Fifth Grade - History - Overview - October

Overview
During the month of October, students' knowledge of European exploration of the New World is expanded. The theme throughout the history lessons of October is "Tools of the Explorers." In each of the lessons, students first learn content, then create a replica of one of the tools the explorers in this era would have used. These tools include a compass, quadrant, hourglass, log and map. Students are prompted to extend their thinking as they infer and propose ways the explorers would have used these tools. The first lesson in this series reviews the motivation and background behind the exploration that took place, then the remaining lessons are organized according to country (Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, England and France). In the last lesson, after content on French and English explorers has been covered, students review all of the explorers through a summary and creative thinking exercise which asks them to conclude what a treasure would have been for each explorer and to defend their choice. It should be noted that the time line begun in September is continued in this month. Also of importance is the overlap in history and geography content during the month of October. Any material first addressed in geography should not be re-taught in history, and vice versa. This may mean that history lessons skip some content and move directly into mapping and tool-making activities.
 

Fifth Grade - History - Lesson 6 - Introduction to Exploration

Objectives
Summarize reasons for European exploration.
Locate Europe, Indonesia, Africa and China on a map.
Make a representation of a compass.
Infer the ways in which explorers would use a compass

Materials
Sentence strip for continuation of time line
World map for each student, attached
Transparency of world map, attached-or classroom size world map
One clean jar lid for each student (a jelly jar lid, for example)
Magic markers or crayons for students to share in small groups
White or light-colored construction paper
Scissors for students to share in small groups

Suggested Books
Student Reference
Fritz, Jean. Around the World in a Hundred Years. New York: Scholastic, Inc., 1994. This book, which contains illustrations and maps, is organized according to the major explorers. Each chapter is short and is written in an appealing style for students.

Hakim, Joy. The First Americans. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. This book contains excellent and interesting factual background for the entire set of October lessons.

Macaulay, David. Ship. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1993. For students are interested in the ships used by the explorers being studied, or who are interested in sunken treasure, this book chronicles the building, expedition and sinking of a caravel. It then goes on to describe and photograph its discovery by sea-going archaeologists centuries later.

Matthews, Rupert. Eyewitness Books: Explorer. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991. Explorers from every age are addressed in this book, and there are many wonderful photos of artifacts, including the tools students will be making, found from the age of exploration covered in this unit.

Teacher Resource

Baxter, Nicola. Explorations. New York: Franklin Watts, 1994. This book contains text about the explorers and ideas for activities and crafts related to their travels.

Hirsch, E.D. What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. Within this book is excellent background material for today's lesson.

Strohl, Mary and Susan Schneck. Explorers Cooperative Learning Activities. New York: Scholastic Professional Books, 1993. A reproducible time line is contained within this book that, if used, could enhance the time line begun in September and continued this month. This book also has lots of information about the expeditions undertaken by the major explorers and ideas for cooperative activities revolving around this theme.
 

Teacher Background

In this lesson, students are reintroduced to the exploration that began in the 1400s. They covered early exploration in previous grades. In Kindergarten, they learned the term "New World," and about Columbus, and he was again addressed in First Grade, along with Cortes.

First Graders also discussed the qualities necessary in an explorer. In Second Grade, students learned about the Silk Road, and the exploration and settlement of the Southwest was covered in the Third Grade. The Spanish Empire in the Americas was a subject read about in Reading Mastery III, Lesson 135, and England and France's explorations can be found in Reading Mastery V, Lesson 47. In today's lesson, students discuss motivations behind the exploration that took place, and continue the time line begun in September. They should be able to locate the

areas from which the major explorers sailed, and their anticipated destinations. The theme of this month's history lessons is "Tools of the Explorers." In each lesson, after a content-oriented

procedure, students will be making a replica of one of the tools that the explorers being studied used. The tool being made in this lesson is a compass. Students should already be familiar with the use of a compass from Second Grade lessons. Finally, students will use the production of the compass as a springboard to make inferences about how the explorers would have used compasses. This lesson should be taught after the first geography lesson for October, as the geography lesson gives background to this lesson. Some material is in both lessons, and it is expected that you would not repeat what has already been taught.
 

Procedure

Begin today's lesson by telling students to imagine that there is a man on the other side of town who makes the very best athletic shoes. (You should feel free to use some item other than athletic shoes. The item used should be something that the students would want.) Now, everyone wants these shoes, but the man lives on a private road, and only certain people may travel on it. The people who travel this road buy the shoes from the man who makes them, then sell the shoes to other people at an increased price to make a profit. Ask: How would you try to get the shoes at a lower price? (Accept all answers, and if not given, elicit that one way to do this would be to find a way other than the private road to get to the man's house.)

Tell students that in the 1400s, people in Europe were in a similar situation. Have a student point out on the overhead or classroom size map where Europe is. The Europeans, of course, did not want athletic shoes. Ask: What do you think the people of Europe wanted that was not available right in Europe? (spices, gold, silk) Tell students that spices were very important to people of fifteenth-century Europe. Because they did not have refrigerators or other preserving devices we have, many times meat spoiled before it could be eaten. Spices, especially cloves, helped to preserve meat and covered up its taste when it had spoiled. Ask: Where were the spices the Europeans wanted? (the Indies) Have a student point out on the overhead or classroom size map where the Indies are. Gold was another item that people in Europe wanted. Ask: Where do you think people went for gold during this time period? (Africa and the Indies) Finally, silk was prized for its strength, beauty and soft texture. Many wealthy Europeans wanted to wear clothes made from silk. Ask: Where did silk come from? (China) Have a student point out on the overhead or classroom size map where China is.

Explain to students that for Europeans in the 1400s, there was only one way to get silk, gold and spices. They had to buy them from Muslim merchants, who controlled the land and sea routes to Africa, China and the Indies. These routes were like the "private road" we talked about in the example. One of these routes was called the "Silk Road." Ask students if they recall any information learned about the Silk Road from lessons taught in the Second Grade. This road, and other routes to China, the Indies and Africa, could only be used by the Muslim merchants. These merchants, who brought Europe gold, silk and spices, frequently charged much more for the goods than they had originally paid and made handsome profits. Europeans became tired of paying such high prices for the items they wanted, and decided to try to find other ways, through new routes, to get the items directly for themselves.

Direct students' attention to the time line begun in September, showing the dates and names of the ancient civilizations of South America. Tell them that we now need to add the beginning of European exploration. Ask students to help determine an appropriate phrase to write on the sentence strip (something such as "European exploration begins"). Then ask: When did I say this exploration started? (1400s) This, too, should be written on the sentence strip, then the sentence strip should be added to the time line.

