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Fifth Grade - Literature - Overview - November
There are seven lessons in November's Literature unit. Four are devoted to sayings and phrases. Two of those, "Whatever will be, will be" and "Read between the lines" should be introduced as part of a discussion of literature were the opportunity to present itself. In that context, "Whatever will be, will be" expresses a sense of the inevitability of fate or destiny. "Read between the lines" means making inferences in reading comprehension. "A watched pot never boils," another saying this month, speaks to the psychology of waiting. And the fourth, "Vice versa" is an often-used Latin phrase which means "the other way around." Of the three subsequent lessons, one deals with the story "The Adventures of Don Quixote," a seventeenth-century tale. Another deals with a story version of Shakespeare's play, "A Midsummer Night's Dream." Both stories tie in well with Renaissance themes in World Civilization and the topic "Europe" in Geography this month. Comedy and tragedy are presented as types of literature in a seventh lesson that draws on examples from "The Adventures of Don Quixote" and "A Midsummer Night's Dream." Please note that "A Midsummer Night's Dream," this time in the form of excerpts from Shakespeare, will be presented in December. Included in the lesson on Shakespeare will be a discussion of the Globe Theater.

Fifth Grade - Literature - Sayings and Phrases - Vice Versa

Objectives
Understand the phrase in context.
Listen to each other pronounce the phrase.
Determine if the pronunciation is correct.
Pronounce the phrase correctly.
Spell the phrase correctly.

Materials
Text of the phrase, vice versa on chart paper

Suggested Books
Teacher Reference
Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

Teacher Background
This is a Latin phrase. It means "the other way around." As such the statement 'She likes me and vice versa' means, she likes me and I like her. The word vice is pronounced in three different ways, causing the phrase to be pronounced correctly in any of these ways, (VI-suh VER-suh), (VIS VER-suh), and (VI-se VER-suh). The spelling may also present a problem in that the pronunciation may lead to letter 'c' in vice being replaced by the letter 's.' This would constitute a spelling error. Were a more natural context for teaching this phrase to present itself in any discipline, please seize that opportunity, instead of introducing it in the order and context of this month's Literature unit.

Procedure
Ask students: Have you heard the phrase vice versa used before? (Answers may vary.) Ask: Who used it? (Answers may vary.) Ask: What does it mean? When would it be appropriate to use the phrase vice versa? Tell students that vice versa is the Latin equivalent to the phrase, "the other way around." Write the sentences, "Sometimes, Paul sits on the left and Peter sits on the right. Sometimes, Peter sits on the left and Paul sits on the right" on the board or on chart paper. Explain that the underlined sentence represents a switch in Peter and Paul's seating positions. Explain that the very same idea could be expressed as, "Sometimes Paul sits on the left and Peter sits on the right and the other way around." This switch could be expressed even more simply using the Latin phrase vice versa. The sentence would be written, "Sometimes Paul sits on the left and Peter sits on the right and vice versa. Explain that the phrase vice versa switches the order of certain words in the previous sentence. Explain that vice versa could be used in Mathematics when presenting the order of two added numbers since the reversal of the order of numbers being added still yields the same result. An example in Mathematics would be, (3 + 2) = 5 and vice versa. In this sentence, vice versa means the statement (2 + 3) = 5 is also correct. Emphasize to students that the positions of "2" and "3" have been switched.

Next, ask individual students to repeat the phrase vice versa while other students attend to the pronunciation of the phrase. Ask students to form and join groups with identical ways of pronouncing the phrase. Since the phrase is pronounced in three equally acceptable ways, (VI-suh VER-suh), (VIS VER-suh), and (VI-se VER-suh), three or more groups may result. Then, model the correct forms of pronunciation, and ask students to listen to you and decide whether they were correct in the first place. Model one or more correct forms to groups whose pronunciation was not identical to any of the three acceptable forms, and ask students to repeat one or more correct forms. Then, ask students to write or spell the phrase. Watch for those who substitute the letter 's' in vice for the letter 'c,' then, present in writing and draw their attention to the one and only form of internationally accepted spelling, vice versa.

Fifth Grade - Literature - Sayings and Phrases - A Watched Pot Never Boils

Objectives
Understand the saying in context.
Use the saying in context.

Materials
Text of the saying, A watched pot never boils on chart paper

Suggested Books
Teacher Reference
Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.
 

Teacher Background

This saying means that awaiting something anxiously seems never to produce the results anticipated.
 

Procedure

Ask students: Have you heard the saying A watched pot never boils used before? (Answers may vary.) Ask: Who used it? (Answers may vary.) Ask: What does it mean? When would it be appropriate to use the saying A watched pot never boils? Tell students that this is a saying that has at least two explanations, one scientific, one psychological. Ask: Can you explain using scientific concepts why a watched pot might not boil? Remind students that during their Science unit on heat, they learned that heat flowed, but that the flow of heat could be reduced, and heat energy conserved by a process called insulation. Explain that the cover of a pot works as an insulator. By preventing the loss of heat, the lid causes the pot to boil more quickly. Explain that from a scientific point of view, if watching a pot means taking off the lid in order to peek at the pot's content, then it would slow though not prevent the pot's boiling. Explain that the phrase could also be true in psychological terms. Explain that emotional conditions in human beings distort reality. The more someone wants a thing, the longer it seems to take. Commuters may get impatient awaiting a bus to the point that they think it is taking more time coming than is really the case. Ask: What do you imagine the condition of someone who watches a pot to be? (hungry) Ask: Could you be so hungry that you don't see straight? If the answer is yes, conclude that it is true that a watched pot never boils. Explain, however that the phrase contains an exaggeration, never. Ask students to restate the phrase correcting the exaggeration, never. The modified phrase might then read like this: A watched pot seems never to boil. Or, A watched pot boils slowly.

Journal

Ask your students to respond to this journal prompt.

1. Can you recall a time you were so anxiously awaiting something that the saying A watched pot never boils would have applied perfectly. Recall that situation and write a paragraph about it, using the words A watched pot never boils as the title or anywhere else in your writing.

