in learning? (Answers will vary.) Tell students that one group who can give us their input is a group that existed in great numbers during the Dark Ages, the serfs. (Note that the serfs prompt the lords, knights and barons to give their information, and they in turn prompt the kings to read what they have to say.)

So, as the kings have reported, the Catholic Church holds most of the power during the Dark Ages. Ask: Do you think that the Catholic Church is involved in much learning? Why or why not? (Answers will vary.) Let's ask the heads of the Catholic Church, the popes, to tell us what they have to say on this topic.

Tell students that gradually, in the 1300s, governments became more stable. There was less warring over land, which meant that kings, lords, knights and barons had more time and money. They began to think about the nice things they would like to buy with their money, and began to want more of the gold, silk and spices that Muslim traders could get them. As students know, this eventually led to the age of exploration they have already studied. As trade grew, so did towns, and in the towns, a group of people grew in numbers to make a profit from the growing demand for luxuries for the rich. This group was the bankers, merchants and traders.

Tell students that the bankers, merchants and traders were selling books to growing groups of people who had the time, money, ability and interest to buy them. One of these groups is here with us today, it is a poet named Petrarch, and his friends. (Allow time for this group to read.) Inform students that Petrarch and his friends in the early 1300s began a practice that became commonplace during the Renaissance, but was rare in western Europe prior to it: the practice of observation. Ask: Why did Petrarch and his friends decide to watch things for themselves? (Different translations of books disagreed with one another.) Not only Petrarch and his friends, but people everywhere started to think that they could figure matters for themselves if they took the time to study what they were interested in. This Renaissance practice of observation was performed by one famous astronomer you have already learned about. Ask: Who might this be? (Galileo)

Tell students that a tendency to observe the world is one characteristic of a group they haven't yet heard from. The Renaissance men and women will now tell the class what other characteristics they have. Once the Renaissance men and women have read their sheet, ask the following summary/evaluation questions. Ask: Why was the name "Renaissance" given to this time era? (It involved a "rebirth" in the interest in learning and of the ideas of the ancient Greeks and Romans.) Ask: What changes took place during this time? (an increased love of learning; an interest in ancient Greek and Roman ideas; the development of the practice of observation in science; increased exposure, through trade, to Muslim scholars and ideas; a shift from land as a power base to money as a power base; the rise in belief that men and women can do anything they put their minds to; a tendency in people to develop all of their talents to the fullest extent.) Ask: What was one of the reasons, discussed today, that people suddenly were able to do all of these things (learning etc.)? (Governments became more stable in the 1300s, causing less money and time being spent on war. With their excess money, the royalty and wealthy wanted luxuries from the East, increasing trade. With their excess time, people began to develop an interest in reading and learning.)

Next, tell students that they have heard and read the background to the Renaissance and now understand how it came to be. In achieving this understanding, they played roles of various members of society. In November, they will be assigned an individual long-term project that will also involve taking on a role. They will need to adopt the persona of a Renaissance artist or scholar. In each of the history lessons of November, they will be given another part of the project to complete, which will develop the persona they have selected. Each part will require work outside of class. The first part, to be assigned today, asks them to think about what they will primarily "be." They just heard from the Renaissance men and women that they were "artists, poets, musicians, architects, mathematicians, and astronomers," and that many of them were "all of these people put together!" Students need to decide which one of these skills and talents, as a Renaissance man or woman, they would be best at. Tell students that this decision is not to be made lightly, as they will be spending a good deal of time developing this project. What they need to do is research the arts and sciences of the Renaissance period so that they become familiar with the style and focus of each of these disciplines. For example, if a student chooses to be a musician, he or she should understand that this means that they would probably have played lute, not an electric guitar. Before the next history class, students should have completed research into the Renaissance style/focus of their given interest, and should have completed a paragraph containing the information listed on the project assignment sheet. Pass out copies of the assignment sheet for part one of the project, and review with the students to confirm their understanding.

Inform students that the paragraphs will be graded on content and form. To help them all achieve a top grade, they will receive a grading sheet called a rubric. Pass out copies of the rubric and review it with students, making sure they understand the assignment of points. Emphasize to students that this is the actual form that you will be using to grade their paragraphs, and that if they pay attention to the areas you will be grading, everyone should be able to do well on this assignment.
 

Suggested Follow-up Activities

It is suggested that you have a variety of books on the Renaissance available to students for their use during any free time within the classroom. See November's bibliography for a complete listing of the recommended books. Having these books available should prompt students to begin the research they will need to do to complete the first part of the long-term history assignment. If they are able to begin their research using time available in class when other assignments have been completed, you may be able to address initial problems they have in locating information and remembering research skills.
 

Fifth Grade - World History - Lesson 11 - Introduction to the Renaissance
 

ANCIENT GREEK AND ROMAN ARTISTS AND SCHOLARS

We, the scholars, study mathematics, astronomy and many other sciences and record our findings in books for others to read. Our knowledge is greater than that of many of the people in time periods that occur after us. They seem to forget, or not even to care, about our amazing findings! We, the artists, create magnificent paintings, sculptures and mosaics. After the fall of the Roman Empire, many of our masterpieces are buried under dirt and dust.
 

MUSLIM SCHOLARS

While most of Europe is in a time period called the "Dark Ages," we are busy translating the writings of Greek and Roman scholars into Arabic. We produce many remarkable achievements. Even in the 1990s, hundreds of years after us, students use Arabic numerals in math and study our algebra! Many years before Columbus, we have come to the conclusion that the world was round, and make important contributions of knowledge in the fields of medicine and the treatment of disease. By translating and preserving the works of the ancient Greek and Roman scholars, we save their work so that it can benefit future societies, and we add much to it!
 

SERFS

Who has time to worry about learning? Certainly not us! We are poor people who are busy from sunrise to sunset every day farming the land. We need to worry about making sure we get enough food, and producing food for the wealthier people around us. We can't take time to wonder about science, writing, math and the arts--we are struggling just to survive. Maybe the lords, knights and barons can take the time to learn. We surely can't!
 

LORDS, KNIGHTS AND BARONS

Learning about science, nature and art? Well that would surely be nice, but we don't have any time for it either. In this era, power is not based on knowledge, but on the ownership of land. We need to defend our land against others who would like to take it so that they can have more power. Warring is so common, we are focused on survival rather than learning. We are much too busy fighting for our kings to take the time to learn to read!
 

KINGS

First of all, we are busy too! We are constantly thinking about how to get more power and protect the power we have. For us, our land and the power it gives us is enough to think about. Besides which, everything we need to know is told to us by the Catholic Church. If we were to start wondering whether or not what it says is true, we might get into trouble! The Catholic Church, you see, owns more land than any of us and therefore has more power. If there is something we need to know, we're sure the Catholic Church will tell us.
 

POPES

Most of what people need to know can be found in the Bible, and because most people cannot read, we tell them what it says. The Catholic Church does own some books, though we are not sure how much good they will do anyone. If we were to encourage people to read what others have written, then they might start to question some of the answers we have given them. That would be questioning our authority, and that would be dangerous! We think it best if we control the knowledge.
 

BANKERS, MERCHANTS AND TRADERS

We are the "middle men" of trade. We buy goods from the Muslim traders, then raise the prices and resell the goods to the wealthy people, including kings, lords and barons, who live near the towns where we do our business. We make good money! As a matter of fact, we have noticed that more and more, power is based on money, and not how much land you own. That is certainly a change. Another change we see taking place is that because of an increase in demand for goods from the East, we are spending a lot more time with the Muslim traders than we used to. They have told us some things we never knew, and have brought with them books that we can sell to anyone who is interested in reading what is in them.
 

