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Fifth Grade - Geography - Overview - October

Geography includes a spatial sense of the world and embraces aspects of science, and history. This unit, titled 'European Exploration, Conquest, and Trade,' advances reasons for, describes the processes, charts the progress and results of European exploration and conquest of Asia, Africa, and the West Indies between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries. The unit comprises four lessons. Lesson 4 sketches the historical and geographic conditions that led to exploration and conquest, thereby providing the necessary background for the three succeeding lessons. Lesson 5 focuses on the Spice Islands. Lesson 6 deals with European exploration and trade in Africa, and Lesson 7 concentrates on the West Indies. The unit offers opportunities to apply geographic skills such as mapwork, acquired in September. It complements the History lessons of October. By the end of the unit, students will be able to justify European conquest in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries by showing that this arose from a need for trade in highly sought-after spices. Students will also be able to summarize how such exploration, conquest, and trade were achieved, and evaluate their results.

Fifth Grade - Geography - Lesson 4 - World Geography
Objectives
Understand that the Renaissance meant a rise in European commerce.
Understand that growth made Spain and Portugal rivals in world trade.
Understand the need for spices and the European trade rivalry it led to.
Understand that the spices; cinnamon, cloves, peppers, and mace are tropical products.
Understand that Muslim control of the spice trade led to Europe's search for a sea route.
Trace the change from European exploration to conquest, and trade.
Locate Europe, Africa, the East Indies, the West Indies, and Brazil, on a map of the world.
Know the geographic terms used in the lesson and the features they define.
Connect geographic and historic factors that led to European exploration, conquest, and trade.

Materials
Student-size map of the world, attached (for transparency and one copy per student)
Worksheet, attached (for transparency or one copy per student)

Suggested Books
Teacher Reference
Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs To Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.
________. What Your 4th Grader Needs To Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.
________. What Your 3rd Grader Needs To Know. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

Student Reference
Fritz, Jean. The Great Adventure of Christopher Columbus: A pop-up book. New York: Putnam and Grosset, 1992. This is a quick survey of Columbus's first voyage.

Grant, Neil. The Great Atlas of Discovery. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992. This is a study of many of the world's greatest explorers including Columbus.

Knowlton, Jack. Geography from A to Z: A Picture Glossary. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1988. This is a picture book of some common terms used in Geography.

Ventura, Piero. 1492: The Year of The New World. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1991. This is a wonderful picture book of Columbus's voyages.

Wood, Tim. The Renaissance. New York: Viking, 1993. This picture book tells of what life was like during the Renaissance.

Yolen, Jane. Encounter. San Diego: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1992. Picture Book. The book tells the story of the arrival and first contact of the Taino people of San Salvador with Christopher Columbus and his crew, as told by a Taino Boy. The drawings by David Shannon provide visual representation of important artifacts.
 

Teacher Background
In Fourth Grade Geography, Third Grade Geography, and in Kindergarten, students learned the use of maps. October's History lessons focus on European exploration of the Americas, and the Spice Islands. They follow this lesson and build on it. This lesson sets the geographic background for the next three lessons as well as October's History lessons.

Vocabulary
1. fifteenth Century: The fifteenth century refers to the hundred-year period from 1400-1499.
2. Muslim: A Muslim is a follower of the religion of Islam whose prophet is Muhammad.
3. peninsula: A peninsula is a long section of land that extends into the water.
4. straits: A strait, or straits are a narrow water passage connecting two oceans or seas.

Procedure
Display a transparency of the map of the world. Point to Portugal and Spain. By way of introduction, ask students to imagine they lived in Spain and Portugal in the 1400s. Remind them that there were no refrigerators, and so they needed tropical spices to flavor and preserve their foods. Explain that the spices (peppers, nutmegs, mace, cinnamon, and cloves) they had been buying cost a lot of money and that they had just learned that these spices could be bought directly from the Spice Islands. (Point to the Spice Islands on the map.) Ask: How would they get there?

Tell students they will study the Renaissance in Art later in the year, but that the word means a rebirth, and in this case a rebirth of trade in Europe. Explain that during the Renaissance, Spain and Portugal grew into vast kingdoms with many citizens who wanted silk for fine clothing, spices for flavoring their foods, porcelain for their dining tables. And since the Muslims who sold gold from Africa, spices from the Spice Islands, silk and porcelain from China, and grain from Egypt charged very high prices, the Spanish and Portuguese governments decided to bypass them and go directly to the Spice Islands. (Point out the Spice Islands on the map.) Explain that this was the early 1400s.