Fifth Grade - Literature - Sayings and Phrases - Read Between the Lines

Objectives
Understand the saying in context.
Understand the role of context clues in reading between the lines.

Materials
Text of the saying, Read between the lines on chart paper

Suggested Books
Teacher Reference
Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993

Teacher Background
Reading between the lines means going beyond what someone is saying or doing and figuring out what they really mean.

Procedure
Ask students: Have you ever heard the saying Read between the lines used before? (Answers may vary.) Ask: Who used it? (Answers may vary.) Ask: What does it mean? When would it be appropriate to use the saying Read between the lines? Ask: In the context of reading, what are lines? (text, a mark of a pencil or in ink) Ask: Ordinarily, are you supposed to read literally between the lines? (no) Ordinarily, we read what is written. And what is written is written on the line. Ask: What is there between the lines in a book? (blank space) Invite students to observe this for themselves. Explain that reading between the lines is not meant to be taken literally. Nor is it the same as reading text. It involves more. Reading between the lines is getting what someone means based on what they did NOT say or do, or getting what someone means from the MANNER in which they said or did what they did. For example, in the 1997 action movie Air Force One, Harrison Ford's character is the President of the United States. He is in hiding in a hi-jacked Air Force One, the President's official airplane. He calls a White House switchboard operator and tells her he is the President. 'Yeah,' she says, 'and I'm the first lady.' To read 'on the line,' or to take this literally would be to believe she is in fact the first lady. But she is not. And mainly her tone of voice conveys that. This is an instance in which the manner of saying something is what is important. Yet, nowhere is that manner written in black and white. You have to read between the lines to get it. This involves taking what someone said or did not say along with clues that were present in the context of what they said. Explain that the context is the whole situation surrounding what someone said or did. The context of a person's speech may include who they were speaking to, why, the audience's response, as well as what had been said before and what is expected to happen or happens after. In Air Force One, the switchboard operator slams the phone down on the President. Clues are details that give us information about the big picture, which is the context. Clues are not as explicit or easy to read as words. Introduce the use of context clues in Arthur Conan Doyle's "The Red-Headed League" which students have recently studied in Fifth Grade Literature. In this excerpt from the story, Holmes and Watson discuss Holmes's investigative skills.

"When I heard that the assistant came for half wages, I knew he had some strong secret motive."

"But how could you guess what the motive was?"

"I thought of the assistant's...trick of vanishing into the cellar. ...[T]he worn, stained knees of his pants spoke of hours of burrowing. You'll remember I tapped on the pavement with my cane and heard no hollow sound. I knew the tunnel lead in the other direction, behind the shop. I turned the corner, saw the bank, and felt that I had solved my problem."

"You reasoned it out beautifully!" I exclaimed admiringly.

(From "The Red-Headed League," What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know.)


Explain that Holmes has picked up the clues (details), and understood the context (the big picture). He has read between the lines that John Clay is planning a bank heist. Tell students that they, too read between the lines when they write sketches of characters in literature based on a character's actions or words, or when they detect foreshadowing in a story. They also read between the lines when they try to determine someone's reason for saying something or doing something. They often decide whether people are serious about what they say. This is one way of reading between the lines. Ask: How can you tell whether someone does not intend to be taken seriously when saying something? (They may laugh, or wink.) Ask: In that case, what is more important, the text or the context? (context) Conclude by saying that reading between the lines is understanding any sign that is not spelt out in 'black and white' or explicitly. Tell students that there is always a risk one runs when they read between the lines, they can never be sure that the meaning they get is true or was the one intended by the speaker. Finally, encourage students to read between the lines in movies and Literature but to be on their guard against reading the wrong message into conversations and people's actions in the real world, for as Watson might put it, "How can you guess what the motive was?" We are not all Sherlock Holmes.

Journal
Ask your students to respond to this journal prompt.
1. Can you recall a time you read between the lines and got the wrong message? Recall that situation and write a paragraph about it, saying how you felt about being wrong, and using the saying Read between the lines as the title or anywhere else in your writing.
 

Fifth Grade - Literature - Sayings and Phrases - What will be, will be

Objectives
Understand the saying in context.
Use the saying in context.
Act out the saying.

Materials
Text of the saying, What will be, will be on chart paper

Suggested Books
Teacher Reference
Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.
________. A First Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1991.

Teacher Background

What will be will be means some things are beyond our control. Some may give in as a result of this understanding, others will be heroic and ready to face that uncertain future. Use this saying to prepare for Shakespeare and theater without necessarily mentioning it.

Procedure
Ask students: Have you ever heard the saying, What will be, will be used before? (Answers may vary.) Ask: Who used it? (Answers may vary.) Ask: What does it mean? When would it be appropriate to use the saying What will be, will be? Ask students to come to the front of the class and act out that line as if it were a line of monologue in a movie or stage play. But first, actors must prepare. Inform them that they are allowed the use of a set (table, chair), props (ruler as sword), make-up (to the extent it is allowed and practical in your class), and costume (coat, hat). To help prepare the actors for the stage, ask: What mood might the character saying What will be, will be be in? (depressed, brokenhearted, resigned, heroic) What might have just happened to the character? (mishap) What tense is the saying in? (future) Tell them that the character might be in a bind where any choice he makes will have grave consequences. What will be, will be means some things are beyond our control. Tell them that actors in movies and stage plays are chosen in the following way. An actor who is interested in the job is asked to act out a line or scene in the movie or play before the casting director, the one who decides who is best for the part. An actor can be denied or given the part based on the strength of this short performance. Ask students to give it their best, to imagine a multi-million-dollar contract in a Shakespeare movie, or a part that will bring them fame is on the line. They have the opportunity to become the next Mel Gibson, Laurence Fishburne or Emma Thompson. Ask other students to be the audience, to arrange their seats in a horseshoe and to rate the performance of each volunteer by applauding. The duration or intensity of their applause will tell how much they appreciated the performance. Ask the audience and would-be performers to study those who came before them and to incorporate what they did successfully. By this time, students should have understood the context in which the saying might be used. To help students interpret the saying, ask: What possible attitudes might a character take towards the immediate future? Explain that a character may be eager to face the future, or roll over and die even before the future comes along. Ask students to avoid 'overacting' and extreme gestures. Ask: What gestures of face, shoulders, back, arms, and body might best express the mood of the saying, What will be, will be? With this preparation, ask students to try out this line before the class. At the end, highlight the outstanding aspects of the performances. Actors should have adopted a posture that expresses frailty, or courage. The frail, for example, might hold their heads bowed, arms folded, arms limp, shoulders lowered, and backs bent. The courageous might do the opposite.