Next, introduce students to the theme of the history lessons for October: "Tools of the Explorers." Explain that in each history class, they will be making a tool, or a representation of a tool, that explorers setting sail from Europe would have used to help them find their destination. Discuss with students the lack that existed then of modern day navigational devices, such as radar and radio. Ask: What kind of tools do you think these fifteenth-century explorers used? (Accept all answers for now; the teacher will be introducing a new tool in each of the history lessons. Given their experience in previous grades, however, students should volunteer a compass as a possibility, and if this is not done, elicit this answer.) Tell students that today, they will be making a representation of a compass to be used in a discussion of how the explorers would have employed it.

Pass out the jar lids, construction paper, magic markers and scissors, and have students follow this procedure to make a representational compass: First, cut out a piece of construction paper that will fit the inside of the jar lid. The best way to do this may be to trace the jar lid on the piece of construction paper, then cut slightly inside the tracing line. Next, draw lines across the circle of paper to divide it into fourths, then into eighths. (Show students how to do this on the blackboard.) Mark the lines appropriately with the directions N, S, E, W, NE, NW, SE, and SW. Students may then decorate the circle with the magic markers. Finally, the circle should be place into the jar lid.

Next, pass out the student copies of the world map. Have students place the representational compass they made next to the map, aligned correctly with north pointing "up." Tell students that the new routes that Europeans were going to try to find were going to be sea routes: possible land routes were too dangerous and time consuming. Ask: Looking at your compass, and location of Europe, Africa, China and the Indies, what direction do you think the explorers could sail to get the goods they wanted? (Reasonable answers include: west, southwest, and south.) Ask: Why would a compass be important to a fifteenth-century explorer? (It would tell him what direction he was sailing.) Ask: Would it be possible to sail in one direction only, such as south, to get from Europe to the Indies, or would a sailor need to change directions as he sailed? (He would need to change directions.) Challenge students to do the following: Pretend you are setting sail from Spain. Write out the directions you would sail, step by step, to get to the Indies. For example, you might begin by writing, "Sail southwest around the western edge of Africa, then southeast until you come to Africa's southernmost tip." Once students have met this challenge, ask students to read their directions out loud, and have the other students in the class trace the given route on their maps with their fingers as you do so on the overhead transparency or classroom-size map. To summarize the lesson and confirm student understanding, ask students to describe in writing, on the back of the directions they just wrote, why sailors from Europe began exploring in the 1400s. Collect all student writing and student maps.

Suggested Follow-up Activities

Students may do further research on any of the following topics: the Silk Road; navigational devices used by sailors; the use of spices in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
 

Fifth Grade - History - Lesson 7 - The Portuguese Explorers
 

Objectives

To consider the implications made by the Treaty of Tordesillas.

To chart the routes of the following explorers: Bartolomeu Dias; Vasco de Gama; Pedro Cabral; Ferdinand Magellan.

To discuss the accomplishments of Dias, da Gama, Cabral, and Magellan.

To select the two most important explorers of the group listed above and justify the choices made.

To identify the contributions to exploration of Prince Henry the Navigator.

To make a representation of a quadrant.

To infer and discuss the use a quadrant would have for fifteenth-century explorers.
 

Materials

Sentence strips for continuation of time line

World map for each student used in Lesson 6

Transparency of world map or classroom size world map, used in Lesson 6

Markers or crayons for small groups of students to share

Dinner-size paper plates, each one to be divided among four students

Scissors for small groups of students to share

One piece of yarn, cut approximately 6 inches long, for each student

A paper clip or brad (brass paper fastener) for each student

Master map, showing the routes of Portuguese explorers, attached
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Fritz, Jean. Around the World in a Hundred Years. New York: Scholastic, Inc., 1994. This book, which contains illustrations and maps, is organized according to the major explorers. Each chapter is short and is written in an appealing style for students.

Hakim, Joy. The First Americans. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. This book contains excellent and interesting factual background for the entire set of October lessons.

Twist, Clint. Magellan and da Gama: To the Far East and Beyond. Austin, TX: Raintree Steck- Vaughn Publishers, 1994. There are excellent pictures, maps and illustrations in this book of the explorers and the lands they ventured to. The author also gives details about the cultures that existed in the explored lands and the aftermath of exploration there.

Unstead, R.J. See Inside a Galleon. New York: Warwick Press, 1978. This book, which is mostly illustrations, gives the reader a good idea of what life on a galleon was like, and how they were built.

Teacher Resource

Baxter, Nicola. Explorations. New York: Franklin Watts, 1994. This book contains text about the explorers and ideas for activities and crafts related to their travels.

Hirsch, E.D. What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. Within this book is excellent background material for today's lesson.

Strohl, Mary and Susan Schneck. Explorers Cooperative Learning Activities. New York: Scholastic Professional Books, 1993. A reproducible time line is contained within this book that, if used, could enhance the time line begun in September and continued this month. This book also has lots of information about the expeditions undertaken by the major explorers and ideas for cooperative activities revolving around this theme.
 

Teacher Background

In this lesson, students are exposed to the Portuguese explorers, though they learned about Magellan in First Grade. In learning about the Treaty of Tordesillas [1494] they are prompted to think about the Euro-centric view held by most European nations at that time. The time line is continued in this lesson, as is the theme "Tools of the Explorers." In this lesson, the tool made is a representation of a quadrant. Beginning in today's lesson, and continuing in several of the remaining history lessons in October, students will chart on their maps the routes taken by the explorers they learn about. Because of the number of explorers, for clarity purposes markers or sharp crayons are recommended. The teacher will need to refer to the master map of Portuguese explorers' routes in order to show students the route taken by each of the explorers.

If the material has already been covered in geography, skip directly to the mapping activity.
 

Procedure

Begin today's lesson by reviewing Lesson 1. Ask: Why did the Europeans become interested in exploration in the 1400s? (They wanted to get gold, spices and silk directly from the countries that produced them, instead of having to pay traders high prices.) Tell students that while this was the main reason for exploration, another reason had to do with religion. The Europeans, who were mostly Christian, wanted to spread Christianity to other lands. One man in particular, Prince Henry the Navigator, felt strongly that exploration should occur to gather wealth and to spread Christianity. His ships often had large red crosses on their sails. He is called "the Navigator" because for many years it was thought that he established a school of navigation in Portugal. Though it is now thought that he did not, he did prompt much navigation during this time by selecting men to explore the world--especially the west coast of Africa--and giving them the ships, crew and supplies to do so. Tell students that today, they will be learning about Portuguese explorers.