Remind students that they studied the Muslims in First Grade and again in Fourth Grade. Ask: What are Muslims? (followers of the religion of Islam) Tell them that the Muslims in question were mainly Arabs who lived on the land-and-sea route between China and Europe thus preventing Europeans from getting to the Spice Islands by land. (Point out Arabia, home of the Arabs on the map.) Explain that since Europeans had not yet learned to fly, they had to find a sea route to the Spice Islands.

Remind students that Spain and Portugal now had many citizens who paid taxes, thus providing money for building ships. Explain that Europeans knew very little navigation, less geography and didn't know which way to turn. Europeans had not traveled beyond Cape Bojador on the west coast of Africa. (Point out Cape Bojador on the map.) Europeans believed that the ocean was so hot it boiled and that dragons lived there. Explain that they did not even know the shape of the world. Ask: What shape is the earth? (round) Explain that by this time, Spain and Portugal were in a race to find the Spice Islands. Ask students: Why would there be a race to reach the Spice Islands? (The first to reach the islands would become rich.)

Tell students that in 1487, Bartholomeu Dias, a Portuguese seaman rounded the Cape of Good Hope. (Point out the Cape of Good Hope on the map). Ask: How far along from Europe is the Cape of Good Hope if one is headed for the Spice Islands? (halfway) Remind students that some Europeans still thought that ships reaching the horizon would fall off the edge. Ask: Do ships fall off the horizon? (no) Tell students that Columbus didn't believe this nonsense of the world being flat and he wasn't afraid to try prove it either, so he proposed sailing west to reach the East Indies. Explain that the East Indies is the name given to the islands of the east including the Spice Islands. (Point out the East Indies on the map.) Ask: What would you think of Columbus then? Ask: Is it possible to reach east by going west? (yes) Tell students that folks thought Columbus was flat out mad, but all he was really, was flat broke. Based on their knowledge of Columbus from the First, Second, and Third Grades, ask students: Who ended up paying for Columbus' journey (the king and queen of Spain). Ask for a student account of Columbus' first journey (In 1492, Columbus sailed from Spain and reached the West Indies.) Explain that Columbus landed on San Salvador island. (Point out San Salvador island on the map.)

Remind students that while Spain explored the West Indies, Portugal was exploring Africa, and that both were searching for a sea route to the Spice Islands. Explain that the Pope thought that instead of war, Spain and Portugal should trade thereby making the Catholic Church rich. Explain that in 1494 the Pope drew a line of longitude west of the Cape Verde Islands. (Point out the Cape Verde Islands on the map.) Ask: What is a line of longitude? (A line drawn from north to south on the globe.) Explain that the lands to the east of the line were Portugal's. Those to the west were for Spain. Explain that this was the Treaty of Tordesillas. Point to the line of the Treaty of Tordesillas on the map and ask students to identify which territories went to Spain, and which went to Portugal. (Africa to Portugal, the West Indies to Spain)

Tell students that in 1497, Vasco Da Gama, a Portuguese seaman, rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and reached the port of Malindi in what we now call Kenya. (Point to Malindi on the map.) Explain that in Malindi he met an Arab navigator who offered to show him the route to India. Ask: Had you been Da Gama, a European Christian would you have trusted the Arab Muslim seaman? Why? Explain that Muslims were more advanced in navigation than Europeans because while Europe was in the Middle Ages, the Muslims had enjoyed their own renaissance, concluding the earth was round even before Columbus sailed. Continue by explaining that the Muslim seaman took Da Gama northeast and that in 1498, they made it to Calicut, India. (Point to Calicut, India on the map.) Ask: How far along is India on the way to the Spice Islands if one has left Europe? (three-quarter way) Tell them that Pedro Cabral, a fellow Portuguese was excited by Da Gama's good news, set out for India, but drifted to a no man's land on the east coast of South America. Explain that this being west of the Cape Verde Islands, Cabral named the land Brazil, and claimed it for Portugal. (Point to Brazil on the map.) Ask: Why did Brazil come to the Portuguese? (It was east of the line of the Treaty of Tordesillas.)