Finally, inform students that today's 'whatever,' particularly among the youth is an equivalent of the saying What will be, will be. Tell them that the Spanish language equivalent to this saying is, Lo que será, será. Che serà, serà is the Italian language equivalent of this saying. Ask students to share any version of the saying they might know from home. Also, call on them to share the emotions they felt while acting out the saying. Ask: What did you feel like? What thing or person did you imagine yourself to be, a blade of grass before a lawnmower's blade, a hunted bird?

Journal
Ask your students to respond to this journal prompt.
1. Can you recall a time you felt so brokenhearted it didn't matter what happened next? Recall that situation and write a paragraph about it, saying how you felt, and using the saying, What will be will be as the title or anywhere else in your writing. Is that the way you face all of life or just particular moments?

Fifth Grade - Literature - Stories - The Adventures of Don Quixote

Objectives
Enjoy the story.
Appreciate setting in the story.
Identify plot development in the story (according to activities provided).
Identify physical and moral traits of characters (according to activities provided).
Note character change (according to activities provided).
Enumerate steps a character takes to solve a problem (according to activities provided).
Appreciate the role of an author's biography in fiction (according to activities provided).

Materials
Text of "The Adventures of Don Quixote" retold with excerpts from the novel by Miguel de Cervantes
Worksheet of five group activities (attached)

Suggested Books
Teacher Reference
Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.
Kuiper, Kathleen, Ed. Merriam Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature. Springfield: Merriam-Webster, 1995.

Teacher Background
Miguel de Cervantes was born at Alcalá de Henares, Spain in 1547. He is the most important figure of Spanish literature. In 1569, he went to Rome, Italy. He became a soldier in 1570 and was stationed in Naples. He took part in a sea battle at Lepanto against the Turks in 1571. His left hand was crippled as a result of injuries sustained in that battle. On his way home, Turkish pirates captured and sold him into slavery in Algiers, North Africa. He was ransomed from slavery five years later and returned to Spain. He began writing Don Quixote while serving a prison sentence for falsifying his accounts as a tax collector. Don Quixote part one was published in 1605. The second part appeared in 1615. The book was an immediate success. Cervantes was a contemporary of Shakespeare. He died in Madrid in 1616.

In the Third Grade in Literature, students learned to distinguish fiction and non-fiction and to identify biography. The study of plot and setting was introduced in Fourth Grade Literature. The activities in this lesson will be drawn upon for use in a subsequent lesson which deals with comedy and tragedy.

Procedure
Start by inviting students to listen to the following brief account. Tell them that at the end of the account, they will decide if it was a non-fiction biography or fiction. Ask: What is bio-graphy? Tell students that biography is the story of a life. "Bio-" means life and, "-graphy" refers to an account, story, or description. Ask: What is fiction? (an account or story that is imagined, or not real) Ask: What is non-fiction? (account that is real or true) Ask: Is a biography fiction or nonfiction? (nonfiction) Ask students to listen carefully while you read. Then read this short account at a brisk pace.

Long, long ago, in the town of Alcalá de Henares, in the Kingdom of Spain, a boy was born. His parents christened him Miguel de Cervantes. At twenty-two, Miguel left home for Rome.

That was 1569. Miguel grew up to be a soldier. In 1570, he was stationed in the Italian city of Naples. The following year, 1571, Cervantes fought bravely for his country in a sea battle against the Turks. Cervantes suffered wounds that left his hand permanently crippled. Then, weary of war, and homesick, young Cervantes decided it was time to go home. He was on his way to Spain when ill luck struck. Cervantes was captured by Turkish pirates. Now, unfortunately for young Cervantes, this was a time during which there were slaves in many parts of the world. The Turks sold Cervantes into slavery in the strange town of Algiers, North Africa.

Year after year, Miguel de Cervantes toiled. Then, one day, a group of friendly monks ransomed Cervantes. But this was five long years later. Miguel de Cervantes returned home to Spain. He died in Madrid in 1616.
 

Ask: Is this true? (yes) Ask: Why? (Students should justify their answers by referring to aspects of the genre they chose.) Without committing to any answer, ask students to listen while you read the following account. Read the title, "The Adventures of Don Quixote" (DON key-HOE-tay) to students. Write it on the board or on chart paper. Remind students that recently they listened to a story which had as part of its title one of the words used here. Ask: What was that story? ("The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The Red-Headed League") What word do both titles have in common? (adventures) Underline the word. Ask: What should you expect from an adventure story? (surprises, action, drama, courage, violence, etc.) Ask: Have you heard the name Don Quixote before? (Answers may vary.) Explain that "Don" is a title of honor in Spanish, like "Sir" in English. Ask: If you met someone calling himself Don Quixote would you immediately take that person seriously? (The name itself might make people laugh.) Ask: Where have you met the word Don before? In film? In fiction? Music? (Answers may vary.) Ask: What do you expect from a story entitled "The Adventures of Don Quixote?" (a tale of courage and suspense with Don Quixote as the lead character)

Before you read the story, divide your class into five groups. Each group will have a task to carry out during the reading. Hand out the activities to the groups. Ask them to read the exercises and understand them. Then, explain what the exercises entail. Allow some time for students to familiarize themselves with the exercise. Tell them that when they have completed their work, they will report their findings to the class.