PETRARCH AND HIS FRIENDS

Petrarch, our friend, loves books and reading. He lives in Italy, but hunts for books not only there but in France, too. With the help of those of us who are his merchant friends, he has built up quite a large library. He lets us, and anyone else who wants to, come to his library and read the books he has collected. We have read ideas that have been forgotten about for hundreds of years! Some of Petrarch's books are ancient Greek and Roman masterpieces, which have been translated by Muslim scholars, and some have been translated from Greek and Roman by Catholic monks. In reading these books, we have noticed that sometimes one book says one thing and another says something which is the opposite. (Those monks didn't understand what they were translating very well!) We have decided that when faced with opposite statements, the best thing to do is to observe whatever is being written about for ourselves.
 

RENAISSANCE MEN AND WOMEN

We are the men and women who live during the Renaissance. We believe that human life is quite interesting, and, that if given the chance, men and women can do anything they put their minds to. We look to the art and writings of the ancient Greeks and Romans for inspiration, but add to their skill and findings. We are artists, poets, musicians, architects, mathematicians, and astronomers, and many of us are all of people put together! We always try to develop all of our talents to the fullest extent.
 

Fifth Grade - World History - Lesson 11 - Introduction to the Renaissance
 

PROJECT ASSIGNMENT PART ONE
 

Date due:________________________________________________
 

STEPS

1 **Decide on a "speciality" you will have as a Renaissance man or woman. The specialty can be music, poetry, painting, sculpture, mathematics, astronomy, physiology etc.
 

2 **Do some research on the area you chose to get an idea of what this field was like during the Renaissance. After doing the research, you may change your mind about your specialty! That's fine, but make sure you do settle on one area of interest and research it.
 

3 ** Write a paragraph describing yourself and what you do. Your research should be used to do this. Make sure, in the paragraph, you answer the following questions: (You might want to check them off as you go.)
 

What is your area of interest/specialty?
 

What does your work look like/ sound like/ study specifically?
 

Considering that you live during the Renaissance, what types of tools and instruments do you use to create in this field?
 

Are there any ancient Greeks and Romans who accomplished much in this field, and who inspire you?
 

What other Renaissance men or women have accomplished great deeds in this field, and what did they accomplish?
 

Fifth Grade - World History - Lesson 11 - Introduction to the Renaissance
 

HISTORY PROJECT -- ASSIGNMENT PART ONE-- RUBRIC
AREA POINTS
Completeness 

(Did you answer all the questions?)

Detail and Accuracy 

(How well did you answer the questions?)

Grammar, Spelling and Punctuation
Format, Neatness and Organization

 

TOTAL POINTS: _____________________________
 
 


POINT SCALE

5 = excellent

4 = good

3 = fair

2 = poor

1 = You can do so very much better!


 
 




Student Name __________________________ Grade ___________________________
 

GRADING SCALE

18-20 points = excellent

16-17 points = good

14-15 points = fair

12-13 points = poor

11 or fewer points = You can do so very much better!
 
 
 

Fifth Grade - World History - Lesson 12 - New Trade, Wealth and the Italian City-States
 

Objectives

Complete a cause and effect table detailing the rise of bankers, merchants and traders as a class.

In cooperative groups, complete a cause and effect table listing the reasons why Italy became a center of commerce, wealth and culture.

Individually, compose a paragraph describing why Italy became a center of commerce, wealth and culture, using the cause and effect table.

Receive and review part two of the extended history project.
 

Materials

Classroom-size world map

Chart or transparency of the cause and effect table

For each student

Copy of the attached map of Italy and its immediate area

Copy of the attached cause and effect table

Copy of part two of the extended history assignment, attached
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Caselli, Giovanni. The Renaissance and the New World. New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1986.

This book contains lots of illustrations of Renaissance architecture, items and clothing.

Goodenough, Simon. The Renaissance: The Living Past. New York: Arco Publishing, Inc., 1979.

There are many splendid Renaissance art reproductions in this text, as well photographs of existing Renaissance sculpture and architecture. The drawings of Renaissance life are engaging, and there is a useful section of biographies, as well as a time line, at the back. On pages 8-9 there is a great description of what life was like in a Renaissance city, and the author does a good job of contrasting it to life in a city today.

Harris, Nathaniel. Spotlight on Renaissance Europe. East Sussex, England: Wayland (Publishers) Ltd., 1986. Though the illustrations are not in color, this book is well organized.

________. Leonardo and the Renaissance. New York: The Bookright Press, 1987. This book gives concise descriptions of elements of the Renaissance and would be considered easy reading by most fifth graders. There is a good description on pages 16-17 of the reasons why Italy became so wealthy.

Howarth, Sarah. Renaissance People. Brookfield, Connecticut: The Millbrook Press, 1992. This book is divided into short chapters, each describing a different role in Renaissance society. Pertinent to this lesson, there is a description of the life and work of the banker.

________. Renaissance Places. Brookfield, Connecticut: The Millbrook Press, 1992. Pages 7-9 contain first-hand accounts of life in and descriptions of Renaissance city-states.

Pierre, Michael. The Renaissance. Morristown, New Jersey: Silver Burdett Press, 1987. The illustrations in this book are intriguing and give a good idea of what life during the Renaissance was like. It also contains specific descriptions of Florence, Rome and Venice.

Wood, Tim. The Renaissance. New York: Penguin Books U.S.A. Inc., 1993. This book does a good job of addressing the areas covered in this unit, and includes lots of colorful illustrations, including four "see through" scenes (plastic sheets that lift to give the reader a cross-section of the building pictured). Pages 8-9 and 12-13 are specifically devoted to the topics addressed in today's lesson: city-states and the rise of trade.

Teacher Resource

The Renaissance: Maker of Modern Man. Washington D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1970.

This book is a detailed chronicle of the Renaissance. It features gorgeous photos of the geography, architecture and sculpture of the times, and includes excerpts from da Vinci's notebook and Machiavelli's Prince. Helpful maps are contained as well.

Hirsch, E.D. What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. Within this book is excellent background material for today's lesson.
 

Teacher Background

In today's lesson, students delve more deeply into the rise of trade and wealth during the Renaissance and examine it specifically within Italy. As a review, the class as a whole will begin a cause and effect table, reminding students of information learned in the last history class. Students will then listen for other cause and effect relationships as you describe the rise of wealth trade and culture in Italy. They will complete a cause and effect table in small cooperative groups, then will individually write a paragraph, using the cause and effect table, to describe why the rise of trade and wealth occurred, and why Italy became so prominent in these areas.

Students should be expected to turn in part one of the extended history project, which was assigned at the last history class. They will receive their assignment for part two of the project, which focuses on the geography covered today.
 

Procedure

Begin today's lesson by putting up the large chart or transparency of the cause and effect table. Tell students that today, they will continue to study the Renaissance, and that the focus of this lesson is the trade and wealth of this era. Remind students that they already have heard, in the last lesson, a little about the increase of trade during this time. Ask: What was the first reason that people had more money and time? (Governments became more stable so there was less war.) Direct students' attention to the cause and effect table. With this relationship in mind, ask: What would go on the "cause" side? (Governments became more stable) Tell students that this whole sentence will not fit in the box for "cause," so to shorten it, you will write "governments stable" instead. Write this in the first box under "cause." Ask: What was the effect of this? (There was less war.) Ask: So where would I write this? (under "effect") Ask: How can I shorten it? (Answers will vary. Accept an appropriate summary of the sentence and write it under "effect.") Now, tell students that less war was an effect, but then became a cause, and write it under "cause." What was just said about the effect of less war? (People had more time and money.) Write "more time and money" under "effect," across from the cause of less war. Again, more time and money now becomes a cause. Ask: What did people want to do with their time and money? (Buy luxuries from the East and study the writings of ancient Greeks and Romans.) After asking students how this could be shortened, note this relationship on the table as well. Have students recall the various groups who spoke about their role in society in the last history class. Tell them that a demand for more luxuries from the East created a large group of people they heard from. Ask: Who was this group of people? (the bankers, merchants and traders) Add "demand for luxuries" to the cause side of the table, and add its effect, "large group of bankers, merchants and traders."