Explain that Columbus thought he had reached the East Indies. Ask: Did Columbus reach the East Indies? (no) Tell them that the poor fellow died in 1506, not even knowing this. Explain that by then Europeans had been searching for a sea route to the Spice Islands for about a hundred years and had grown so desperate that in 1511, the Portuguese waged war on the Arabs and captured the port of Malacca on the Malay Peninsula from them. (Point out Malacca on the map.) Remind students that they met the term 'peninsula' in Geography in the Third Grade. Ask: What does peninsula mean? (a long section of land that extends into the water) In 1519, the first man sailed around the globe. The Strait of Magellan on the tip of South America he named after himself. (Point out the Pacific and the Strait of Magellan on the map). Explain that the term strait or straits in Geography refers to a narrow water passage connecting two oceans or seas. Ask: What was this explorer's name? (Magellan) Tell them that Magellan was killed in the Phillippines. (Point out the Phillippines and the Spice Islands on the map.) Explain that the two places are close. Conclude by telling students that the exploration of the Spice Islands had involved war and conquest, but the time had come for trading. Tell them that the upcoming three lessons in Geography will be devoted to European trade in the East Indies, Africa, and the West Indies.
 

Activities
Recapitulate the lesson by asking these questions orally.
1. During which century did Europeans get the urge to explore the globe? (fifteenth century)
2. Why did Europeans need to explore at that time? (to bypass Arab traders and their high prices)
3. What products were most in demand at that time? (spices)
4. Why might they not seek a land-and-sea route to the Spice Islands? (Muslims controlled the route)
5. What made going by sea to the Spice Islands difficult? (little knowledge of geography)
6. Ask students to complete the attached worksheet by matching the following numbers indicating landmarks on the map with the appropriate names: Malacca, Cape of Good Hope, Spain, San Salvador, Brazil, Strait of Magellan, Portugal, Cape Bojador, Line of the Treaty of Tordesillas, Spice Islands.

Additional Activity
You may ask your students to compare and contrast the exploration of the planet Mars which is going on at this time with exploration of Africa, Brazil, and the Spice Islands. They should bear in mind that it is a robot that is on the planet Mars.
 

Fifth Grade - Geography - Lesson 5 - The Spice Islands
Objectives
Locate landmarks involved in European trade between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Locate Indochina, the Malay Peninsula, and the Phillippines.
Understand the terms, 'archipelago,' and 'Ring of Fire.'
Understand that differences in natural resources, including climate, lead to world trade.
Study present-day Indonesia as a model of Southeast Asian nations.
Connect elements of geography and history that contributed to present-day Southeast Asia.

Materials
Classroom-size map of Southeast Asia
Student-size map of Southeast Asia, attached (for transparency and one copy per student)
Worksheet (for transparency, or one copy per student)

Suggested Books
Teacher Reference
Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs To Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.
________. What Your 4th Grader Needs To Know. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
________. What Your 3rd Grader Needs To Know. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

Student Reference
Bender, Lionel. Volcano: The Story of the Earth. New York: Franklin Watts, 1988. This is an easy-to-read book on volcanoes with clear illustrations.

Fritz, Jean. The Great Adventure of Christopher Columbus. New York: Putnam & Grosset, 1992.

Grant, Neil. The Great Atlas of Discovery. New York: Alfred A. Knopf: 1992.

Jacobs, Judy. Indonesia: A Nation of Islands. Discovering our Heritage. Minneapolis: Dillon Books, 1990. A brief study of Indonesia in an easy format. Contains color pictures.

Knowlton, Jack. Geography from A to Z: A Picture Glossary. New York: Thomas Y, Crowell, 1988.

Sullivan, Margaret. The Phillipines. Discovering our Heritage. New York: Dillon Press, 1993

A brief study of the Phillippines. Contains color pictures.

Van Rose, Susanna. Volcano & Earthquake. Eyewitness Series. New York, Alfred A. Knopf,

1992. This book's strengths are the clear illustrations and the relevance of these two geologic phenomena.

Ventura, Piero. 1492: The Year of The New World. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1991. This books takes you around the world in 1492.

Withington, William A. Southeast Asia. In the Global Community Series. Grand Rapids: Gateway Press, 1988.

Wood, Tim. The Renaissance. New York: Viking, 1993.

Yolen, Jane. Encounter. San Diego: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1992.
 

Teacher Background
In Fourth Grade Geography, Third Grade Geography, and in Kindergarten, students learned the use of maps. October's History lessons focus on European exploration of the Americas, and the Spice Islands. This lesson focuses on the geography of trade of the Southeast Asian region.