Activity One: Setting

Tell this group that the setting of a story is the place or places where the characters are, pass through, or travel to. Tell them that their task is to track the characters in "The Adventures of Don Quixote." The questions they will answer after the reading are the following:
1. How much movement would you expect in an adventure? (a lot)
2. Who is the main character in the story? (Don Quixote)
3. Where did Don Quixote live? (village of La Mancha)
4. How many times did he leave his village? (twice)
5. Where did the knights that Don Quixote read about live? (Gaul (France), England)
6. How far from his village was the inn at which Don Quixote ate? (a day on horseback)
7. After having a meal at the inn, where did Don Quixote go? (back to his village of La Mancha)
8. Where did he travel to after returning home? (plain of Montiel)
9. In what historical age is the story taking place? (Middle Ages, Renaissance, not modern times)

Activity two: Plot

Tell this group that the plot of a story is the series of events that make up the backbone of that story. Generally, the main character makes a decision or takes action. This starts up a chain of events that continue till the end of the story. Tell students that their task is to trace the plot or chain of events that take place in the story. Explain that "The Adventures of Don Quixote" really takes off when Don Quixote decides something. Here are the questions they should answer:
1. What did Don Quixote decide to do? (become a knight, errant; to travel through the world with horse and armor in search of adventures)
2. What did he do next? (cleaned armor)
3. After he cleaned his armor, what did he do? (chose a high-sounding name for his horse)
4. After naming his horse, what did he do? (chose a suitable name for himself)
5. After choosing his name, what did he do? (He decided he needed a lady.)
6. After deciding he needed a lady, what did he do? (He rode out under a hot July sun.)
7. What did he do after riding out? (He entered an inn for a meal.)
8. What did he do after his meal? (He was made a knight.)
9. Once he was made a knight, what did he do? (He set forth the next day.)
10. What did he do after setting out on horseback? (He rescued a farm boy and ordered the farmer to pay the boy.)
11. What did he do after he rescued the farm boy? (He persuaded a villager to become his squire.)
12. Once he had a squire, what did he do? (He rode out of his village and engaged some windmills in battle.)

Activity three: Character traits; physical
Tell this group that characters have certain qualities and flaws or traits by which readers can identify them and tell them apart from others. These qualities or traits make up a portrait, or picture of the character. A physical portrait shows the physical traits of a character. It tells all that we would learn about the character if he were real and we could see, hear, and touch that person. This involves the physical appearance of the character; height, weight, clothing. Tell them that their task is to create a physical portrait of Don Quixote by answering the following questions:
1. What would Don Quixote look like to an artist? (lean, thin-faced, hardy, old)
2. The story says Don Quixote was a gentleman. What does that mean? (educated, sensitive, well-mannered man)
3. What information is given on the rank or profession of the other characters in the story? (farm girl, innkeeper, farm boy, farmer, laborer)

Activity four: Character traits; moral
Tell this group that characters have certain qualities and flaws or traits by which readers can identify them and tell them apart from others. These qualities or traits make up a portrait, or picture of the character. Tell students that a character's moral portrait is a description not of the person's appearance but of what kind of person they are at heart. This information is sometimes given by the narrator (the one telling the story). In some cases, the reader or listener judges the character by his actions, his thoughts, what he wants, etc. Tell them that their task is to create a moral portrait of Don Quixote.
1. What does the narrator say about Don Quixote? (lost his wits, madman)
2. The narrator says that Don Quixote went in search of adventures. How would you describe such a man? (adventurous, courageous)
3. The narrator says Don Quixote wanted to be a knight. How would you describe such a person? (brave)
4. The narrator says Don Quixote wanted to find a lady whom he might adore and serve. How would you describe such a man? (romantic)
5. The narrator says that Don Quixote wanted to right injustices of this world. How would you describe such a man? (righteous, kind)
6. The narrator says that Don Quixote was not to be discouraged. How would you describe such a man? (persistent, does not give up)
7. The narrator says that Don Quixote saw a castle in place of a dingy inn. How would you describe such a man? (crazy, mad, dreamer, imaginative)
8. The narrator says that though Don Quixote was hungry he would not remove his helmet in order to eat. How would you describe such a man? (impractical, stubborn)
9. The narrator says that Don Quixote rushed to the rescue of this unfortunate farm boy. How would you describe such a man? (kind, charitable)
10. The narrator says that Don Quixote believed the farmer would pay the farm boy what he was owed after Don Quixote left. How would you describe such a man? (simple-minded, naive, foolish)
11. The narrator says that Don Quixote took windmills for giants. How would you describe such a man? (mad, imaginative)
12. The narrator says that Don Quixote believed some evil enchanter turned those giants into windmills to rob him of a glorious victory. How would you describe such a man? (crazy)

Activity five: Character change
Tell students that characters change. They change their attitudes, they reverse their actions, they change their opinions. Tell them their next task is to note any change in character in the short story. To do this, they should answer the following questions:
1. Did the character of Don Quixote change? How? (He lost his wits.)
2. Did the character of Sancho Panza change? (Yes, it did. He was persuaded by Don Quixote to be his squire.)

Now, read the story at a lively pace. You may write on chart paper or on the board the names of characters and places in the story as they appear in the course of your reading. You may otherwise write them on the board or on chart paper prior to the reading. In this case, check or otherwise highlight the name as you read it in the story. The names in question are: La Mancha, Amadis of Gaul, Palmerin of England, Knight of the Sun, Bucephalus, Rocinante (row-see-NON-tay), Dulcine del Toboso (dull-si-NAY-ah del toe-BOW-so), Andres, Sancho Panza (SOHN-cho PON-za) Dapple, Briareus. Remind students that they met the name Bucephalus in Second Grade World History and ask them to recall what it referred to (Alexander the Great's horse).

At the end of the reading, ask: Was this account a work of fiction or nonfiction? (fiction) Ask students to explain why they thought the story was a piece of fiction. Encourage students to refer to aspects of the piece in order to justify their responses. Then, tell students that the original "The Adventures of Don Quixote" was written by Miguel de Cervantes. Cervantes was the

subject of the first account they heard in this lesson. Explain that the account of the life of Miguel de Cervantes was an example of a nonfiction biography, and "The Adventures of Don Quixote" was a piece of fiction. Ask groups to share their findings with the whole class.