Inform students that the creation of this new social class was a huge change from the society that existed before the Renaissance. In the Dark Ages and Medieval times, there were two distinct classes of people: the nobility and the poor. The lines between these two classes blurred during the Renaissance. As men who were not of noble birth began to trade more, they became wealthier and wealthier, and the nobility became less rich in comparison. The nobility tried to

hold on to money and power, but in many cases, ended up borrowing from the merchants and bankers. Even kings and queens wound up borrowing from bankers to finance exploration! Many times the wealthy merchants increased their power through arranged marriages. They also began to realize that a good education could significantly increase their ability to make money. Ask: How could this happen? (Through a knowledge of math, an increase in the understanding of interest and financial figures could take place; knowledge of another culture and language could allow for trade to occur more rapidly and smoothly, etc.) Emphasize to students that the same is true today.

Next, pass out the student copies of the cause and effect table and tell students that as they continue to learn about Renaissance trade and wealth, they should begin to listen for cause and effect relationships to be explained. The process of filling out a cause and effect table has already been modeled in the review of the last lesson, which focused on the cause of the rise of the new class of bankers, merchants and traders. This cause and effect table will focus on the causes and effects that led to Italy becoming the center of wealth, trade and culture. Tell students that as they listen to the information being presented, they should be specifically listening for any causes that had effects which impacted this development. They will want to listen for statements that answer the question, "Why did Italy become so rich and develop as a center of many new ideas for western Europe?" (You may want to review with students clue words for cause and effect relationships, such as "led to," "because," "due to," "caused," "effect," etc.) If they would like, they can write the causes and effects down as they hear them. Tell students that when they hear a cause and effect relationship, they will have neither time nor room to write the whole sentence. They will need to shorten it the way the class did it in the review earlier in the lesson. After the discussion, they will be put into cooperative groups, where they can share their information and get ideas from others. (Note that in the lesson plan, the cause and effect relationships students are expected to note have been written in bold.)

Begin this part of the lesson by showing students the classroom-size world map. Remind them that in geography, they learned that the Silk Road transversed Asia and eastern Europe, and went through Turkey. (Show on map.) Once the goods, silk especially, were in Turkey, they needed to be transported to the wealthy buyers in Spain, Portugal, France and England. (Again, show on map.) Ask: What country do you notice was directly in the path between these goods, once they were in Turkey, and their destinations in western Europe? (Italy) Italy was positioned between the East and western Europe, and this led to Italy becoming a major trading crossroad and center. (You might want to pause to allow students to note this relationship, helping them to phrase it concisely, if necessary.)

Have students again look at the world map, noting Italy's location. Ask: What body of water do they notice almost completely surrounds Italy? (the Mediterranean Sea) Because of Italy's position in the Mediterranean, Italian merchants took advantage of the natural sea ports and routes to trade with other countries on the Mediterranean coast. (Again, pause and assist as necessary.)

Tell students that all of this trading was sure to impact Italy. Ask: When a merchant received goods to sell, how did he make a profit? (by raising the price of the goods before selling them) With such an increase in trade, merchants were selling more than ever before, and there were more merchants than ever before. The increase in trade caused the Italian merchants to

become quite wealthy. (Students should be getting the idea of noting these relationships by now.)

Finally, tell students to imagine an Italian city. There would be people there from many countries, both bringing goods to Italian merchants, and there to buy goods from Italian merchants. These people would speak different languages and be of different religions, but in the process of trade, they would all be interacting. Italy became a center of new ideas and culture as an effect of the many people from all over trading there.

Now, put students into cooperative groups and allow them to share the cause and effect relationships they gleaned from the information you shared. Once they have done so, reconvene as a class and ask groups to share their ideas. Confirm that all students see the relationship between the geography of Italy and its rise in trade, and the resultant effects of wealth and culture. Any cause and effect relationships missed by students should be added to their cause and effect tables. Students should be able to understand now that the Renaissance is considered to have begun in Italy, then to have spread north across Europe.

Ask students to now write, individually, a paragraph to answer the question, "Why did Italy become such a wealthy and cultured region during the Renaissance?" Remind students to use proper grammar, spelling and punctuation, and to include both a topic and concluding sentence. Students should use the information in the cause and effect table to successfully complete this assignment. When all students are finished, collect the paragraphs for grading purposes.

Tell students that within Italy, there were centers of trade and culture, and these centers were cities, just as today cities are centers of trade and culture. During the Renaissance, Italy was not one unified country. Each of the major cities within it conquered the surrounding territory, and in doing so became what we call a city-state. Even if the city-state was quite large, its name was still the same as that of the city which had conquered it. So, for example, in the city-state of Florence, there was a large city called Florence, but all of the countryside and smaller towns under Florence's control were also called "Florence." Therefore, when one said "Florence," it could be a reference to either a region or a city. There were about 250 Italian city-states, but the main ones were Venice, Florence, Rome and Milan.

Tell students that the next part of the extended history project asks them to think about in which of the city-states their Renaissance persona resides. They will need to choose a city-state and follow the directions on the sheet entitled "Project Assignment Part Two." Pass out the copies of this sheet, as well as the copies of the attached map. Review with students the instructions on the sheet to confirm they understand the next step in the completion of the project. Point out to them that there is a space for both title and key on the map.

Remind students of the rubric they saw in the last history lesson, which will be used to grade the first part of their project. Tell them that today, you'd like to develop a rubric with them to be used to grade the second part of their project. Discuss with students the important aspects of this part of the project, and assign a point value for each aspect. The total point value of this part of the project should equal twenty so that all parts of the project are weighed equally when assigning a final project grade. Questions to ask students to prompt discussion include: What are the important parts of this assignment? Within these parts, what needs to be done? What is reasonable in terms of what should be accomplished? What level or quality of work deserves an "A?" If the whole assignment is worth twenty points, how should the points be divided? (Note that an example rubric has been included with this lesson, however, it is hoped that you will take

the time to develop a rubric with the students. Doing so should allow them to understand the grading process more deeply, and will give them a sense of ownership and control over the project.)
 

Suggested Follow-up Activities

So that you can effectively grade this part of the project, it would be helpful to do a little reading on the subject of city-states. You should find clear descriptions to answer the questions in most of the books listed under "Student Reference" above. A map that will be very helpful in

grading the students' maps can be found on page 8 of Wood's book.
 

Fifth Grade - World History - Lesson 12 - New Trade, Wealth and the Italian City-States
 

PROJECT ASSIGNMENT PART TWO
 

DATE DUE_________________________________________________
 

STEPS

1 **Choose one of these four city-states as a home for your Renaissance persona: Venice, Florence, Milan or Rome.
 

2 **Find out where this Renaissance city-state was located. Choose a color, and on the attached map, color and shade in the region of the city-state, then use a symbol to designate the actual location of the city within the region. Don't forget to add a title and a map key to explain the shading and symbol!
 

3 **Do some research on the city-state where your persona lives. Fill in the facts asked for below. You will turn in this sheet with the answers completed.
 

FACT FORM
 

Which city-state is your home? ___________________________________________________
 

What is your city-state known for ? (banking, canals, shipbuilding, etc.)___________________
 

_____________________________________________________________________________
 

What is life like within the major city where you live? For this question, you may choose to either write a paragraph below, or you may draw a detailed, labeled picture on the back.
 

_____________________________________________________________________________
 

_____________________________________________________________________________
 

_____________________________________________________________________________
 

_____________________________________________________________________________
 

_____________________________________________________________________________
 

_____________________________________________________________________________
 

_____________________________________________________________________________
 

_____________________________________________________________________________
 

_____________________________________________________________________________
 

Fifth Grade - World History - Lesson 12 - New Trade, Wealth and the Italian City-States
 

HISTORY PROJECT--ASSIGNMENT PART TWO--EXAMPLE RUBRIC
MAP FACTS
ACCURACY AND DETAIL
SPELLING, GRAMMAR AND PUNCTUATION

 

POINT SCALE

5 = excellent

4 = good

3 = fair

2 = poor

1 = You can do so very much better!