Vocabulary
1. archipelago: An archipelago is a group of islands clustered together in an ocean or sea.
2. Muslim: A Muslim is a follower of the religion of Islam whose prophet is Muhammad.
3. peninsula: A peninsula is a long section of land that extends into the water.

Procedure
Display a transparency of the map of Southeast Asia. Point to the Spice Islands. Recall that in Lesson 4 students learned that from the fifteenth to the seventeenth centuries, Europeans sought a sea route to the Spice Islands. Recall that the Portuguese captured the port of Malacca on the Malay Peninsula from the Arabs, and that it was Magellan who eventually found a sea route to the Spice Islands. Explain that the Spice Islands or the Moluccas, are part of country we now call Indonesia. (Point out Indonesia on the map.) Tell students that in this lesson on the Spice Islands, they will first look at the natural geography; location, size, etc. Then, they will study the human geography; where people live, how they live, etc.

Tell students that the Equator runs right through the Spice Islands. Remind students that they studied the Equator in Geography from First Grade up to Fourth Grade. Ask: What is the Equator? (an imaginary line around the earth halfway between the north and south poles) Ask for the climate type of a place on the Equator (equatorial). Ask what an equatorial climate is like (hot, wet). Ask what kind of vegetation is found in equatorial regions (rainforests). Explain that the spices (peppers, cinnamon, cloves) for which the Spice Islands are known are warm-climate plants. Point to Portugal on the inset map. Contrast Portugal with the Spice Islands, by asking for Portugal's climatic zone (temperate), and what its climate is like (cool). Ask students: Could the spices the Portuguese needed have been grown in Portugal (no). Explain that Portugal and Spain sought a trade route to the Spice Islands in order to satisfy their demand for products they could not grow. Summarize by explaining that differences in natural resources including climate lead to world trade. Illustrate this point by recalling that Portugal and Spain are temperate countries. Explain that if the Spanish and Portuguese needed tropical spices which they could not grow, then they had to import them from places where they are grown. Next, refer to the inset world map, and ask students what direction are the Spice Islands in relation to Europe (southeast).

Point to the regions, countries, and oceans that follow and tell students that Southeast Asia, including the Indochinese Peninsula, the Malay Peninsula, Indonesia, the Spice Islands, and the Phillippines, is situated between the Indian Ocean to the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east. Point to the inset map, and explain that Southeast Asia covers an area about half the size of the United States. Tell students Southeast Asia is made up of the Malay Peninsula, the Indochinese Peninsula, and the archipelagoes of Indonesia and the Phillippines. (Point out the Malay Peninsula, the Indochinese Peninsula, Indonesia, and the Phillippines.) Tell students that an archipelago (ar-kuh-PEL-uh-go) is a group of islands in a body of water. Ask: What is a peninsula? (A peninsula is a long section of land that extends into the water.) Explain that at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula is Singapore, the most prosperous city in Southeast Asia. Singapore is also a state and a port whose location is its biggest natural resource. (Point out Singapore on the map.) Ask: How can location be a resource? (In this case, Singapore is at a crossroads on many sea routes, and so is a supply station for oceangoing vessels traveling from Asia, Africa, Europe, and America.) Remind students that they learned in Lesson 4 that as early as the fifteenth century, this region was on the world's most important trade route. Ask: Why was this area so important in the fifteenth century? (spices) Ask: What were spices needed for in Europe? (flavoring and preserving food)

Point to Indonesia. Tell students that today the Spice Islands are part of Indonesia. Explain that present-day Indonesia is a country of several thousand islands stretching from the Malay Peninsula to the sea north of Australia. Ask: What is the term given to a group of islands such as Indonesia? (archipelago) Remind students that in Fourth Grade Science they learned that some parts of the world are more prone than others to earthquakes and volcanoes. Explain that there is a ring of volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean from Asia to North and South America and it is called the 'Ring of Fire.' Explain that the 'Ring of Fire' passes through the Phillippines (Point out the Phillippines), and that the volcano Krakatoa in Indonesia is also part of that ring. Tell students that in 1883, Krakatoa erupted and its explosion was heard as far away as Australia, four thousand kilometers away, and that this was the loudest explosion ever. Ask: Would you describe volcanoes as productive or destructive? Explain that in the case of Indonesia, volcanoes spread nutrients that make the soil rich, so banana trees grow faster, and the Indonesian rice yield greater. Explain that Indonesia exports rice, rubber, palm oil, copra, sugar, coffee, tea, pepper, tobacco to the rest of the world. Tell students that Indonesia's population is over one hundred- eighty million. Tell them that over half that population lives on one island. Ask: Why do people choose to live where they do? (People gather around natural resources.) Explain that hundreds of ethnic groups with different languages live in Indonesia. Explain that the majority are Muslim, with Hindus, Protestants, Buddhists, Roman Catholics making up the rest. Ask: What is a Muslim? (a follower of the religion of Islam) Ask: How might Indonesians have become Muslims? (Muslim traders traveled through the area before Europeans arrived.) Remind students that they learned the gamelan orchestra, a sound made up of gongs, xylophones, bronze kettles, and drums in Music in the Second Grade. Explain that Indonesia is the home of Gamelan music, and the home of the largest flower, the Rafflesia, which is three feet across. Tell them that the Komodo dragon lives on the island of Komodo in Indonesia. Explain that the Komodo dragon is really a three hundred pound monitor lizard descended from the dinosaurs. Tell students that there are elephants, leopards, rhinoceroses, tigers, and orangutans in Indonesia. Conclude by asking students if they think they might enjoy a visit to Southeast Asia and why.