Additional activities
You may ask your students to think of the following questions.
1. Miguel de Cervantes, the author of Don Quixote shared some similarities with the hero in his book. They were both courageous and adventurous men. In fact, there is always a little of the author in the books he writes, the places he describes, and the heroes he creates. How about you? Were you to become an author how similar to your life would your book be?
2. One of Don Quixote's problems was that he couldn't separate what was true from what was not. Can you tell fiction and nonfiction apart?
3. Some of the architectural features described in Don Quixote can be found in Baltimore, Maryland. Can you draw a medieval castle, label it, and tell which buildings (you may give the address or the name of the building) in Baltimore these features may be found on?
4. Don Quixote was written in Spain in the 1700s, but stories written anywhere have certain things in common. Can you imagine The Adventure of Don Quixote as an American cowboy movie, or an Arnold Schwartznegger action movie?

Journal
You may ask your students to respond to this journal prompt.
1. Some people are very practical and realistic others are unrealistic and impractical. How about you? Are you quixotic? Can you recall a scene that would really illustrate what you are? Write a paragraph about this.
 

Group One: Setting
The setting of a story is the place or places where the characters are, travel through or go to. Your task is to track the characters in "The Adventures of Don Quixote." Answer the following questions:
1. How much movement would you expect in an adventure?
2. Who is the main character in the story?
3. Where did Don Quixote live?
4. How many times did he leave his village?
5. Where did the knights that Don Quixote read about live?
6. How far from his village was the inn at which Don Quixote ate?
7. After having a meal at the inn, where did Don Quixote go?
8. Where did he travel to after returning home?
9. In what historical age is the story taking place?

Activity two: Plot
The plot of a story is the series of events that make up the backbone of that story. Generally, the main character makes a decision or takes action. This starts a chain of events that continue till the end of the story. Your task is to trace the plot or chain of events that take place in the story. "The Adventures of Don Quixote" really takes off when Don Quixote decides something. Starting from Don Quixote's first decision, sequence the chain of events that make up the plot of the story.

Activity three: Character traits; physical
Characters in a story have certain qualities and flaws or traits by which readers identify them and tell them apart from others. These qualities or traits make up a portrait, or picture of the character. A physical portrait shows the physical traits of a character. This includes what we would learn about the character by using our senses. This involves the physical appearance of the character; height, weight, clothing. Your task is to create a physical portrait of Don Quixote by answering the following questions:
1. What would Don Quixote look like to an artist?
2. The story says Don Quixote was a gentleman. What does that mean? (Use a dictionary to find out.)
3. What information is given on the rank or profession of the other characters in the story?

Activity four: Character traits; moral
Characters in a story have certain qualities and flaws or traits by which readers identify them and tell them apart from others. These qualities or traits make up a portrait, or picture of the character. A character's moral portrait is a description not of the person's appearance but of what kind of person they are at heart. It involves his strengths and weaknesses. This information is sometimes given by the narrator (the one telling the story) or we have to judge the character by his actions, his thoughts, what he wants, etc. Your task is to create a moral portrait of Don Quixote.
1. What does the narrator say about Don Quixote?
2. The narrator says that Don Quixote went in search of adventures. How would you describe such a man?
3. The narrator says Don Quixote wanted to be a knight. How would you describe such a person?
4. The narrator says Don Quixote wanted to find a lady whom he might adore and serve. How would you describe such a man?
5. The narrator says that Don Quixote wanted to right injustices of this world. How would you describe such a man?
6. The narrator says that Don Quixote was not to be discouraged. How would you describe such a man?
7. The narrator says that Don Quixote saw a castle in place of a dingy inn. How would you describe such a man?
8. The narrator says that though Don Quixote was hungry he would not remove his helmet in order to eat. How would you describe such a man?
9. The narrator says that Don Quixote rushed to the rescue of this unfortunate farm boy. How would you describe such a man?
10. The narrator says that Don Quixote believed the farmer would pay the farm boy what he was owed after Don Quixote left. How would you describe such a man?
11. The narrator says that Don Quixote took windmills for giants. How would you describe such a man?
12. The narrator says that Don Quixote believed some evil enchanter turned those giants into windmills to rob him of a glorious victory. How would you describe such a man?

Activity five: Character change
Characters change. They change their attitudes, they reverse their actions, they change their opinions. Your task is to note any change in character in the short story. Answer the following questions:
1. Did the character of Don Quixote change? How?
2. Did the character of Sancho Panza change? How?

Fifth Grade - Literature - Stories - A Midsummer Night's Dream

Objectives
Enjoy the story.
Appreciate setting in the story.
Identify plot development in the story.

Materials
Text of the story adaptation of "A Midsummer Night's Dream" from Tales from Shakespeare by
Charles and Mary Lamb (or any other story version you select)
Chart with names of the main characters (attached)

Suggested Books
Student References
Chute, Marchette. Stories From Shakespeare. Cleveland: The World Publishing Company, 1956.

This adaptation of the original is simple and straightforward and should be recommended reading for students.

Coville, Bruce. William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. New York: Dial, 1996.

This is a brilliant adaptation of the original. The pictures, by Dennis Nolan, are dreamy and superb. For that reason, if this version is not read to students then it should become recommended independent reading. If you read it aloud to students be sure to share the pictures with them.

Garfield, Leon, abridged by. Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992. This version has the distinct advantages of being an abridgement, retaining the flavor of Shakespeare's language, and containing striking color pictures by Elena Prorokova. It is based on the animated tales as seen on HBO television.

Lamb, Charles and Mary. Tales from Shakespeare. London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1961. This story
adaptation was selected as the principal text for this lesson because its plot is straightforward. It contains one illustration. If this is not read to students, then it should become recommended independent reading for students.

Pollinger, Gina, selected by. Something Rich and Strange: A Treasury of Shakespeare Verse.

New York: Kingfisher, 1995. This book contains selections of poetry from Shakespeare including A Midsummer Night's Dream, with great illustrations by Emma Chichester Clark.

Teacher References

Bloom, Harold, ed. William Shakespeare: The Tragedies. New York: Chelsea House, 1985.