Pass out student maps and crayons or markers, and as students are putting their names on the back of their maps, prepare the classroom size or overhead world map. Tell students that in the early 1400s, not much was known about the west coast of Africa. The Muslim traders used secret routes overland and through the Red Sea, and did not sail along it, because it was said if one went down this coast, it would lead to a point where the water boiled, where ships caught fire and where the air was poisonous. Most sailors were too fearful to attempt to sail along this coast, but Henry was curious about it, and found some who were willing to venture just past Cape Bojador, which is the bulge on the coastline, slightly south of the Canary Islands. (Show students on large map.) The sailors who went brought back gold dust, ostrich eggs and African slaves. The slaves were wanted by the Portuguese due to a labor shortage, and their capture prompted other Portuguese sailors to sail down the west coast of Africa.

Still, no sailor had sailed down Africa's coastline as far as it would go, and no one knew where it might lead--to a horrible death or to a direct route to India and China. In 1487, one brave Portuguese ship captain named Bartolomeu Dias set sail to find out where the west coast of Africa would take him if he followed it. He and his three ships sailed close to the African coast--trying always to keep it in sight. Unfortunately however, storms blew them off course and they lost not only sight of land, but also many sailors and one ship. They sailed again north to try to find land, and when they spotted it, knew that they had found the tip of Africa and had sailed around it. Though he was undoubtedly happy to know that Africa could be rounded in route to India and China, Dias named its tip the "Cape of Torment" because of all of the trouble the storms there had caused. He and his men sailed back to Portugal instead of on to India, and told the Portuguese king their good news. The king was so happy to hear about the possibility of a new trade route to India and China that he promptly re-named the tip of Africa the "Cape of Good Hope," and this name stands today.

Have students select a color marker or crayon to signify Dias's route, then show them on the overhead or classroom size map the route he took. On their own maps, students should mark his route in the color they selected, then begin a map key noting "Dias, 1487" and the color line they chose.

Tell students that now that the Portuguese knew that they could sail around the tip of Africa to get to India and China, they were anxious to do so. The first to take on this mission, in hopes of becoming rich, was Vasco da Gama. He left Portugal in 1497 with four ships and 170 men. He did sail around the Cape of Good Hope, and then landed in the port of Malindi, on the coast of what is now Kenya. There da Gama hired a Muslim sailor to show him the rest of the way to India.

Again, on the map show students da Gama's route, and they should select a new color to draw a line to represent his route on their own maps. Da Gama's name, the year 1497 and the line color should also be added to the map key.

Explain that the wealth that da Gama brought to Portugal provided the funds for more exploration, and his success motivated it. The next Portuguese explorer to undertake sailing around the Cape of Good Hope to India was Pedro Cabral, in 1500. Cabral began by sailing down the west coast of Africa as da Gama and Dias had done, but strong winds blew him much further west than either of these men had gone. Cabral found himself and his sailors suddenly on a previously unexplored coast -- that of eastern South America. Cabral claimed the land for Portugal and named it Brazil. Even today, the language of Brazil is Portuguese. After staying in Brazil for ten days, Cabral and his men set sail back to Africa, and eventually made it to India. By this time, though, the Muslim merchants were starting to realize that the European explorers were a threat to their trade profits, and Cabral and his men engaged in some fighting with the Muslims. Eventually, because they had the advantage of cannons, the Portuguese came to rule the routes through the Indian Ocean, and forced the Muslim traders to pay them a tax to sail through these waters.

As was done with the other explorers, show students Cabral's route as they mark it on their maps and add it to their map keys.

Before continuing with the final explorer covered today, Magellan, pause to discuss the Treaty of Tordesillas (tor-de-SEE-yas). Note that in claiming Brazil for Portugal, Cabral influenced native Brazilian language and culture. Ask: What language does most of the rest of South America speak? (Spanish) Ask: Why do you think this is so? (Spanish explorers claimed most of the rest of South America.) Tell students that indeed, Portugal and Spain began in the 1400s to compete for territory that was being explored. Because this territory, and the routes to India and China, had the potential to make a country very rich, the competition between Spain and Portugal became serious and looked as though it might lead to war. The leader of the Catholic Church, the pope, wanted explorations to continue so that Christianity might be spread, but he didn't want Spain and Portugal to go to war. He arranged, in order to keep peace, a treaty which divided the seas and unexplored lands between Portugal and Spain. This treaty, called the Treaty of Tordesillas, drew a line of longitude from pole to pole at approximately 46W. (Show  students where this is on overhead or classroom-size map.) The pope said that all land east of that line would belong to Portugal, and all land west of that line would belong to Spain. Tell students that at the time this treaty was drawn up, Spain and Portugal dominated the exploration at sea. Ask: What do you think the other European countries, once they began exploring, thought of the Treaty of Tordesillas? (Answers will vary.) Ask: What other groups of people did the Treaty of Tordesillas fail to consider? (Those who were native to the lands being claimed by Spain and Portugal.) Ask: What does this omission tell us about the way these Europeans thought of themselves in relation to the rest of the world at this time? (Answers will vary, but should note that the Europeans generally considered themselves to be more important and to have more rights than any natives they may come across in their travels.) Ask: How do you think the native people who were living in the lands being explored for the first time by the Spanish and Portuguese would feel about this treaty, if it were described to them? (Answers will vary.)

Tell students that the final explorer to be studied today is a Portuguese captain named Ferdinand Magellan. Magellan may be the most famous of all of the explorers discussed today. Ask: What do you think he did that caused him to become so famous? (sailed all the way around the world) Magellan explored in the early 1500s, after the previously discussed explorers, and by this time, a little more was known about the continent of South America. It was known, for example, that on the western side of South America there was a great sea which could possibly lead to routes to Asia if one continued to sail west. (Show students on map.) The only problem was, no one had found a passage by water to get to this sea. Ask: What do we call a narrow passage through land from one large body of water to another? (a strait) Sailors had looked unsuccessfully for a strait through North and South America, but Magellan was sure he could find one and sail across this sea to the Spice Islands, which are in Indonesia between Borneo and New Guinea. (Again, show students on map.) Ask: Why do you think Magellan had the Spice Islands in mind as a destination? (to get the spices there) Magellan went to the king of Portugal to ask for ships and sailors to attempt this trip around the world, but the Portuguese king wouldn't help him. Ask: Where do you think he went for help next? (Spain) Magellan convinced the Spanish king to give him the necessary resources for such a trip, and in 1519, he set sail from Spain. He sailed west from Spain and began looking for a strait through South America. When he did eventually find it, it was at the southern tip of this continent. Ask: Who remembers what this strait is called? (Magellan named it for himself, and we still call it the Strait of Magellan today.) Magellan also named the Pacific Ocean, though he did not know how vast it was when he first laid eyes on it. He and his men sailed and sailed and sailed, and still had not found the Spice Islands. They were reduced to eating shoe leather and the shipboard rats they could catch. Finally, they landed in the Phillippines in 1521, and they knew that because of the language the natives were speaking, which was close to that spoken in the Spice Islands, they had sailed around the world. Unfortunately, Magellan did not make it back to Spain. He was killed fighting a native tribe in the Phillippines, but in 1522 his remaining ship and sailors sailed back into a Spanish harbor, proving that the world was mostly water and could be completely circumnavigated.