Activity
Have your students do the following activity:
1. Complete the attached worksheet by matching the following numbers indicating landmarks on the map with the appropriate names: Spice Islands, Pacific Ocean, Malay Peninsula, Indian Ocean, Indonesia, Indochinese Peninsula.
 

Fifth Grade - Geography - Lesson 6 - Africa

Objectives
Map European-African trade routes between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Discuss the Swahili city-states in East Africa.
Discuss the Dutch in South Africa.
Understand the term, 'Slave Coast.'
Connect sugar plantations with the institution of slavery.
Connect elements of geography and history that contributed to the slave trade in Africa.

Materials
Classroom-size map of Africa
Student-size map of Africa, attached (for transparency and one per student)
Worksheet, attached (for transparency or one copy per student)

Suggested Books
Teacher Reference
Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs To Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.
________. What Your 4th Grader Needs To Know. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
________. What Your 3rd Grader Needs To Know. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

Student Reference

Feelings, Tom. The Middle Passage: White Ships, Black Cargo with an Introduction by Dr. John Henrik Clarke. New York: Dial Books, 1995. This is a narrative picture book that is without words except for the Introduction. The drawings are black and white. The images are powerful. It is a powerful representation of the Middle Passage. Students will love it!

Fritz, Jean. The Great Adventure of Christopher Columbus. New York: Putnam & Grosset, 1992.

Grant, Neil. The Great Atlas of Discovery. New York: Alfred A. Knopf: 1992.

Knowlton, Jack. Geography from A to Z: A Picture Glossary. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1988.

Stein, Conrad. South Africa. Enchantment of the World series. Chicago: Children's Press, 1986.

Ventura, Piero. 1492: The Year of The New World. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1991.

Wood, Tim. The Renaissance. New York: Viking, 1993.

Yolen, Jane. Encounter. San Diego: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1992.
 

Teacher Background

In Fourth Grade Geography, Third Grade Geography, and in Kindergarten, students learned the use of maps. October's History lessons deal with European exploration of the African coast. This lesson focuses on the geography of trade of Africa.

Vocabulary
1. archipelago: An archipelago is a group of islands clustered together in an ocean or sea.
2. cape: A cape is a piece of land jutting into the ocean or sea.
3. fifteenth century: The fifteenth century refers to the hundred-year period from 1400-1499.
4. Muslim: A Muslim is a follower of the religion of Islam whose prophet is Muhammad.
5. Swahili: Swahili is the most widely-spoken language of East Africa. It is also a word in that language, meaning "people of the coast."

Procedure
Display a transparency of the map of Africa. Point out northern, southern, eastern, and western Africa. Explain that Africa is made up of the continent as well as the islands of Sao Tome off the west coast, Madagascar, and Zanzibar off the east. By way of introduction, ask: What were Europeans seeking from the fifteenth to the seventeenth centuries? ( a sea route to the Spice Islands) Tell students to look at the inset map. Ask: Is Africa on the sea route to the Spice Islands? (yes) Ask: According to the Treaty of Tordesillas studied in Lesson 4, would Africa belong to Spain or Portugal? (Portugal) Point out the following landmarks and recall that Vasco Da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa in 1497 and went to Malindi in what is now Kenya, East Africa, on the Indian Ocean. Explain that Zheng He, a Chinese explorer sailed the Indian Ocean coast of East Africa as early as 1405 even while Europeans thought the world was flat. Tell students that in this lesson they will observe how one country's need for a product affects another part of the world.