A rather scholarly commentary on the tragedies.

________. William Shakespeare: Comedies & Romances. New York: Chelsea House, 1986.

A companion volume to William Shakespeare: The Tragedies.

Core Knowledge Foundation. Share The Knowledge: Lessons from the Sixth National Conference, 1997 Special Unit and Lesson Plans. Charlottesville: Core Knowledge Foundation, 1997. Contains interesting information on Shakespeare as well as brilliant lesson ideas.

Epstein, Norrie. The Friendly Shakespeare: A Thoroughly Painless Guide To The Bard. Penguin: New York, 1993. A book that delivers on its promise to be painless and yet meaningful.

Handbook: Folger Festivals. Capitol Hill, Folger Library Shakespeare Education and Festivals Project, 1995. This handbook contains practical tips on staging Shakespeare festivals.

The library is a research institution with cultural and educational components. The mailing is address is Folger Library Shakespeare Education and Festivals Project, 201 E.Capitol Street, SE Washington, DC 20003.

Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. Contains a brief biography of Shakespeare.

Shakespeare, William. A Midsummer Night's Dream. Hauppauge: Barron's, 1984. This volume contains the original text and a modern English version side by side. A wonderful resource.

Teacher Background

Charles and Mary Lamb were a brother-and-sister writing team. Their Tales from Shakespeare is one of the earliest books specially prepared for children to be published anywhere in the world. Charles was born in London in 1775 and served as a guardian to his sister, Mary who suffered from mental illness. Their version of Shakespeare has long been considered the best introduction to the author. Their "A Midsummer Night's Dream" is a story version of Shakespeare's play of the same title. Charles died in 1834. Mary died in 1847.

William Shakespeare (1564-1616) is regarded as the finest poet and playwright in the English language and one of the finest writers in the world. He has become part of world culture, a reason advanced for including him in any English literature curriculum. His greatness is credited to the richness of his characters although those in "A Midsummer Night's Dream" do not necessarily bear out this claim. The plot will probably pose difficulty to young readers, making listening to the story even more challenging. Preparing students to listen to the story might help them to understand it better. You may read any story version that is available and appropriate to the needs of your students. Ensure also that the story version retains certain Shakespearean elements such as language, characterization, and plot since it is meant to serve as an introduction to the author.

Procedure
Tell students the story's title and write "A Midsummer Night's Dream" on the board or on chart paper. Explain that this story is based on a play written in the 1590s by the greatest of all writers in English, the playwright William Shakespeare. Tell them it's a love story that takes place in Athens. Students have studied Ancient Greece in Second Grade. Remind them of this, and ask: Where is Athens? (Greece) Explain that Athens was then a city-state. Ask: What is a city-state? (ancient city with its own laws and government) Present the main characters in the story orally and in writing on the board or on chart paper. They are: Theseus, ruler of Athens; Lysander, in love with Hermia; Demetrius, a noble young man in love with Hermia; Hermia, daughter of Egeus, in love with Lysander; Helena, young woman, in love with Demetrius; Egeus, Hermia's father; Oberon, king of the fairies; Puck, Oberon's assistant; Titania, queen of the fairies; and countless other fairies. Tell students that fairies are tiny beings believed by many in Shakespeare's time to possess magical powers. Tell students that every story is built around one or more problems that the characters try to resolve. Ask: From the presentation of the characters can you foresee where this story's problem lies? (Lysander and Demetrius love Hermia. Helena loves Demetrius, who does not love her back. Hermia does not love Demetrius, who loves her.)

Tell students that they are to pay particular attention to the dream element in this story or "A Midsummer Night's Dream" might become too difficult to understand. Explain that just as a dream is the story of 'people' and 'things' acting out in the 'head' of a dreamer, there is in the tale of "A Midsummer Night's Dream" a shorter, more dreamlike story involving fairies. Then, summarize the story in this way.

Lysander and Hermia love each other. Yet Egeus, Hermia's father does not want Lysander as his son-in-law. He prefers instead Demetrius, who is a noble young man, some sort of lord. Why should Hermia be worried? Because, this is ancient Athens. Under Athenian law, the father has the right to marry off his daughter to whomever he likes. Further, it is the daughter duty's to obey her father. And what if she refuses to obey? Then, she must die. It is the law. Poor Hermia, what is she to do? She refuses to marry Demetrius anyway. Will Hermia die? Enter, Oberon, king of the fairies and a dear friend of true love.

Now, read the story at a lively pace. You may need to read it more than once.

Activities
After the reading, discuss the following questions with your class. (If you do select a version other than the Lambs' tale, you may need to alter these questions.)
1. What happens to Hermia and Lysander, Demetrius and Helena in the end? (They get married.)
2. Did Hermia truly love Lysander? (yes) Justify your answer. (Answers may vary.)
3. Why might Egeus want to marry Hermia off to Demetrius and not Lysander? (Answers may vary.)
4. Did Demetrius truly live Hermia? (Answers may vary.) Justify your answer. (Answers may vary.)
5. Did Helena truly love Demetrius? (Answers may vary.) Justify your answer. (Answers may vary.)
6. What do you think of the Athenian law that gave a father the right to choose his daughter's husband? (Answers may vary.) Justify your answers. (Answers may vary.)
7. What is your opinion of Lysander? (Answers may vary.) Justify your answer. (Answers may vary.)
8. What is your opinion of Hermia? (Answers may vary.) Justify your answer. (Answers may vary.)
9. Was the story a dream? (Answers may vary.) Who was the dreamer of that dream? (Answers may vary.) Justify your answer. (Answers may vary.)
10. What is your opinion of the fairies in the story? (Answers may vary.)
11. What is your opinion of the flower in the story which causes people to fall in love? (Answers may vary.) Justify your answers. (Answers may vary.)
12. If you chanced upon such a flower, what would you do about it? (Answers may vary.)

Journal
You may ask your students to respond to this prompt in their journals.
Do you remember your dreams when you awake? Can you recall your strangest dream? Write a paragraph about it.