As was done with the other explorers, show students Magellan's route. They should select a new color to depict his journey and draw it in a line on their maps. "Magellan, 1519" and the color of his line should be added to the map key. Ask: What should we title this map? (Something such as "The Routes of Portuguese Explorers" would be appropriate.) Maps should now be collected for grading and use in future lessons.

Inform students that before they make today's tool, we need to add to the time line. Tell them that due to space limitations, only two of the explorers that were learned about today can be included on it. They need to choose, therefore, the two explorers whose accomplishments are most important. Encourage a discussion among students of the various explorers and what they did. This will also serve as an excellent summary of the information covered on these explorers. Students should ultimately be the ones to make the decision of which two explorers to include, but may need the teacher to play devil's advocate and remind them of forgotten

accomplishments. Encourage students to consider the implications of the discoveries of each explorer as they discuss them, as this is central to their comprehension of the importance of these explorations. Once students have selected the two explorers they think are most worthy of being included on the time line, write their names and the dates of their expeditions (noted above) on the sentence strip. Both this sentence strip and the one written in Lesson 1 should be added to the time line.

Briefly review with students the explorer's tool made in the last lesson (a compass) and its use. Tell them that a compass worked well to tell the sailors what direction they were headed, but what other information might they need to know? (Answers will vary. If not given, point out that a compass cannot tell where, relatively speaking, you are on a globe. It can only tell you in which direction you are headed. For example, a compass could not tell you if you were in Florida or Maine.) At sea, with no landmarks to help them, sailors could not tell their exact position. Shortly after Prince Henry's time, Muslim scholars taught the Portuguese how to measure their course by the position of the stars, called celestial navigation. One of the tools used in celestial navigation was the quadrant, and that is what students will be making today.

Pass out paper plates and scissors and instruct students to carefully cut the plates in straight lines into fourths and distribute the pieces among themselves. Students should then cut out the middle section of the fourth, leaving a piece looking like the illustration below.

Once this has been done, students should make small marks along the curved portion of their piece, and should choose one straight edge (it doesn't matter which one) to be the top of the quadrant. The top should be designated with several small markings. Then, pass out the yarn and paper clips. One end of the yarn should be tied tightly into the corner of the quadrant where the two straight edged meet, leaving the other end of the yarn to dangle down on the curved edge. The paper clip should be fastened to this end to weigh it down. The quadrant, now finished, should look like the one in the illustration below.

Ask: How do you think the quadrant was used? (The top is pointed towards a prominent star, then the sailor sees where the weighted string lies along the curved edge. The position of the string measures the angle from the ship to the star and can tell a ship's position.) Demonstrate the use of the quadrant for students, then have them try it by using a point high in the classroom to substitute for a star. Encourage students to change their position in the classroom, then measure again, using the same point. Ask: Does the weighted string hang in a different place once you

have moved and re-measured? Tell students to imagine that they have been out to sea for weeks without seeing anything but sky and water. Ask: Why would the quadrant be important to you? (It can tell where you are and how far you have come.) Ask: When might have Magellan needed and used a quadrant most? (while sailing across the Pacific Ocean) Ask: When might have Cabral used and needed a quadrant most? (when he was blown off course and out to sea in the Atlantic Ocean) Ask: How could the combination of quadrant and compass help sailors? (Used in combination, they could tell sailors where they where and in what direction they were headed.)
 

Suggested Follow-up Activities

The explorers covered in today's lesson would make terrific subjects for further, independent research. Hakim and Fritz's books, noted above, would be wonderful resources if this is done.

Students may also be asked to journal in an imaginary log their experiences as a stow-away or captain aboard one of the Portuguese or Spanish ships.

The teacher may choose to keep a sample of the quadrant and the compass to mount on a bulletin board entitled "Tools of the Explorers," and add to this board as tools are made through the unit. Students can be asked to write explanatory statements to go under each of the tools.

Students can also be asked to draw appropriate symbols of the two explorers chosen today to go on the time line, and these symbols can be displayed under their names on the time line.
 

Fifth Grade - History - Lesson 8 - The Spanish Empire in the Americas
 

Objectives

To review content learned about explorers in Grade 3: Ponce de Leon; Coronado; de Soto.

To review conquistadors covered in Grade 1: Cortes and Pizarro.

To observe Balboa's route to the Pacific.

To discuss the results from the clash of cultures that occurred when Columbus met the Tainos.

To note the influence missionaries, such as Bartolome de las Casas, had on treatment of conquered natives.

To reflect on European-native relationships, and record thoughts on this topic in an imaginary log
 

Materials

Transparency of world map or classroom size world map, used in Lessons 6 and 7

I, Columbus: My Journal 1492-1493, edited by Peter and Connie Roop (see information under student reference below)

Encounter, by Jane Yolen (see information under student reference below)

Ship's Log worksheet, one copy for each student
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Carson, Robert. The World's Great Explorers: Hernando De Soto. Chicago: Children's Press, 1991. This book, though it includes much text, also has many interesting photos and illustrations and would make a good resource for further independent study.

Fritz, Jean. Around the World in a Hundred Years. New York: Scholastic, Inc., 1994. This book, which contains illustrations and maps, is organized according to the major explorers. Each chapter is short and is written in an appealing style for students.

Hakim, Joy. The First Americans. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. This book contains excellent and interesting factual background for the entire set of October lessons.

Mathews, Sally Schofer. The Sad Night. New York: Clarion Books, 1994. The author of this book tells the story of the building of the Aztec empire and its demise following the arrival of Cortes. It could be read aloud, and is full of colorful illustrations rendered in the style of Aztec codex art.

Stein, R. Conrad. The World's Great Explorers: Francisco de Coronado. Chicago: Children's Press, 1992. This book, though it includes much text, also has many interesting photos and illustrations and would make a good resource for further independent study.

Roop, Peter and Connie. I, Columbus: My Journal 1492-1493. New York: Avon Books, 1990. The editors of this book have put Columbus's journal into language a fifth grader can easily understand. Each of the entries are short and the format is appealing.

Yolen, Jane. Encounter. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1992. This book tells the story of Columbus's arrival on the island of San Salvador from the perspective of a young Taino boy.

Teacher Resource

Baxter, Nicola. Explorations. New York: Franklin Watts, 1994. This book contains text about the explorers and ideas for activities and crafts related to their travels.

Hirsch, E.D. What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. Within this book is excellent background material for today's lesson.