 
 




Student Name __________________________ Grade ___________________________

(map points + facts points)

GRADING SCALE

18-20 points = excellent

16-17 points = good

14-15 points = fair

12-13 points = poor

11 or fewer points = You can do so very much better!
 

Fifth Grade - World History - Lesson 13 - Patrons of the Arts and Learning
 

Objectives

Define the word "patron."

Compare and contrast the contributions and characteristics of the Medici family of Florence to the popes of Rome.

List the reasons why a wealthy Renaissance person would choose to become a patron.

Receive part three of the extended history assignment.
 

Materials

One copy of the attached Venn Diagram for each pair of students

One copy of part three of the extended history assignment for each student (attached)

Photos or reproductions of religious art done during the Renaissance (can be found in the books listed below)
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Caselli, Giovanni. The Renaissance and the New World. New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1986.

This book contains lots of illustrations of Renaissance architecture, items and clothing.

Goodenough, Simon. The Renaissance: The Living Past. New York: Arco Publishing, Inc., 1979.

There are many splendid Renaissance art reproductions in this text, as well photographs of existing Renaissance sculpture and architecture. The drawings of Renaissance life are engaging, and there is a useful section of biographies, as well as a time line, at the back. Pertinent to this lesson, the author gives descriptions of the lives and contributions of each of the prominent Medicis on pages 14 and 15.

Harris, Nathaniel. Spotlight on Renaissance Europe. East Sussex, England: Wayland (Publishers) Ltd., 1986. Though the illustrations are not in color, this book is well organized.

________. Leonardo and the Renaissance. New York: The Bookright Press, 1987. This book gives concise descriptions of elements of the Renaissance and would be considered easy reading by most fifth graders. There is a good description on page 26 of the Catholic Church and its leaders during the Renaissance.

Howarth, Sarah. Renaissance People. Brookfield, Connecticut: The Millbrook Press, 1992. This book is divided into short chapters, each describing a different role in Renaissance society. Pertinent to this lesson, there is a description of the life and work of the banker.

Ingpen, Robert. Turning Points in History: People Who Changed the World. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1991. There is a chapter on the Medicis within this book that is both clear and concise.

Pierre, Michael. The Renaissance. Morristown, New Jersey: Silver Burdett Press, 1987. The illustrations in this book are intriguing and give a good idea of what life during the Renaissance was like. The author describes in detail the hedonistic tendencies of some popes during the Renaissance.

Wood, Tim. The Renaissance. New York: Penguin Books U.S.A., Inc., 1993. This book does a good job of addressing the areas covered in this unit, and includes lots of colorful illustrations, including four "see through" scenes (plastic sheets that lift to give the reader a cross-section of the building pictured).There is a short chapter on patrons that explains the motivations behind patrons during the Renaissance.
 

Teacher Resource

De La Croix, Horst, Richard Tansey and Diane Kirkpatrick. Art Through the Ages. San Diego: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1991. On page 635 of this book is an excerpt from a letter sent by da Vinci to the Duke of Milan, asking for his patronage.

Hirsch, E.D. What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. Within this book is excellent background material for today's lesson.

The Renaissance: Maker of Modern Man. Washington D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1970.

This book is a detailed chronicle of the Renaissance. It features gorgeous photos of the geography, architecture and sculpture of the times, and includes excerpts from da Vinci's notebook and Machiavelli's Prince. There is a fold-out photo of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel which would be particularly good to show students in today's lesson, and on page 178 there is a portrait of a mighty-looking Pope Julius II as well. Helpful maps are also contained.
 

Teacher Background

In this lesson, students are introduced to the concept of a Renaissance patron. They will learn specifically about two of the greatest patrons of the Renaissance: the Medici family and the popes of the Catholic Church. After hearing information about these two groups, students will compare and contrast them. To further summarize and evaluate student learning, students are asked to define patron, and to list the reasons why one might have become a patron during the Renaissance.

Today, students should turn in part two of the extended world history project, which was assigned in the last class. They will receive their assignment for part three, which asks them to write a letter to a potential patron from their Renaissance persona. The letter should be persuasive, and students should pull into it reasons that might be motivating the recipient to be a patron, from the list generated during the lesson.
 

Procedure

Begin today's lesson by collecting part two of the world history project, then briefly reviewing some of the information covered in the last lesson. Remind students that the Renaissance changed the social structure within society, and created a large new social group. Ask: What were the two major groups of people in European society before the Renaissance? (the nobility and the peasants, or serfs) Tell students that prior to the Renaissance, people thought that kings and royalty had been chosen by God for the special responsibility of ruling. During the Renaissance, people could rise to power and ruling status even if they had no royal blood. Ask: What was the basis for power before the Renaissance? (land) Ask: During the Renaissance, what became the basis for power? (money) Inform students that though this is true, there were important elements that went along with money to contribute to power: intelligence and accomplishments.

Tell students that as people became rich, they were expected to use their money to make the city where they lived more beautiful. Wealthy people who supported artists, musicians, scientists and writers were called patrons, and still are called by this name. (Write "patrons" on the board.) These patrons tried to attract the best artists, musicians, scientists and writers to their cities, and cities frequently competed in terms of who they had hired and what they were creating. As these talented artists and thinkers moved from city to city, completing different assignments, they helped to spread the ideas of the Renaissance.

Inform students that there were many different motives for becoming a patron of the arts and sciences. Some wanted to glorify God through art based on religious themes, and through the decoration of churches and cathedrals. (Show students pictures of religious art and sculpture from the books listed above.) Others wanted to become popular with the people of the city, and thus increase their power. They figured that if they paid for a magnificent statue to be carved and placed in the city square for all to appreciate, the people who lived in the city would be grateful and more likely to support them. Another reason some became a patron was so that they could get a famous painter, sculptor or architect to paint, carve or build a monument to themselves and their family. By doing this, they showed off their wealth and power. Finally, some of the money gained by the newly rich during the Renaissance was earned in ways considered to be sinful at the time, such as in war or banking. If wealthy men were feeling guilty about how they had earned their money, their consciences would be soothed if they used some of the money for decorating a cathedral or improving the looks of the city where they lived.

Tell students that they will be hearing about two of the major groups of patrons today. As they listen to information about them, they should be thinking about which characteristics each group has and how the groups are similar and different.

The first group is actually a family, named the Medicis. They lived in Florence, one of the city-states we heard about in the last class. Ask: How many of you reported in part two of the world history project that you lived in Florence? (Have students raise their hands to show if they did.) Tell them that if they lived in Florence, they would surely know of the Medicis. The Medicis were the most powerful and wealthy family in all of Florence, and even in all of Italy during the Renaissance. They accumulated their wealth through trading, but also took advantage of a new need in Florence. As more and more people made lots of money, they became reluctant to store it in their house. Ask: Why do you think this was so? (They could be robbed.) The Medicis began a bank in Florence, where the wealthy could deposit their riches for safekeeping. The Medici's bank also loaned money, and made a great deal of interest by doing so. (Students may need an explanation of how interest allows a bank to make a profit on loans.) Not only did the Medicis control banking in Florence, but they gained control over the political system there as well. They realized that lots of decisions made at the political level could affect their business, and they schemed and used violence to make sure that their power was protected. The Renaissance allowed such a family to achieve and maintain power through a combination of wealth, intelligence and accomplishment, which represented a real change from prior times, when only nobility could hold such influence. The Medicis were also great patrons of the arts and sciences, however. One of the family members, Cosimo de' Medici, established what he nicknamed his "Academy," called such in homage to Plato's Academy in ancient Greece. Cosimo invited all Florentines to come to his Academy and discuss the ideas of Plato and other important ancient thinkers. He provided the support necessary for scholars to continue their studies during this time. Frequently, the discussions and studies prompted by the Medicis led to more questions, and people were beginning to think more and more that they could find the correct answers themselves instead of turning to the explanations the Catholic Church had provided. Cosimo and his grandson, Lorenzo, invited artists to join the thinkers within their lavish household, and soon Florence was looking more beautiful and magnificent than any other city, thanks to their work.