Fifth Grade - Literature - Stories - A Midsummer Night's Dream

MAIN CHARACTERS IN "A MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM"

Theseus, ruler of Athens
Lysander, a young man in love with Hermia
Demetrius, a noble young man in love with Hermia
Hermia, daughter of Egeus, in love with Lysander
Helena, young woman, in love with Demetrius
Egeus, Hermia's father
Oberon, king of the fairies
Puck, Oberon's assistant
Titania, queen of the fairies

Fifth Grade - Literature - Comedy and Tragedy

Objectives
Recall the definition of comedy.
Recall the definition of tragedy.
Recognize and appreciate comedy and tragedy in "The Adventures of Don Quixote" and "A
Midsummer Night's Dream."
Identify tragic and comic themes.

Materials
Text of "The Adventures of Don Quixote" retold with excerpts from the novel by Miguel de Cervantes
Text of the story adaptation of "A Midsummer Night's Dream" from Tales from Shakespeare by Charles and Mary Lamb (or any other story version you select)
Diagram of masks for transparency (attached)

Suggested Books
Teacher Reference
Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. Contains a discussion of comedy and tragedy as well as text of "The Adventures of Don Quixote."

________. What Your 2nd Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. Contains a brief discussion of comedy.

Teacher's background
Comedy and tragedy are two types of literature. They are defined primarily by the effect they have on readers, listeners or a viewing audience. Comedy makes people smile or laugh. Tragedy makes us sad and inspires pity or terror in us. Comedy and tragedy may be found in the same piece of writing. However, a particular work may aim for a certain effect and not the other. This lesson reviews both concepts and draws on examples of comedy and tragedy from "The Adventures of Don Quixote" and "A Midsummer Night's Dream." These two stories were introduced earlier in the Fifth Grade. Comedy and tragedy as types of literature were introduced and reviewed in Literature in the Second Grade.

Procedure
Ask students to recall the definitions of comedy they learned in the Second Grade (story, etc. that treats its subject in humorous manner or has happy ending) Ask: What is tragedy? (serious story, etc. that portrays problems of its characters and has unhappy ending) Explain that we consider a story or play, movie or poem a comedy or tragedy depending on the effect it has on us as readers, listeners or viewers. If a poem makes us laugh, that is comedy. If it makes us sad, or inspires fear and pity in us, then it is a tragedy. Tell students that there is also comedy in real life and ask them to supply examples of this. Sadly, there is also tragedy in real life. Tell them that we often hear of tragic events on the news. One such event was the crash of TWA Flight 800 near New York City in 1996. Hundreds of lives were lost during that tragic event. Ask students for examples of recent tragic events in the news. Tell them that some tragedies are personal and private, the loss of a loved one, for instance. Others are imagined and not real. These are the best kind, for we can walk away from them whenever we choose. Tell students this is a lesson about comedies and tragedies that are imagined and not real, the kind that take place in plays, stories, poems, etc.

Explain that for some strange reason, human beings laugh when we are amused or happy. We weep when we are sad. Whereas a comedy entertains us and makes us forget our own troubles, a tragedy puts us in the place of other human beings who are experiencing difficulties. This ability to put ourselves in someone else's place in this way is an important quality of human beings. Explain this further by saying that in our minds, we view comic characters from a distance but we participate in the tragedy of a character in a story. As a result, we experience sadness with these characters or we pity them. Explain that we take the place of these characters through the use of our imagination. Explain imagination as the ability we have as human beings to think in images or pictures. It allows us to 'see' things that are not really there and to 'place ourselves' in situations which we do not really experience. One good thing about this sort of 'experience' is that we can close the book and turn off the television in order to bring it to an end. If it's a stage play or a movie, these come to an end. Another advantage of this sort of 'experience' is that once we close the book, turn of the television set, or walk out of the movie theater, we are changed in some way or another. We are changed because, by putting ourselves in the place of a character, we get a wider understanding of all human beings.

Present the two masks (attached) to your class. Ask them to identify both masks (laughing or comic mask and tragic or sad mask). Ask students to identify signs of joy in the comic mask (wide-open, upturned mouth) and signs of sadness in the tragic mask (down-turned mouth, frown on the brow). Remind students that they studied the use of masks in performances in Second Grade Literature. Ask: What are masks used for? Explain that masks are used by actors to portray characters in a performance. As such, a pair of tragic and comic masks are symbols of the theater. Ask students to identify Baltimore-area theaters (the Lyric Theater at 140, West Mt. Royal Avenue, the Mechanic Theatre at 1 North Charles Street). Ask students to share any experience they might have gained attending the theater or putting on a class play. Then, invite them to recall any instance of comedy and tragedy they met during "A Midsummer Night's Dream" and "The Adventures of Don Quixote," reminding them that comedy makes people laugh and tragedy makes people sad. You may choose to have your students recall and share comic and tragic moments from the above-mentioned stories and others in any order.

You may also proceed in the following way. Tell your students that a single word in a story may make us laugh. This happens in "The Adventures of Don Quixote" when Don Quixote calls the farmer "dog." Ask: Did the use of the word "dog" make you laugh? (Answers may vary.) Ask: Why is this funny? (Answers may vary.) Explain that it is funny, in part, because the farmer is certainly not a dog. Then again, neither is that greedy farmer a very kind fellow. So, instead of us suffering the unkind farmer's insult, or pitying him, we feel that he deserves to be put down. As a result, we laugh at the rude treatment he suffers at the hands of Don Quixote. Remind students that we would not want to be identified with a comic character whereas we may identify with a tragic figure. It is as if we say to ourselves we are 'better' than that character and what is happening to him could not possibly happen to us. This withdrawal from the character frees us up to laugh at him. Explain also, that other words may make us laugh by their sounds alone. Remind students of the poem "Jabberwocky" by Lewis Carroll. This was the case with such nonsensical words as "Callooh!" and "Callay!" in the poem.

Tell students that sometimes, a whole line in a poem or sentence in a story is funny. This is often the case in "The Adventures of Don Quixote." When the farm boy says to the farmer, "I know how you will pay me--with a terrible whipping," he is using the idea of payment in the exact opposite of the way we are used to using the term. This reversal of the meaning of 'pay' is surprising and funny and makes us laugh.