Hirsch, E.D. What Your First Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1991. This book contains material reviewed in today's lesson.

Hirsch, E.D. What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1992.This book also contains material reviewed in today's lesson.

Strohl, Mary and Susan Schneck. Explorers Cooperative Learning Activities. New York: Scholastic Professional Books, 1993. A reproducible time line is contained within this book that, if used, could enhance the time line begun in September and continued this month. This book also has lots of information about the expeditions undertaken by the major explorers and ideas for cooperative activities revolving around this theme.
 

Teacher Background

Today's lesson begins with a review of information on Spanish Explorers students learned in previous grades. Students then follow Balboa's expedition to the Pacific Ocean. Though students have learned much about Columbus in earlier grades, in this lesson they are prompted to think about the influence he and other Europeans had on native populations. Students then discuss the influence missionaries, Las Casas in particular, had on the treatment of conquered natives. The theme "Tools of the Explorers" is continued in this lesson through having students write in an imaginary log.
 

Procedure

Begin today's lesson by telling students that today, they will be focusing on Spanish explorers. They have already learned about several Spanish explorers. Ask: What are the names of some of the Spanish explorers you have already learned about? (Ponce de Leon, Coronado, de Soto, Cortes, Pizarro, Columbus) As students tell you these names, write them on the board. Then, work down this list of explorers and ask students to recall any facts they can about each of them. If not given, make sure students know the following:

Ponce de Leon

explored the land we now call Florida

captured Puerto Rico and made it a Spanish colony, killing and enslaving many of the natives

looked for the "Fountain of Youth"

Coronado

explored what is now the southwest corner of our country

looked for the "Seven Cities of Gold"

met the Zunis, a farming tribe part of the Pueblo Indians

de Soto

fought with Pizarro against the Incas and became rich

explored Florida and what is now the southeast U.S.

was probably the first European to see the Mississippi River

was brutal in battle against Creek and Cherokee people

Cortes

helped conquer Cuba for Spain and became very rich

explored what is now Central America and southern Mexico

conquered the Aztecs

took the riches of the Aztecs and enslaved many of the native people of the region

Pizarro

explored what is now western South America

killed thousands of unarmed Incas

claimed the Inca empire for Spain

Columbus

set sail in 1492 to try to find a route to the Indies by sailing west to get east

had three ships: the Nina, the Pinta and the Santa Maria

was the first European explorer to set foot in what is now the Americas

mistakenly thought he had landed in the Indies and called the natives he met Indians
 

Remind students of the explorers they learned about in the last history lesson. Ask: Which explorer was the first to sail all the way around the world? (Magellan) Ask: What was he looking for as he sailed along the east coast of South America? (a passage, or strait, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean) Ask: How do you think he knew there was water on the other side of South America? (another explorer had seen it and had reported his finding) The explorer who was the first European to see the Pacific Ocean is one the students probably haven't heard about: Balboa.

Vasco Nunez de Balboa was governor of a small island near Puerto Rico in 1513 when he first heard about another "sea" to the west of what we now call South America. The native people who knew about the sea told him that gold and pearls could be found there. He decided to set out to find this sea and bring back the riches that could be found near it. He and his men, after facing swamps and cannibals finally found themselves facing a great mountain. The native guide told Balboa the sea was on the other side, and indeed, when Balboa climbed the mountain, he did see a great expanse of water. Balboa named it the "South Sea" and claimed all the lands it touched for Spain. He obviously didn't know how large it was! Ask: What did Magellan re-name this "sea"? (the Pacific). Show students on the large map Balboa's route: from Antigua, across the Gulf of Darien, and over Panama to the Pacific.

Next ask students what it means if two things clash. (Answers will vary.) Ask: How can cultures clash? (Again, answers will vary.) Tell students to think about the Spanish explorers they have studied in the past. Ask: How do you see examples of cultures clashing in the expeditions of Spanish explorers? (Students should note the fighting that took place between the Spanish and the native people they met, as well as the enslavement and robbery of many tribes.) Ask: Based on this knowledge, what usually happens when two cultures clash? (They fight and the physically dominant culture overtakes the weaker culture.) With this in mind, tell students to imagine for a moment that they are members of an ancient tribe near or in South America. Have students silently reflect, then share their thoughts, on how they would react if they saw strange-looking foreign men sailing towards their shoreline village. Inform students that the story they are about to hear is based on the reaction of a young Taino boy to the landing of Christopher Columbus on the island inhabited by his people. (If you are not able to get the book Encounter, simply discuss what would have happened, and alter the questions that follow accordingly.) Though the boy and his thoughts are products of the author's imagination, in fact Christopher

Columbus did land on the island we now call San Salvador, where the Taino tribe once lived. Show students on the map the location of San Salvador, then read to students the author's note on the last page of Encounter that further explains its factual background.
 

Then read to students the story of Encounter, pausing to discuss the illustrations and the author's choice of words and what they mean. Once the story has been read, discuss the following questions with the students:

--What did the narrator mean when he said that, "We took their speech into our mouths, forgetting our own?"(The Tainos lost their own language and began to speak Spanish.)

--In what other ways does the narrator note the loss of the Taino culture? (their land, their religion, their way of dress)

--Why do you think the boy dreamt that the birds had sharp, white teeth? (Answers will vary.)

--Why didn't the chief listen to the warning in the boy's dream? (He was only a boy, not a man.)

--What else could he have done to make the chief realize the danger the Europeans brought? (Answers will vary.)

--The boys notes that the strange men touched the golden arm bands the natives wore, but not the flesh of their faces or arms. Why is this important? (It shows that the interest of the explorers was in the gold, and that they did not view the natives as the same as themselves.)

--What do you think the "zemis" was to the boy? (Answers will vary.)

--How might things have been different if the chief had listened to the boy's warning? (Answers will vary.)

--What would have happened to the boy if he had not jumped overboard, off the Spanish ships? (Answers will vary, but students should remember that in the author's note, Yolen writes that the Tainos who were brought back to Spain were made slaves.)
 

The discussion in response to the last question leads nicely into discussing the treatment of the Spaniards towards native populations in general. Students have already recalled in the review, earlier in the lesson, that many of the Spanish explorers mercilessly killed and enslaved native populations. Tell students that while this type of treatment was generally viewed as acceptable among Europeans, there were those who felt it was wrong.