Inform students that the next group of patrons they are to hear about noticed how beautiful Florence was becoming, and how powerful the Medicis were, and they became jealous. Though this group was still quite powerful, they wanted people to remember their power in a fresh way, and wanted their city to be as beautiful as Florence. Ask: Who do you think this other group of patrons were? (the popes of Rome) Now, students may think that as church leaders, the

popes should have had more than power and beauty on their minds, but tell them that during the Renaissance, most of the popes were more like princes than priests. Though they were supposed to be spiritual leaders, because they were also in charge of the city-state of Rome, they often found themselves acting like tough political leaders. (One pope in particular, Julius II, actually led an army against neighboring areas to expand the Papal state. It has been recorded that when Julius's generals refused to ride their horses out in snow that came up to the horses' chests, Julius beat the men with sticks!) When the popes began to notice that Rome wasn't as spectacular in its artistic achievements as some of the other city-states, they became patrons of the arts as well in order to give Rome the glory they thought it deserved. Pope Julius II hired some of the most famous artists of the day, such as Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Michelangelo, to beautify the churches and cathedrals in Rome. It was during this time that the famous St. Peter's Cathedral was built as well. (Show students Renaissance artwork from the inside of some of Rome's churches and cathedrals, as pictured in the books suggested above.) Thanks to the efforts of the popes, Rome soon became the center of Renaissance art, instead of Florence. (Students may want to know that in the Catholic Church, the office of pope is held by only one man at a time, and the pope holds his office until his death. Upon the death of the pope, a group of high-ranking Catholic clergy, the cardinals, elect a new pope. During the Renaissance, there were more than nine popes.)

Now tell students that they have heard about the two major patrons of Renaissance Italy. Ask them to think silently for a moment about the characteristics and facts regarding each. Then, put students in pairs and have them complete a Venn Diagram comparing and contrasting these two groups of patrons. You might suggest that students consider these areas: where they lived; what they supported; how they got money; what they were like. Possible answers are listed below.
 

The Medicis

Lived in Florence

Were a family

Supported thinkers and scientists as well as artists

Studied the writings of ancient Greece and Rome

Power was recently achieved

Banking was their major source of income

Represented a change in the social structure of Europe

Ruthless, cunning, intelligent, curious
 

Both

Wanted power and glory

Were patrons of artists

Used scheming and violence to maintain power

Were involved in politics

Lived in Italy
 

The Popes

Lived in Rome

Supported artists only

Relied on older, Biblical explanations of science

Power had been held by them for centuries

Jealous, plotting, ambitious
 

When students have completed the Venn Diagram, ask for students to share their responses. Clarify the difference between their accomplishments and deeds and their personal characteristics. For each of the personal characteristics that students give, ask them to give

evidence from the information presented that supports their answer. Have students assume their Renaissance personas for a moment. Ask: Which group would have made a better patron for you? (Answers will vary. Students should note that the Medicis would be more likely to fund the sciences, but that both groups supported artists. Of course, if the art done by their Renaissance persona is not typically of a religious subject, the Medicis would be more suitable.) Ask: Why would the popes be likely to fund artists and musicians, but not mathematicians and scientists? (The artists could glorify the Catholic Church, but scientists, through their studies and observations, were calling into question teachings of the Catholic Church.)

Tell students that part three of the extended world history project asks them to write a persuasive letter to either Cosimo de' Medici or Pope Julius II. Pass out the assignment sheet, and to review and summarize the lesson, complete the top portion as a class. Refer to the third paragraph of this lesson, under "Procedure" for reasons why men became patrons of the arts and science.) Tell students that knowing why either of these men became a patron should help students to pull in reasons why they should support them. (For example, if one of the reasons why the person became a patron in the first place was to glorify God through art, then the writer of the letter should write that he or she is able to do this, and describe how he or she intends to do so.) As noted above, under "Suggested Books," in the book Art Through the Ages there is an excerpt of just such a letter sent from Leonardo da Vince to the Duke of Milan. Students may enjoy hearing you read portions of it, and it can be found on page 635. Confirm that students understand the assignment.

Finally, develop with students a rubric for grading the letter, as was done for the mapping activity in the last lesson. Though a sample rubric has been attached, it will be advantageous for students to develop their own.
 

Suggested Follow-up Activities

The lives of the popes and of the Medici family read like a made-for-TV movie. Students may enjoy selecting one of these interesting characters and doing further research on him.

Students could also be asked to research the modern-day cities of Florence and Rome and then to draw travel posters for each.
 

Fifth Grade - World History - Lesson 13 - Patrons of the Arts and Learning
 

PROJECT ASSIGNMENT PART THREE
 

A patron is __________________________________________________________________
 

People became patrons because:
 

1.____________________________________________________________________________
 

2.____________________________________________________________________________
 

3.____________________________________________________________________________
 

4.____________________________________________________________________________
 

For part three, you will be writing a letter to persuade either Cosimo de' Medici or Pope Julius II to become your patron. The letter should be written in proper friendly letter format, and all spelling, grammar and punctuation should be correct. Within the letter, write to one man or the other to convince him that he should fund your work in the arts or sciences. Be sure to tell him what you do, and why he should financially support you, or hire you for a specific job. Pull into your argument reasons why he became a patron, using any or all of the above four facts. Remember that the purpose of this letter is to convince the recipient that you are a wonder within your selected art or science, and that he should hire you or pay for your studies. Be creative!

DUE DATE_________________________________________________
 

Fifth Grade - World History - Lesson 13 - Patrons of the Arts and Learning
 

HISTORY PROJECT--ASSIGNMENT PART THREE--EXAMPLE RUBRIC
AREA POINTS
Persuasiveness of Letter 

(Does it tie in reasons the receiver is a patron and convince him to support the sender?)

Creativity and Detail

Proper Letter Format

Spelling, Grammar and Punctuation


 
 
 

POINT SCALE

5 = excellent

4 = good

3 = fair

2 = poor

1 = You can do so very much better!


 
 




Student Name __________________________ Grade ___________________________

(total points)

GRADING SCALE

18-20 points = excellent

16-17 points = good

14-15 points = fair

12-13 points = poor

11 or fewer points = You can do so very much better!
 

Fifth Grade - World History - Lesson 14 - Prominent Renaissance Figures
 

Objectives

Read and summarize information about the prominent Renaissance figures of Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Machiavelli's "prince," and Castiglione's "courtier."

Report to a cooperative group information on an assigned figure.

Design a symbol for each figure.

Receive part four of the extended world history project.
 

Materials

One copy of the attached information on Cosimo de' Medici, put onto chart paper or made into an overhead transparency

Copies of the attached information on Renaissance figures for each group of students to share

One sheet of square, or 8 by 11," paper for each group

Scissors for small groups of students to share

One copy of part four of the extended history project for each student

One copy for each student of the da Vinci/Michelangelo homework sheet (optional)
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Broyles, Christine. Art Across the Curriculum. Torrance, CA: Frank Schaffer Publications, Inc., 1994. There is a short biography of da Vinci on page 79, and interesting follow-up art activities to it.

Goodenough, Simon. The Renaissance: The Living Past. New York: Arco Publishing, Inc., 1979.

There are many splendid Renaissance art reproductions in this text, as well as photographs of existing Renaissance sculpture and architecture.The drawings of Renaissance life are engaging, and there is a useful section of biographies, as well as a time line, at the back. Pertinent to this lesson, the author gives descriptions of the lives and contributions of both da Vinci and Michelangelo, and describes the characteristics of the prince, as described by Machiavelli, and the courtier as described by Castiglione.

Harris, Nathaniel. Spotlight on Renaissance Europe. East Sussex, England: Wayland (Publishers) Ltd., 1986. Though the illustrations are not in color, this book is well organized. Mention is made of Machiavelli, Castiglione, da Vinci and Michelangelo.