Tell students that Swahili is the most widely spoken language in East Africa and a word meaning "people of the coast," in this case the east coast of Africa facing India and China. Ask: Are India and China east or west of Africa? (east) Explain that there are winds that blow from Asia to East Africa for part of the year and blow in the other direction the rest of the year. Ask: Why would winds be very important to traders in the fifteenth century? (for sailing) Tell students that because of these winds, the Indians and Chinese had been trading with this part of Africa for centuries and that by the sixteenth century, Muslims had spread the religion of Islam to that part of the world, and were marrying with the African peoples there. Explain that about forty towns grew up on the coast and became wealthy. They were city-states with no kings, in other words, not nations as in the case of Spain and Portugal but self-governing towns. Mogadishu, in what is now Somalia exported animal skins, gold and ivory to India and China. (Point out Mogadishu on the map.) Kilwa was the chief trading port for gold. (Point out Kilwa on the map.) In 1498, Vasco Da Gama came to Malindi in what is now Kenya. (Point out Malindi on the map.)

Tell students that in 1652, the Dutch founded the city of Cape Town in what is now South Africa. Ask: What is a cape? (A cape is piece of land jutting into the ocean or sea.) Ask: Who are the Dutch? (people of the Netherlands) Explain that the Dutch chose the Cape of Good Hope because it was halfway from the Netherlands to the Spice Islands by sea. Explain that Cape Town was a supply station, but later it was used as a base to conquer southern Africa. Ask: What might a supply station be? And why might a supply station be necessary? (It breaks up a long journey, offers rest, and fresh supplies.) Explain that today's White minority in South Africa are descendants of these Dutchmen, and that their language, Afrikaans is also descended from the Dutch language.

Emphasize how close Spain is to Morocco in Africa by pointing to the Strait of Gibraltar. Ask: In what direction would a boat travel from Europe to Africa (south), and from Africa to Europe (north). Explain that already in 1419, the Portuguese had colonized the archipelagoes of Azores, and Madeira, in the Atlantic Ocean. (Point out the Azores and Madeira on the map.)

Ask: What is an archipelago? (A group of islands clustered together in an ocean or sea.) Explain that later, the Portuguese occupied Sao Tome, and thousands of Portuguese citizens moved to these islands, settled there and established sugar cane plantations. Sugar cane soon became a very important industry because Europe's population was growing, Europeans had more money than ever before, and their tastes were changing so that they enjoyed more sweets and teas. Explain that by 1500 Sao Tome was the single most important producer of sugar. Contrast sugar and tobacco cultivation, by explaining that sugar cultivation as opposed to tobacco cultivation requires lots of land and many workers to harvest. Explain that the result was that sugar cane cultivation shifted to the West Indies and Africa then became a supplier of slaves more than a producer of sugar.

(Point out Benin and Angola on the map.) Explain that West Africa between what is today Benin and Angola became known as the 'Slave Coast' because most of the estimated ten million African slaves shipped to the New World were taken from that region. Explain that in the fifteenth century, Europeans came to the African coast to exchange manufactured goods such as textiles, metalware, and alcohol for slaves, and that by the 1600s, Europeans gave Africans guns in exchange for slaves. By the 1700s the demand for slaves grew so high that tribes and nations such as the Ashanti and the Dahomey now waged war for the sole purpose of getting captives for the slave trade.

Activity
Have your students do the following:
1. Complete the attached worksheet by matching the following numbers indicating landmarks on  the map with the appropriate names: Madeira, Mogadishu, Benin, Zanzibar, Slave Coast.
 

Fifth Grade - Geography - Lesson 7 - The West Indies

Objectives

Locate West Indian nations involved in the rise of European trade: Cuba, Puerto Rico, Haiti, Dominican Republic, and Jamaica.

Understand the terms, 'Middle Passage,' and 'Triangular Trade.'

Connect elements of geography and history that contributed to present-day West Indies.
 

Materials

Class-size map of the Caribbean

Student-size map of the Caribbean, attached (for transparency and one per student)

Worksheet, attached (for transparency or one copy per student)
 

Suggested Books

Teacher Reference

Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs To Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

________. What Your 4th Grader Needs To Know. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

________. What Your 3rd Grader Needs To Know. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
 

Student Reference

Feelings, Tom. The Middle Passage: White Ships, Black Cargo with an Introduction by Dr. John Henrik Clarke. New York: Dial Books, 1995.