One Spaniard who felt slavery was wrong was Bartolome de Las Casas. He was, for part of his life, a slave owner himself. He had been given a royal grant by the king and queen of Spain for land, and the natives who lived on it, in the "New World." The grant assumed that its holder could make any natives living on the land slaves. Las Casas took on even more slaves after the conquest of Cuba by the Spanish, and even becoming a priest in 1512 did not change his mind about having slaves. One day, however, Las Casas was reading in his Bible and came across these words: "The gifts of unjust men are not accepted [by God]." Las Casas became convinced that in holding slaves, he was being unjust. He set all of his own slaves free and tried to convince others to do the same. He began to write his ideas about slavery down for others to read, and prompted much discussion about this issue in Spain. The Spaniards, including the king and queen, wanted to do the right thing, but they weren't sure what it was. It seemed natural to Europeans at the time that some people were meant to be masters, and others slaves. There was much laborious work to be done and it seemed as if it could only be accomplished through the use of slaves. Plus, many Europeans thought they were doing a favor to the natives by enslaving them--they saw it as "taking care" of people who had a culture inferior to their own. Las Casas argued that many slave owners were cruel and did not care for their slaves very well, and he was very convincing. In 1542 King Charles of Spain ruled that Indians could not be made slaves. Though this law was not always upheld in Spanish colonies, it marked an important step towards the eventual abolishment of all slavery.

Tell students that today, as in all of the history lessons of October, they will be creating a replica of a tool used by the explorers. Ask: What tools have we made so far? (a quadrant and a compass) Tell students that today's tool is a sailor's log. Ask: What is a log? (a journal or diary, written in daily) If necessary, briefly discuss the format of a log. Logs written by explorers are very useful to historians today. Ask: Why would they be so useful? (They give a first-hand account of the journeys taken.) Tell students that the only reason we know so much about Magellan's travel is because one of his sailors faithfully wrote in a log. Christopher Columbus wrote in a log, too. (Show students the book I, Columbus.) Ask students to keep in mind the recent discussion about treatment of natives and the information and ideas presented in the book Encounter as you read from the log. Read the log entry for the date Friday, October 12, 1492. Students should realize the information recorded by Columbus is his own account of what happened when he arrived at the island now called San Salvador. Ask: What information or events are included in both the Taino boy's account and Columbus's account? (Columbus put a Spanish flag into the sand, the natives were friendly, one native cut his hand on Columbus's sword, a group of natives went back to Spain, the sailors traded glass beads, bells and red caps for thread and parrots) Ask: What evidence can you find in Columbus's account of his attitude towards the natives? (He wanted to convert them to Christianity, he instructed his sailors not to take anything from the natives without giving something in return.) Ask: Do you think Columbus would have agreed with Las Casas? Why or why not? (Answers will vary.)

Have students, on the attached worksheet, write an entry in an imaginary log. Tell them that they are to pretend that they are a sailor aboard the Nina, Pinta or Santa Maria. They have just landed on San Salvador and have met the Tainos. They should describe what they see, and what they do with the Tainos. Encourage them to use their imagination to be descriptive. For example, if they would like to describe the food they ate with the Tainos, using detail given by Jane Yolen in her book, what did the food taste like? Did they enjoy it? In addition to these experiences, students should record thoughts they have on the treatment of the natives. Do they agree with Columbus taking a group of the Tainos back to Spain? How should the Tainos be treated? Would it be okay to make them slaves? Why or why not? The log entry should be at least two paragraphs. Those who finish first should be encouraged to draw pictures, as was frequently done, to accompany their descriptions. When all are finished, ask for volunteers to share their writing by reading it aloud.
 

Suggested Follow-up Activities

If a bulletin board with mounted tools on it has been started, select one or two of the log entries to go on the board as well.

Bartolome de Las Casas was called upon to defend his writings in a debate with a critic named Juan Gines de Sepulveda. Spaniards called for this debate in an attempt to decide which entries to go on the board as well.

Bartolome de Las Casas was called upon to defend his writings in a debate with a critic named Juan Gines de Sepulveda. Spaniards called for this debate in an attempt to decide which view was morally correct. This debate could be re-staged in the classroom with teams acting as Las Casas and Sepulveda. The remaining students could represent the Spaniards, who will be asked who they feel is correct at the end of the debate.

Students may be interested to know that because of shipwrecks, an effort continues today to recover artifacts and treasure, such as Spanish gold doubloons. This would make a great independent research topic.
 

Fifth Grade - History - Lesson 9 - Dutch Exploration and Trade
 

Objectives

To trace the route of the Dutch from the Netherlands to the East Indies and Japan.

To identify the Cape of Good Hope as the origin of Dutch settlement in South Africa, and to be able to explain why Dutch settlement started there.

To review important dates in Spanish exploration.

To make a representation of an hourglass.

To infer how Dutch sailors may have used an hourglass at sea.
 

Materials

Sentence strips for continuation of time line

World map for each student, attached

Transparency of world map or classroom size world map, used in Lessons 6, 7 and 8

Markers or crayons for small groups of students to share

Two clear, empty plastic bottles for each student

A roll of aluminum foil

Scissors for small groups of students to share

Tape

Cardboard (any weight will do), or heavy paper, cut into rectangles approximately 5" by 7", one rectangle per student

Sand, approximately to cup per student

Optional: an egg or game timer which uses sand the way an hourglass does
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Hakim, Joy. The First Americans. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. This book contains excellent and interesting factual background for the entire set of October lessons.

Matthews, Rupert. Eyewitness Books: Explorer. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991. Explorers from every age are addressed in this book, and there are many wonderful photos of artifacts in it as well.

Teacher Resource

Baxter, Nicola. Explorations. New York: Franklin Watts, 1994. This book contains text about the explorers and ideas for activities and crafts related to their travels.

Hirsch, E.D. What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. Within this book is excellent background material for today's lesson.

Strohl, Mary and Susan Schneck. Explorers Cooperative Learning Activities. New York: Scholastic Professional Books, 1993. A reproducible time line is contained within this book that, if used, could enhance the time line begun in September and continued this month. This book also has lots of information about the expeditions undertaken by the major explorers and ideas for cooperative activities revolving around this theme.
 

Teacher Background

Today's lesson begins with a review of major dates and events in Spanish exploration from the last lesson. These dates and events are added to the time line. Then, students are introduced to Dutch trade and exploration. As they did with the Portuguese explorers, students trace the route the Dutch took from the Netherlands to the East Indies and Japan. This route began to frequently include a stopover at the halfway point, the Cape of Good Hope. Using the Cape of Good Hope as a "rest stop" led to the colonization of this area of South Africa by the Dutch, and students should see this logical development. Students then make a hourglass and infer how Dutch traders may have used them.

At least several days in advance of this lesson, students should be told that they need to bring in two empty, rinsed, clear plastic bottles. Ideally, the two bottles that a student brings in will be the same size, but this is not necessary. The bottles may be small, such as those used in individual size servings of water, or they may be large, like a liter soda bottle. You may want to have extra bottles on hand in case any student neglects to bring in a pair. If clear bottles are impossible for a student to get, colored can still be used, but the lighter the color the better.
 