________. Leonardo and the Renaissance. New York: The Bookright Press, 1987. This book gives concise descriptions of elements of the Renaissance and would be considered easy reading by most fifth graders. It details the life of da Vinci, but also covers Michelangelo. Both Machiavelli's "prince" and Castiglione's "courtier" are briefly described.

Howarth, Sarah. Renaissance People. Brookfield, Connecticut: The Millbrook Press, 1992. This book is divided into short chapters, each describing a different role in Renaissance society. Pertinent to this lesson, there is a description of the prince and the courtier.

________. Renaissance Places. Brookfield, Connecticut: The Millbrook Press, 1992. Related to the study of Michelangelo, students may find interesting the description of the sculptor's workshop on pages 10-12.

Ingpen, Robert. Turning Points in History: People Who Changed the World. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1991. There is mention of Machiavelli, da Vinci and Michelangelo within this book.

Pierre, Michael. The Renaissance. Morristown, New Jersey: Silver Burdett Press, 1987. The illustrations in this book are intriguing and give a good idea of what life during the Renaissance was like. There are short chapters within it on both da Vinci and Michelangelo.

Venezia, Mike. Da Vinci. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989. This would be a good read-aloud book, and contains great photos of da Vinci's masterpieces and notes on his discoveries and inventions.

Wood, Tim. The Renaissance. New York: Penguin Books U.S.A. Inc., 1993. This book does a good job of addressing the areas covered in this unit, and includes lots of colorful illustrations, including four "see through" scenes (plastic sheets that lift to give the reader a cross-section of the building pictured). Wood also gives the reader an explanation of Machiavellian politics and details the accomplishments of da Vinci and Michelangelo.
 

Teacher Resource

De La Croix, Horst, Richard Tansey and Diane Kirkpatrick. Art Through the Ages. San Diego: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1991. There are biographies of both da Vinci and Michelangelo in this book.

Hirsch, E.D. What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. Within this book is excellent background material for today's lesson.

The Renaissance: Maker of Modern Man. Washington D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1970.

This book is a detailed chronicle of the Renaissance. It features gorgeous photos of the geography, architecture and sculpture of the times, and includes excerpts from da Vinci's notebook and Machiavelli's Prince.
 

Teacher Background

In this lesson, students are assigned either one or two (depending on the size of the cooperative groups) Renaissance figures. They read given information about their assigned personality, then summarize the information in their own words, in an informal oral report given to their cooperative group teammates. The team then discusses and designs a symbol for each of the Renaissance figures, and the class figures are assembled into a large paper "quilt." For this lesson, cooperative groups should be composed of either two or four students. If there are two students in each group, each student will get two of the attached sheets, one of an artist and one of a character from a book. If there are four students in each group, each student will get only one of the attached sheets. Each student within the group will have a different figure(s) than that of the other member(s) of the group. You should, however, have extra copies of each of the figure's information sheets, because students will benefit from having the written information on the figure they plan to use in part four of the project.

At the beginning of the class, you should collect part three of the extended history project (the letter to a patron). Later in the lesson, students are given the assignment for part four, which asks them to compare their Renaissance persona with one of the Renaissance figures learned about today.

Students have had exposure to the art of the Renaissance in previous grades, and are learning about some specific masterpieces done by da Vinci and Michelangelo this month in art. In October, they learned about da Vinci's "The Last Supper," and were taught some background information on da Vinci's life. Care should be taken not to overlap information in this lesson with information being presented in Visual Arts this month or taught last month.

Procedure

Begin today's lesson by asking this question: How and why did so many Renaissance cities get filled with such beautiful artwork during the Renaissance? (The wealthy were expected to make the cities where they lived more beautiful, and for a variety of reasons, became patrons of the arts. They sponsored artists and sculptors to create masterpieces for them.) Tell students that before the Renaissance, artists were not held in very high regard by society. Once their work was in high demand, artists and sculptors were no longer considered humble craftspeople, but came to be regarded as important artists. Before the Renaissance, in the Middle Ages, artists frequently worked in groups and did not even sign their names to their work. During the Renaissance, with rising fame and fortune, artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Michelangelo strove to be recognized as individuals.

Tell students that today, in cooperative groups, they will be learning about the lives and work of two Renaissance artists, and also about two characters described by Renaissance writers. The writers described typical characters within Renaissance society, the "prince" and the "courtier." So, in all, students will be learning about four Renaissance figures: (write on board) Leonardo da Vinci; Michelangelo; the "prince;" the "courtier." Assuming that groups are of four students each, tell them that each one of them will get a sheet of paper with information on it about one of these figures. They will be given five to ten minutes to read the information, decide what of it is important, and make notes to themselves on the important facts. Explain that they will then be teaching their teammates about the figure by giving them a short oral presentation. Make sure that students know they will not be reading their information sheet to their group, but will be summarizing the important information from it in their own words.

As this may be an unfamiliar skill for students, model it first. Put on the overhead, or up on chart paper, the information provided on Cosimo de' Medici. Ask a student to read it aloud, then pause and ask students to decide what the most important facts in this selection are. After giving them a moment to think, ask for students to share their thoughts. (It may be helpful if students "unpack their thinking" and explain how they came to the conclusion that a particular fact is important.) It is fine if the students read the sentences they deem important, but as each one contributes a fact or sentence, have students participate in summarizing it in their own words. Then, write these summaries on the board or overhead. Once the passage has been summarized, explain that one then needs to prepare to share the summary. Demonstrate how this particular summary would be shared with a group.

Students should also understand that two of these figures, da Vinci and Michelangelo, were real men, and two of them, the prince and the courtier, were fictitious men created by writers, but meant to portray a typical type of man during the Renaissance. (If groups are of two, alter the directions, giving students more time and two sheets of information.) Then, pass out the information sheets, making sure that each team has all four of the figures, but that no one in any team has the same figure as anyone else within the same team. Allow students five to ten minutes to read the information, summarize its important points, and write notes to themselves for their informal small group presentation. As time elapses, mark the halfway point for students, then have them reconvene in groups to tell one another about the figures.

When all groups have shared, tell students that as a class, they will be making a large "quilt" of these four Renaissance figures. Explain that each team will get a blank sheet of paper.

The paper should be folded into fourths to make squares, then the squares should be cut apart. As a team, students should discuss what should be drawn in each of the four squares to represent each of the four figures. For example, they might decide that a wolf would represent the "prince" best, since it is a creature which commonly represents someone both dangerous and cunning. You may want to ask the students for several more examples to confirm they understand what is being asked of them. Once the team has discussed and decided upon a symbol or picture for each figure, the paper squares should be distributed among the team members and teams should decide who will draw what. Students do not need to draw the symbol for the same figure on which they orally presented to the group. Each student should draw one of the symbols or pictures on a square, and encourage students to color in or decorate the background, if time permits, to make the quilt more attractive. Tell them that they need to be prepared to explain and justify the choice of symbol or drawing for any of the squares produced by their team.

Once all students have completed their squares, call teams up one at a time to the board to present their quilt squares. As time permits, ask team members to explain and justify their choice of symbol or drawing. When each team finishes, tape their quilt squares to the board, next to one another, and as the teams continue to present, slowly assemble the paper quilt on the board by doing so.

When all teams have finished presenting, tell students that you are proud of their creative work. Ask the following discussion questions: Which of these four figures would you like to meet in person? Why? Which of them do you think would make the best president? Why? Do you think modern politicians and rulers act like "princes?" If so, in what ways? Do you think that its possible for a person to be both a "prince" and a "courtier?" Why or why not? Were Michelangelo and da Vinci courtiers? Why or why not?

Tell students that as part four of their project, they will writing a paragraph in which they compare their Renaissance persona to one of these four figures. Pass out the assignment sheet and review it with the students.

As was done in the last two lessons, develop a rubric for grading the paragraph with the students. An example rubric has been attached.