Explain that at other times, it is the situation or condition of a character in a story that makes us laugh. For example, when Don Quixote confuses giants and windmills, we laugh. What sort of man would confuse such unlike things? we wonder. We think he must be quite out of his mind. And since we are definitely wiser than he is, we laugh at his silliness. Also, explain that a character might be so funny that he or she makes us laugh with almost anything he does. Even the character's laughter can become infectious and make us join in. Don Quixote gets us to laugh by his appearance, his language, and his ideas. Most of all, he is not who he thinks he is. He passes himself off as a knight without being one. He also mistakes windmills for giants. Explain that mistakes and mistaken identities are common subjects in comedies.

At other times, we recognize a type of person in a comic character and this makes us laugh. It is as if we say to ourselves, "Oh, I know someone just like that." Don Quixote is the type of person who continues to believe in things long after he or she should have stopped believing. This is the case when Don Quixote attacks the windmills and is thrown to the ground. Instead of admitting that Sancho Panza was right all along, and he was wrong, and that those are really windmills, after all, Don Quixote comes up with a new twist on his old wrong idea. He says that some evil enchanter turned those giants into windmills to cheat him of a victory. Because of this, Don Quixote makes us laugh. Tell students that if a book, play, or story makes us laugh more than it saddens us, we call it a comedy. Tell them that "The Adventures of Don Quixote" is considered a comedy. Ask: Do you know any other comic books, comic characters, or situations? Do you know someone who like Don Quixote persists in error after error? (Answers may vary.) Then, summarize the sources of comedy in "The Adventures of Don Quixote" by telling students that words, situations, and characters in that story are funny.

Ask: How would you describe "A Midsummer Night's Dream?" (Answers may vary but should make mention of comic and tragic aspects of the story.) Explain that the story is consider-ed tragic but that it also makes us laugh. Explain that in a tragedy, the audience looks up to the tragic character. The audience imagines that they are facing the character's troubles. In that case, the feeling is one of sadness or pity. This happens with Hermia in this story. Explain that Hermia is a character in a tragic situation in that she faces two equally tough choices. Ask: What choice does Hermia have to make? (marry someone she does not love or die) Explain that these are two very difficult choices. Also, Hermia is fighting against the authority of her father and the Athenian law that gives him the right to choose her husband. Her father's authority and the law are much bigger forces than Hermia can possibly fight and win. Nor are we certain to win such fights ourselves. We as the audience put ourselves in the place of poor Hermia for two reasons. One, we think we can understand and sympathize with anyone who is in love because we consider love a beautiful and pure thing that should run its course, and because we might be or wish to be in love ourselves. We believe that nothing should stand in love's way. And two, we would be as helpless as Hermia fighting that cruel Athenian law. Moreover, since she is an honest character in a situation which she does not deserve, we find it easy to put ourselves in her place and to share her pain. Explain that this is how tragedy works; by getting an audience to share the problems of a character.

Remind students that "A Midsummer Night's Dream" also contains plenty of comedy. Ask students to share words, sentences, and characters they thought were funny and why

(Answers may vary). Such words as "my beautiful ass" are funny. And the clown makes us laugh by his mere presence. "A Midsummer Night's Dream" also portrays a case of mistaken identity when Puck applies his love medicine to the wrong lovers. Confusion results from this error but the consequences are comic. Also, the tale has a happy ending in that all lovers are reunited and Egeus and his daughter reconcile their differences. All's well in the end. Explain that this is a comic element in the story.

Finally, tell students that two viewers may not always be in agreement over whether an aspect of a story or play, etc. is funny or sad or whether a work is more tragic than comic since it all depends on how the work makes us feel. Explain however that such ideas as mistaken identity are nearly always comic whereas the idea of death is almost always a cause for sadness or pity in an audience.
 

Discussion

You may ask your students to discuss these questions in class.

1. Is "A Midsummer Night's Dream" more comic than tragic or the other way around?

2. Is there any tragedy in "The Adventures of Don Quixote?" Give examples to support your argument.
 

Journal

You may ask your students to respond to these prompts in their journals.

1. In your opinion, how would attending a wedding differ from reading about a wedding in a novel?

2. Have you ever wept for a fictional character or laughed out loud at one? Recall both instances, identify the characters or situations and the books, etc. they appeared in and explain why you felt the way you did.

Bibliography

Student References

Chute, Marchette. Stories From Shakespeare. Cleveland: The World Publishing Company, 1956.

Coville, Bruce. William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. New York: Dial, 1996. (0-8037-1785-7)

Garfield, Leon, abridged by. Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992. (0-679-83870-8)

Lamb, Charles and Mary. Tales from Shakespeare. London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1961.

Pollinger, Gina, selected by. Something Rich and Strange: A Treasury of Shakespeare Verse. New York: Kingfisher, 1995. (1-85697-597-5)

Teacher Reference

Bloom, Harold, ed. William Shakespeare: The Tragedies. New York: Chelsea House, 1985. (0-87754-617-7)

________. William Shakespeare: Comedies & Romances. New York: Chelsea House, 1986. (0-87754-664-9)

Core Knowledge Foundation. Share The Knowledge: Lessons from the Sixth National Conference, 1997 Special Unit and Lesson Plans. Charlottesville: Core Knowledge Foundation, 1997.

Epstein, Norrie. The Friendly Shakespeare: A Thoroughly Painless Guide To The Bard. Penguin: New York, 1993. (0-670-84447-0)

Handbook: Folger Festivals. Capitol Hill, Folger Library Shakespeare Education and Festivals Project, 1995.

*Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. (0-385-21464-7)

________. What Your 2nd Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1991. (0-385-31027-7)

________. A First Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1991. (0-395-59901-6)

________. The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1993 (0-395-65597-8)

Kuiper, Kathleen, ed. Merriam Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature. Springfield: Merriam-Webster, 1995. (0-87779-042-6)

Shakespeare, William. A Midsummer Night's Dream. Hauppauge: Barron's, 1984. (0-8120-3584-4)

*Required for lessons