Procedure

Begin today's lesson with a review of the last lesson, on the Spanish explorers. Tell students that in the last lesson, we did not have time to add Spanish explorers to our time line. Obviously, there is not room for all of them. Ask: Which explorers and/or events are so important that they should be added to the time line? (Allow students to discuss this, and remind them of any important people or events they leave out.) Once students have decided on two or three important personalities or events, write them and their dates (refer to previous lesson) on a sentence strip to be added to the time line later.

Ask: What was the Treaty of Tordesillas? (a treaty, drawn up with the pope's help, that divided the seas and unexplored lands between Spain and Portugal in an attempt to avoid war between these two nations) Ask: What European nations did such a treaty leave out? (England, France, the Netherlands, etc.) Tell students that today, they will be learning about the trade and exploration which began in the Netherlands. Show students the Netherlands on the map and explain that people from the Netherlands are called Dutch. Dutch traders, until the late 1500s, would make profits by bringing back silk and spices from Mediterranean ports, where they received these goods from the Muslim traders. The Dutch traders would sail from the Mediterranean Sea back up to Amsterdam, a port in the Netherlands. (Show students both places on the map.) Ask a student to point out on the large map the location of Spain and Portugal. Then, explain that in the late 1500s, the Spanish king ordered that Dutch ships could no longer use the trade routes along the Spanish and Portuguese coasts that they had been using. Ask: What do you think the Dutch decided to do? (Answers will vary. If not given, elicit that it made sense to sail around Spain and Portugal and directly to the East Indies and China to get the silk and spices.)

Pass out student maps and markers or crayons. Tell students that they need to show Dutch trade routes both before the late 1500s and after this time. Have a student come to the large map and point out the route traders took before the Spanish king issued his order to stop them. Students should then draw this route on their own maps and begin a key with the first entry of "Dutch trade route prior to late 1500s." Then, ask a student to come to the large map and point out the route that he or she thinks the Dutch took once they could no longer sail into Spanish or Portuguese waters. (down the west coast of Africa and across the Indian Ocean to the East Indies) Students, in a different color, should also add this trade route to their maps and write "Dutch trade route after the late 1500s," with the color they chose to represent it, in the map key.

Tell students that with the help of the Dutch navy, to fight off Spanish and Portuguese ships when necessary, Dutch traders became very successful at bringing back spices and silk from the East Indies and China. The Dutch East India Company was established in 1602, and Dutch traders traveled even as far as Japan and the present-day country of Vietnam to get valued goods. The port of Java, in the East Indies, became especially important to the Dutch, and it wasn't long before Dutch traders supplied most of Europe with silk, indigo (a popular blue dye) and spices.

Tell students that one more detail needs to be added before they are finished with today's map. Ask: How many of you, with a show of hands, have ever been on a long car, bus or train trip before? Teasing the students, then ask: How many of you, after about an hour, start to whine, "I have to go to the bathroom!" Or press, "I'm thirsty, can't we please, please, please stop for a soda?" Show students on the map that it was a very long trip indeed from the Netherlands to the East Indies. If the sailors began to bug the captain, he might look for a good stopping place on this route. Ask: What spot looks as though it is about halfway on this trip? (You may want to give a hint that it is a spot named first by Dias, then renamed by a Portuguese king: the Cape of Good Hope.) Tell students that the Cape of Good Hope became something of a rest stop for the Dutch. They used it as a place to get supplies, such as food and fresh water, that they would need to finish the journey. Cape Town was established as their supply station, and still exists today. As a matter of fact, the Dutch began not only to stop at this cape in South Africa, but also to stay there, and set up a Dutch colony. Many of the people in South Africa today are descendants of the Dutch, and speak a language called Afrikaans, which is a form of Dutch. Ask: Where else have we seen an influence like this? (Spanish is spoken in most of South America, Portuguese is spoken in Brazil.) Have student take the crayon or marker they used to show the later Dutch trade route, and draw from this route, in the same color, a landing at the Cape of Good Hope. Ask: What should we title this map? (Something such as "Dutch Trade Routes" would be appropriate.) Have students put their names on the maps and collect them for grading and future reference. Crayons and markers may also be collected now.

Resume teasing students about typical trip behavior by asking: How many of you start to bother your parent or grandparent on a trip by asking every ten minutes, "When are we going to be there? Huh? How much longer till we get there?" Addressing those who do, ask: What does your grandma or aunt or uncle or parent usually do in order to be able to answer this question? (look at his or her watch) Tell students that these early explorers did not use a watch to determine time at sea. Ask: What do you think they used to measure time? (an hourglass) If possible, show students a small egg timer or game timer that uses sand the way an hourglass does. Tell students that the hourglasses that the explorers used were much larger, of course, and had to be turned over every half hour.

Inform students that they will be making an hourglass today as another of the "Tools of the Explorers." Pass out the scissors and walk them through each of these steps in order:

First, students should cut around the plastic bottles about four inches from the top. If the lids are still on, remove them.

Second, each student should take a piece of aluminum foil that will fit over one of the bottle tops and poke a small hole in it with a pencil point. Place this piece of foil on top of one of the bottles, as if it were going to be used to hold a straw in place.

With the foil in place, each student should then put the tops of the bottles together and tape them in place this way. The foil should be sandwiched between them, and the small hole that was poked will allow a narrow flow of sand to go from one bottle to the other.

Next, pass out the cardboard or heavy paper rectangles. Have students trace the outlines of the cut edges of the bottles on the cardboard, then cut these outlines out. Only one of the cardboard outlines should then be taped to a cut edge of one of the bottles. If necessary, trim the cut edge so that it fits flush to the cardboard outline. (This is to prevent sand from leaking out of the hourglass.)

You should then pour to cup of sand into the open end of each student's hourglass. Once this has been done, each student should fasten the other outline to the open cut edge and fasten it in place with tape. As was done before, make sure the outline fits snugly against the edge to prevent sand leaks.

The hourglass is now finished, and students should use a watch or the classroom clock to determine how much time their hourglass measures.