Students will be expected to hand in part four of the assignment, received today, before the next formal history lesson. When they do so, they should receive copies of the final part of the history project, which is attached to Lesson 15. The final history class of this unit is reserved for students to present their projects as directed on the final assignment sheet. Students may require more time than is generally given between history classes so that they can complete both part four and prepare for the presentation.
 

Suggested Follow-up Activities

Students are familiar with the format of talk shows. The class could stage a "Renaissance" talk show with da Vinci, Cosimo de' Medici, Pope Julius II, Michelangelo, the "courtier" and the "prince" as guests. Students could write questions in advance they'd like to ask these men, then take turns answering the questions in the role of the men and asking the questions as audience members.

Assign homework to the students using the attached da Vinci/Michelangelo worksheet. Instruct students to compare and contrast the two artists using the Venn Diagram at the top of the page, then they should answer the questions on the bottom half of the sheet.
 

COSIMO DE' MEDICI

Cosimo de' Medici was the son of Giovanni de' Medici, who was a wealthy man from Florence. As a young man, Cosimo studied the works of classical Greek writers. Their writing convinced him of the importance of each citizen within a state, and of the necessity of contributing to society so that all may gain from it. Based on these beleifs, he decided that along with his interest in trade and banking, he would become involved in politics. Politically, Cosimo held the opinion that war should be avoided whenever possible. Being politically active also allowed Cosimo to make sure that decisions made at a political level favored his business interests. A creed often heard in Florence, that could have been the Cosimo's motto was, "Money to get power, power to protect the money."

Money and power were not all that interested Cosimo, however. Within his home, he established what he nicknamed his "Academy," called such in homage to Plato's Academy in ancient Greece. Cosimo invited all Florentines to come to his Academy and discuss the ideas of Plato and other important ancient thinkers. By doing so, he furthered the interest of Florentines in books and learning. He provided the support necessary for scholars to continue their studies during this time, and was also a patron of sculptors and architects. As Florence's leading citizen, Cosimo added not only to his family's power and wealth, but also to the beauty and stature of Florence.
 

LEONARDO DA VINCI
 

Leonardo da Vinci was born in 1452 in a town called Vinci, which is near Florence in Italy. He took the name of the town as his own last name: "da Vinci" means "from Vinci." Leonardo was a man who set an excellent example of the Renaissance ideal of developing all of one's talents. He was interested in, and studied, architecture, painting, sculpture, engineering, botany, aerodynamics, philosophy, geography and military warfare and strategy. He was a very curious person who wanted to figure out all of the rules of nature. For example, he studied birds' wings, then made an attempt when he painted angels to give them wings that looked as though they could really be used to fly. His paintings were what made him most famous, and as in the example you just read, he often combined his study of nature with the paintings to make them seem very realistic. He dissected human corpses so that he could better paint people, and became very famous during the Renaissance for painting portraits (paintings of people). One of his portraits, the Mona Lisa, has caused people to wonder for hundreds of years about the subject's mysterious smile.

After he painted the Mona Lisa, he painted very few other works. At this point in his life he began to devote more and more energy to inventions and experiments. Hundreds of years before his time, he devised and drew a diagram for both a flying machine and a submarine! Leonardo's drawings are fascinating not only because of what he was interested in, but also because the notes he took on them were backwards. To read them, you would need to hold them up to a mirror. Leonardo's experiments didn't always work out well for him. Because he experimented with the paint he was using, one of his most well-known works, The Last Supper, wound up chipping and fading. Leonardo was very self-critical, and frequently saw mistakes in his work that others wouldn't even notice. Perhaps this is why he did not finish many of the paintings he started--he became frustrated with what he saw as his inability to do them right. No matter what Leonardo thought of himself, the world has come to regard him as a genius. He died in 1519.
 

MICHELANGELO

Michelangelo was born in 1475 in Italy. He pursued his many talents which included architecture, sculpture, painting, poetry and engineering, but considered himself mainly to be a sculptor. He was noticed by Lorenzo de' Medici after Lorenzo saw him sculpt a copy an old Roman statue perfectly. Michelangelo liked sculpting because he felt it gave him part of God's power to create man. To make his sculptures more realistic, he dissected human corpses and studied nature intensely. Through his sculpture, he wanted to reveal the "hidden truths" of nature. Michelangelo felt very devoted to his art, and his feelings towards it were both strong and stern. He frequently got into arguments with his patrons because of this, and was isolated and independent from other artists. He was jealous of Raphael, and didn't like Leonardo da Vinci. Though he was impatient with other artists, he did show sympathy and concern for those in his life who were close to him.

Despite the fact that Michelangelo considered himself a sculptor first, he was recognized as being a talented painter as well. Pope Julius II hired him to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, a job Michelangelo didn't really want to do, but had to agree to do. (It's hard to say no to someone as powerful as the pope!) Even though he wanted to get this job over with as soon as possible, he believed that nothing should be done unless it was done right, and he spent four years painting a masterpiece on the ceiling. He was so anxious to get it done that he worked long hours, straining his eyes and temporarily going blind. After he was finished with this project, in the later years of his life, he devoted more time to architecture, and helped design St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome. Though he influenced many other artists to copy his style of painting strong, active figures, he died in 1564 without having done the one project he'd always wanted to do: carve a cliff overlooking the sea.
 

THE PRINCE

The prince is a character described by Niccolo Machiavelli in his book, The Prince, which was written in 1512. Before this time, any book which was written about the ruling class described the way they should be, not the way they really were. In The Prince, Machiavelli describes the character of the prince as the true picture of what a ruler was like. A prince, during the Renaissance, did not necessarily have to be someone with royal blood; anyone who had wealth and power was given the status of "prince." According to Machiavelli, a prince did what he could to make his city-state strong, even if it meant doing things that were considered morally wrong. A prince stopped at nothing--neither dishonesty, murder, nor treason--to increase his power. Because of this ruling style, he was feared, rather than loved, by the people he ruled. Despite this, the people remained loyal to the prince first, then the Catholic Church.

Machiavelli's book was like a "do-it-yourself" book for anyone who wanted power. He based it on the real activities of the ruling class of Italy, in particular a family named the Borgias. The term "Machiavellian" has now come to mean cunning and ruthless. Though Machiavelli thought the prince, as he described him, was good for the city-states, such politics were not. Rulers acting in this way eventually became involved in great rivalry and war in Italy. They wasted much time, money and energy trying to steal power from one another instead of focusing on trade and other aspects of ruling which would have strengthened the city-states. All of this fighting led to the weakening of the governments within the region of Italy.
 

THE COURTIER

The character of the courtier is based on a book written in 1528 by a man named Castiglione, entitled The Book of the Courtier. The court was the center of Renaissance social life, and because this is where important decisions were made, it was also seen as the center of power. As Renaissance men and women spent more time with one another at the court, (and were called "courtiers") they began to have certain expectations of each other. In times previous to the Renaissance, it was enough for wealthy men to be good at fighting, but with the coming of the Renaissance, and less war, other skills became important. Courtiers were expected to be athletic, artistic, loyal, educated and well-mannered.

Castiglione's book could have been titled How to Be a Courtier. In the book, Castiglione gives tips for the courtier on everything from how to use the new Italian invention called a "fork," to how to tell a good joke. Knowing these things would be important to anyone considering himself or herself to be a courtier. To show off their wealth and power, the rich frequently hosted lavish ceremonies, at which it was expected that the courtiers would be present and act appropriately. The ancient Greeks and Romans also valued anyone who knew about many subjects and could perform well in many fields. This is another reason why people of the Renaissance admired the ancient Greeks and Romans and why the Renaissance is considered a "re-birth." Castiglione called a person who had many charms and abilities a "Universal Man," but now anyone who is skilled in a wide variety of areas is called a "Renaissance Man."
 