Fritz, Jean. The Great Adventure of Christopher Columbus. New York: Putnam & Grosset, 1992.

Grant, Neil. The Great Atlas of Discovery. New York: Alfred A. Knopf: 1992.

Jacobs, Judy. Indonesia: A Nation of Islands. Discovering our Heritage. Minneapolis: Dillon Books, 1990.

Knowlton, Jack. Geography from A to Z: A Picture Glossary. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1988.

Stein, Conrad. South Africa. Enchantment of the World series. Chicago: Children's Press, 1986.

Sullivan, Margaret. The Phillippines. Discovering our Heritage. New York: Dillon Press, 1993

Van Rose, Susanna. Volcano & Earthquake. Eyewitness Series. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1992.

Ventura, Piero. 1492: The Year of The New World. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1991.

Wood, Tim. The Renaissance. New York: Viking, 1993.

Yolen, Jane. Encounter. San Diego: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1992.
 

Teacher Background

In Fourth Grade Geography, Third Grade Geography, and in Kindergarten, students learned the use of maps. October's History lessons deal with European exploration of the West Indies. This lesson builds on Lessons 4 to 6, and completes the concept of the 'Triangular Trade' begun in Lesson 6 (although the term was not introduced then). It's focus is on the geography of trade of the West Indies.

Vocabulary

1. archipelago: An archipelago is a group of islands clustered together in an ocean or sea.

2. New World: New World is the name Europeans gave to the continents of North and South

America for until the 1400s, they did not know these continents existed.
 

Procedure

By way of introduction, ask: According to the Treaty of Tordesillas, which European country had a right to colonize the West Indies? (Spain) Ask: How were the West Indies discovered? By whom? (Columbus, trying to find a sea route to the Spice Islands) Point to the area and ask: Can you recognize the peninsula to the north of the map? (Florida) And the land mass to the south of the map? (South America, Venezuela) Tell students that the Caribbean is a broader term for both island states such as Jamaica and mainland countries of South America that have in common at least one coast on the Caribbean Sea. Explain that the West Indies are all islands surrounded by the Caribbean Sea. Ask: How did the West Indies get that name? (Columbus mistook them for the East Indies.) Tell students that this lesson deals with the role played by the West Indies in the rise of European trade from the fifteenth to the seventeenth centuries.

Explain that the West Indies are a chain of islands that extends for thousands of miles between North and South America. Ask: What is the term used to define such a chain of islands? (archipelago) Compare the East Indies and the West Indies by explaining that they are both 'Indies' or islands, and both tropical. Contrast them by explaining that the East Indies were explored by the Portuguese, and lie between the Indian and Pacific Oceans whereas the West Indies were explored by Spain and lie between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Explain that the East Indies were part of the Old World whereas the West Indies were part of the New World because until their discovery in the 1400s, Europeans did not know they existed. Explain that both archipelagoes are similar in another way. They are mainly the tops of volcanoes that have been drowned by the sea. Explain that like the East Indies, the West Indies have their own volcano story. Ask: What volcanic event are the East Indies famous for? (Krakatoa was the loudest explosion ever.) Explain that the eruption of Mount Pelee in Martinique in 1902 was the most destructive ever. Explain that Mount Pelee poured ash over the island and killed everybody in the town of Saint Pierre except for one man who was condemned to die. Luckily, his jail cell walls were thick and the only cell window looked away from the eruption. That's how he survived. Explain that not all West Indian islands are volcanic. Give the example of, the Bahama islands, some 700 islands off the Florida peninsula's Atlantic coast including San Salvador island, Columbus's first stop in the New World. (Point to the Bahamas.) Explain that the Bahamas are limestone not volcanic islands.