PROJECT ASSIGNMENT PART FOUR

Steps

1 Think about your Renaissance persona and the four figures learned about in history class: Leonardo da Vinci; Michelangelo; the prince; the courtier. Decide which of these four figures is most like your Renaissance persona. Think about both the accomplishments and what the personality traits of these figures that lead you to make this decision.

2 Write a paragraph comparing your Renaissance persona to the figure most like him or her. In the paragraph, address both accomplishments and personality. Use the information sheet provided in class to help you do this.
 
 
 

Due Date ___________________________________________________________
 

Fifth Grade - World History - Lesson 14 - Prominent Renaissance Figures
 

HISTORY PROJECT -- ASSIGNMENT PART FOUR -- EXAMPLE RUBRIC
 
AREA POINTS
Purpose 

(Is your paragraph a comparison?)

Detail and Accuracy 

(How well did you compare your persona to the figure you chose?)

Grammar, Spelling and Punctuation
Format, Neatness and Organization

POINT SCALE

5 = excellent

4 = good

3 = fair

2 = poor

1 = You can do so very much better!
 
 
 
 
 

Student Name __________________________ Grade ___________________________

(total points)

GRADING SCALE

18-20 points = excellent

16-17 points = good

14-15 points = fair

12-13 points = poor

11 or fewer points = You can do so very much better!
 

Fifth Grade - World History - Lesson 15 - Presentation of the Projects
 

Objectives

Design a presentation of the extended world history project.

Deliver the presentation to the class.

Listen to classmates present information on their Renaissance persona.
 

Materials

One copy for each student of the presentation requirements for the world history project (attached)
 

Teacher Background

This lesson is to be done in two parts. In the first part, you will collect part four of the world history project (the paragraph comparing the student's persona to a Renaissance figure) and will distribute and explain the requirements for the presentation of the project. In the second part of the lesson students will present their projects to one another using one of the formats described.The second part of the lesson should be done at least one week after the first in order to give students adequate time to prepare for the presentation.
 

Procedure

Collect part four of the history assignment, then tell students that they have spent so much time and energy developing their personas, it would be a shame if the class never had the chance to meet them. So, part five of the project is an oral presentation of the persona. Pass out the requirements and explain students' options to them. You may want to demonstrate several of the options by using examples of how you would portray your real-life persona. For example, if you chose the "That's My Bag" option, you might bring in a piece of chalk to represent your job, a leaf or twig if you are an outdoor enthusiast, and a pair of goggles if swimming were an athletic strength for you. To aid in student understanding of the "Jump into the Present Day" option, you might want to discuss with the class what a well-known historical figure would be like if he or she were alive today. What would Harriet Tubman be doing? What invention would Ben Franklin be working on? Where would Christopher Columbus be, and what would he be doing?

Once this has been done, develop a rubric with the students for grading the oral presentations. Again, though an example rubric has been attached, students will get much more out of the assignment if they participate in designing the evaluation. Note that for grading purposes, each part of the project has been allotted twenty points for a total of one hundred points. Students should be able to understand that this converts nicely into a final grade/percent which is the sum of all of their points, the final twenty coming from the oral presentation.

When part two of this lesson is executed and students orally present their projects, encourage those listening to pay attention to what is being presented, and if time permits, to ask questions of the presenter. It may also help students in reflection and self-evaluation skills if you ask them, as homework after all the presentations have been made, to write a brief narrative evaluating their own performance on the total project. If this is done, students should be prompted to note both the strengths and weaknesses of their work, and how they might do things differently next time.
 

HISTORY PROJECT -- ASSIGNMENT PART FIVE -- ORAL PRESENTATION
 

Date of presentations:______________________________________________
 

Choose one of these four options to present your persona on the date above.
 

Oral Report in Character

Allow the class to meet your persona by giving them an oral report as though you really were that person. You will be expected to introduce yourself and tell the class your special talents and interests, what your work looks like, sounds like, or studies, where you are from, what life in your city-state is like, who your patron is and what you are doing for him, and a little about the other famous Renaissance people in your field. If possible, come dressed as you think your persona would have dressed, and be prepared to answer questions from the class "in character."
 

That's My Bag

Bring to class a bag that contains items of importance to your character. You will show each item to the class and tell what it represents to your persona and why it is important. For example, if your persona is an astronomer, you might want to cut a star out of paper and put it in the bag, then be prepared to tell the class what the star has to do with your study. Your bag should have at least five items. When selecting the items, consider what talents and interests your persona has, any tools he or she might use, where he or she is from and what this place is known for, who his or her patron is, and which Renaissance figure he or she is most like.
 

Poster Portrait

Make a poster with drawings and symbols that represent your persona. Be prepared to explain to the class each of the elements of the poster and what it represents in terms of your persona. For example, if your persona's patron is Cosimo de' Medici, you might draw a large bank to represent the money he made through banking. Your poster should have at least five elements you can use to tell the class about your character. When drawing the elements, think about what talents and interests your persona has, other Renaissance people famous for their accomplishments in that same field, any tools he or she might use, where he or she is from and what this place is known for, who his or her patron is, and which Renaissance figure he or she is most like.
 

Jump into the Present Day

Allow the class to meet your persona as he or she would be if alive today. When planning your oral presentation in a modern day persona, use what you know about your character's life in the past to connect it to the present day. For example, if your persona is a mathematician, what would he or she be working on today? (Perhaps a new math formula to help teachers grade?) Consider the following: what talents and interests your persona has, where he or she is from and where he or she might live today, which Renaissance figure he or she is most like, and which present-day figure he or she is like. Be prepared to answer the classes' questions "in character."
 

Fifth Grade - World History - Lesson 15 - Presentation of the Projects
 

HISTORY PROJECT -- ASSIGNMENT PART FIVE -- EXAMPLE RUBRIC
 
AREA POINTS
Completeness 

(Did you address all the requirements?)

Detail and Accuracy 

(Did your presentation contain correct facts?)

Creativity 

(How original and unique were your ideas?)

Communication 

(Did you clearly relate and connect representative items and symbols? Did you clarify the connections and comparisons you made?) 


 

POINT SCALE

5 = excellent

4 = good

3 = fair

2 = poor

1 = You can do so very much better!


 
 




Student Name __________________________ Grade ___________________________

(total points)

GRADING SCALE

18-20 points = excellent

16-17 points = good

14-15 points = fair

12-13 points = poor

11 or fewer points = You can do so very much better!
 

Bibliography
 

Student Reference

Broyles, Christine. Art Across the Curriculum. Torrance, CA: Frank Schaffer Publications, Inc., 1994. (0-86734-572-1)

Caselli, Giovanni. The Renaissance and the New World. New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1986. (0-87226-050-X)

Goodenough, Simon. The Renaissance: The Living Past. New York: Arco Publishing, Inc., 1979. (0-668-04787-9)

Harris, Nathaniel. Spotlight on Renaissance Europe. East Sussex, England: Wayland (Publishers) Ltd., 1986. (0-85078-653-3)

________. Leonardo and the Renaissance. New York: The Bookright Press, 1987. (0-531-18137-5)

Howarth, Sarah. Renaissance People. Brookfield, Connecticut: The Millbrook Press, 1992. (1-56294-088-0)

________. Renaissance Places. Brookfield, Connecticut: The Millbrook Press, 1992.(1-56294-089-9)

Ingpen, Robert. Turning Points in History: People Who Changed the World. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1991. (0-7910-2764-3)

Pierre, Michael. The Renaissance. Morristown, New Jersey: Silver Burdett Press, 1987. (0-382-09295-3)

Venezia, Mike. Da Vinci. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1989. (0-516-42275-8)

Wood, Tim. The Renaissance. New York: Penguin Books U.S.A., Inc., 1993. (0-670-85149-3)

Teacher Resource

De La Croix, Horst, Richard Tansey and Diane Kirkpatrick. Art Through the Ages. San Diego: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1991. (0-15-503771-4)

Hirsch, E.D. What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. (0-385-41119-7)

The Renaissance: Maker of Modern Man. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1970.