Explain that when Columbus landed on San Salvador in 1492, he met a group of Native Indian peoples called the Tainos. Europeans put them to work in the mines looking for gold. They did not find much gold and the Tainos quickly died off from European diseases and slavery. Explain that tobacco is a Native Indian crop which Europeans took the habit of smoking. The next big European habit was the use of cane sugar as a sweetener. Emphasize that sugar cane cultivation required lots of land and many laborers. When the Portuguese islands off the coast of Africa could not supply the demand for sugar, sugar cane cultivation shifted to the West Indies. Explain that since the Native Indian population had been wiped out, Europeans turned to West Africa for slaves. Explain that the trade that existed among Europe, Africa, and the Caribbean formed a triangle, hence the term 'Triangular Trade.' (Sketch such a triangle on the inset map.) Explain that the first leg of a ship's journey went from Europe to Africa. The ship took manufactured goods to Africa to exchange them for slaves. The second leg of the journey went from Africa to the West Indies. The cargo was African slaves for sale in the West Indies. The third and final leg of the journey went from the West Indies to Europe. The cargo then was sugar, tobacco, and wood. Explain that the Middle Passage was the leg of the journey that crossed the Atlantic between Africa and the Caribbean. It lasted three months. One in ten Africans died during that journey and sharks followed the ships for corpses that were tossed over. Between 1520 and 1870 more than 10 million Africans traveled the Middle Passage.

Cuba, (Point out Cuba on the map.), the Dominican Republic, (Point out the Dominican Republic on the map.), Puerto Rico, (Point out Puerto Rico on the map.) Jamaica (Point out Jamaica on the map.), the Bahamas (Point out the Bahamas on the map.), and Haiti, (Point out Haiti on the map.) were all prosperous sugar colonies or supply stations between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries. Emphasize that the island of Hispaniola comprises two republics, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic.
 

Culminating Activities for the unit

Ask your students to carry out the following activities with the use of appropriate maps. Note that in some cases there may be more than one correct answer.

1. Name a country that comprises more than one island (Indonesia).

2. Name a country which is entirely surrounded by water (Jamaica).

3. Name a country that is part on a mainland, part made up of islands (Indonesia).

4. Which country got its name from a product it was known for? (Spice Islands)

5. Name a country that has had its name for more than five hundred years (Spain).

6. Name a present-day country that is a city-state (Singapore).

7. Name a region that owes its name to the fact that it was mistaken for another (West Indies).

8. Is it true that Africa is closer to Europe than either the Spice Islands or the West Indies are?(yes)

9. Which city in Africa owes its name to a geographic feature such as a peninsula, island, cape, or straits? (Cape Town)

10. Name an island that comprises two republics. Name these republics (Hispaniola island, Haiti and the Dominican Republic).

11. Complete the attached worksheet by matching the following numbers on the map with the appropriate names:Cuba, Puerto Rico, Haiti, Jamaica, Dominican Republic. Complete the attached worksheet by matching the letters with the appropriate capital cities: San Juan, Santo Domingo, Kingston, Havana, Port-au-Prince.
 

Bibliography
 

Teacher Reference

*Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs To Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.(0-385-31464-7)

________. What Your 4th Grader Needs To Know. New York: Doubleday, 1992.(0-385-31260-1)

________. What Your 3rd Grader Needs To Know. New York: Doubleday, 1992.(0-385-31257-1)

Student Reference

Bender, Lionel. Volcano: The story of the Earth. New York: Franklin Watts, 1988. (0-531-10553-9)

Feelings, Tom. The Middle Passage: White Ships, Black Cargo with an Introduction by Dr. John Henrik Clarke. New York: Dial Books, 1995. (0-8037-1804-7)

Fritz, Jean. The Great Adventure of Christopher Columbus. New York: Putnam & Grosset, 1992. (0-399-22113-1)

Grant, Neil. The Great Atlas of Discovery. New York: Alfred A. Knopf: 1992. (0-679-81660-7)

Jacobs, Judy. Indonesia: A Nation of Islands. Discovering our Heritage. Minneapolis: Dillon Books, 1990. (0-87518-423-5)

Knowlton, Jack. Geography from A to Z: A Picture Glossary. New York: Thomas Y, Crowell, 1988. (0-690-04618-9)

Stein, Conrad. South Africa. Enchantment of the World series. Chicago: Children's Press, 1986. (0-516-02784-0)

Sullivan, Margaret. The Phillippines. Discovering our Heritage. New York: Dillon Press, 1993 (0-87518-548-7)

Van Rose, Susanna. Volcano & Earthquake. Eyewitness Series. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1992. (0-679-91685-2)

Ventura, Piero. 1492: The Year of The New World. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1991. (0-399-22332-0)

Withington, William A. Southeast Asia. In the Global Community Series. Grand Rapids: Gateway Press, 1988. (0-934291-32-2)

Wood, Tim. The Renaissance. New York: Viking, 1993. (0-670-85149-3)

Yolen, Jane. Encounter. San Diego: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1992. (0-15-225962-7)

*Strongly recommended.