When all students are finished, engage students in a discussion on the use Dutch traders would have had for an hourglass. Ask: How do you think a Dutch trader might have used an hourglass? (to determine how much time he had been sailing in a particular direction, to determine how fast he was sailing) Ask: What do you think sailors did with this information? (marked their position on a chart) Elaborate on this concept. Tell students that often, when giving directions, people will say, "Travel down this road for about a half an hour, then make a left onto another road." Ask: How is this similar to what sailors would have done with an hourglass? (They would travel in one direction for a specified amount of time, then change directions to stay on a course.) Instruct students to look at the large map, and ask: When would Dutch traders need to change direction? (Answers will vary, but the most obvious change in direction is to and around the Cape of Good Hope, then northeast into the Indian Ocean.) Ask students, other than looking at an odometer, how can you tell how fast you are going in a car? (by how fast the scenery is moving past, by how strong the air rushes into the car as you roll down the window) Tell students that at sea, if sailors were unsure of how fast they were traveling, they could use the hourglass as well. For example, assume that while traveling along the west coast of Africa, they had been told that it would take about three hours to go from one coastal landmark to the next if the ship were traveling at an average speed. Using the hourglass, a Dutch sailor figures it has been only two hours between the two landmarks. Ask: What does this tell him about the speed at which they are traveling? (It is faster than average.)

End class today by adding, "Establishment of Dutch East India Trading Company, 1602" to a new sentence strip to be added to the time line.
 

Suggested Follow-up Activities

Students may be interested in doing further research on the country of South Africa. In its history, and in its contemporary status, there are themes of justice and relationships between Europeans and native populations which were discussed in the previous lesson on Spanish explorers. It would benefit students to see these recurrent themes with another European nation and in another part of the world.

A learning station could be set up around the theme of an hourglass, complete with supplies for students to engage in some scientific inquiry and discovery. For example, they could predict and test how the timing of an hourglass could be affected by changing such factors as the size of the hole in the tin foil, one large hole versus several smaller ones, the size of the sand grains etc.

If a bulletin board has been set up with a "Tools of the Explorers" theme, mount the hourglass on to it as well. Ask several students to write an explanation to go with the hourglass describing its use.
 

Fifth Grade - History - Lesson 10 - English and French Exploration and Trade
 

Objectives

To review, from grade 3, the English and French search for the Northwest Passage.

To discuss the establishment of colonies and trading posts in North America and India.

To select and defend what finds and geographical features would qualify as a "treasure" to explorers.

To design and create a treasure map.
 

Materials

Transparency of world map or classroom size world map

Crayons for small groups of students to share

Thick watercolor paper, one sheet for each student

Paper towels

Tea bags

Hot water

A bucket or basin

Paintbrushes for small groups of students to share
 

Suggested Books

Student Reference

Fritz, Jean. Around the World in a Hundred Years. New York: Scholastic, Inc., 1994. This book, which contains illustrations and maps, is organized according to the major explorers. Each chapter is short and is written in an appealing style for students.

Grant, Neil. English Explorers of North America. New York: Julian Messner, 1970. Cabot, Drake, Hudson and Frobisher are covered in this text.

Hakim, Joy. The First Americans. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. This book contains excellent and interesting factual background for the entire set of October lessons.

Jacobs, William Jay. Champlain. New York: Franklin Watts, 1994. This book is an appropriate text for independent reading on Champlain.

Jacobs, William Jay. LaSalle. New York: Franklin Watts, 1994. This book is an appropriate text for independent reading on LaSalle.

Matthews, Rupert. Eyewitness Books: Explorer. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991. Explorers from every age are addressed in this book, and there are many wonderful photos of artifacts, including the tools students will be making, found from the age of exploration covered in this unit.

Teacher Resource

Baxter, Nicola. Explorations. New York: Franklin Watts, 1994. This book contains text about the explorers and ideas for activities and crafts related to their travels.

Hirsch, E.D. What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. Within this book is excellent background material for today's lesson.

Strohl, Mary and Susan Schneck. Explorers Cooperative Learning Activities. New York: Scholastic Professional Books, 1993. A reproducible time line is contained within this book that, if used, could enhance the time line begun in September and continued this month. This book also has lots of information about the expeditions undertaken by the major explorers and ideas for cooperative activities revolving around this theme.

Teacher Background

In this lesson, students are exposed to the geography of English and French trade, which led to the establishment of trading posts and colonies in North America and India. A review takes place of the hunt for a non-existent Northwest Passage, which was learned about in Grade 3. This discussion serves as a springboard for students to talk about what would constitute a "treasure" for the explorers discussed in this unit. Through their talk, students should successfully review the goals of the explorers in this unit. For example, Magellan found his treasure in the strait that allowed him to travel from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, but Ponce de Leon did not find the Fountain of Youth. Students must select what a treasure would be for the explorers and be ready to defend their choice.

The theme "Tools of the Explorers" is continued in this lesson through the construction of a treasure map showing the location of a treasure chosen based on the discussion, and students will treat the map with tea to make it look old. Watercolor paper is used for this project because of its absorbency. At least several hours prior to class, you should fill the basin or bucket with hot water and place the tea bags in it to allow them to steep and create strong tea. The tea will then cool in time to be used as a type of paint for the students. The bucket or basin of tea and paint brushes should be set up at the back or side of the classroom before the lesson begins.
 

Procedure

Begin today's lesson by asking students to recall, from previous lessons, how the Europeans affected the cultures of the natives in lands they explored. (They frequently enslaved them, converted them to Christianity, robbed them of gold, and wound up replacing their language and clothing.) Ask: What language do we speak? (English) Ask: This being so, what country can we assume explored this region of North America and left its language here? (England) Ask a student to point out Canada on the large world map. Ask: Who knows what language many people in Canada speak? (French) Ask: What country can we then assume explored the region we now call Canada? (France) Indeed, the French and English explored and established colonies in North America much in the same way the Spanish did in South America.

Tell students that although Spain and Portugal were early leaders in exploration, by the mid 1500s, the French were exploring, and by the early 1600s, the English had become aggressive traders and explorers. In 1600, Queen Elizabeth I gave the English East India Company a charter stating that it would be the only English company to trade in the East Indies. Because of this monopoly, the company grew rapidly and began to compete with the Dutch. The English set up trading posts in India, and eventually took over this country entirely. Have a student point out the location of India on the large world map. Write "English and French exploration of the New World begins" and "mid-1500's" on a sentence strip to be added to the time line.

Ask a student to come up to the world map and trace the route he or she assumes the English would have taken to go from England to India. (Almost the same route as the Dutch; from England, along the west coast of Africa, around the Cape of Good Hope, and across the Indian Ocean) Ask: What other countries were using this same route? (the Dutch, the Portuguese)

In fact, when England began trading in earnest with India, the Portuguese controlled this route. It had become to them almost like the "private road" that was discussed in Lesson 6, and very much like the Silk Road was to the Muslims. The English did not feel free to take this route to India, yet they wanted the valuable goods from this part of the world. Ask: What do you think they did? (tried to find another route) Ask: In what other directions could the English try to find a new route to India? (Answers will vary, but students should come up with the possibility that the English could have tried to find a route through or around North America.) Tell students that indeed the English and French did try to find a water route through North America. Ask: What did they call this route they tried to find? (the Northwest Passage) Ask: Is there a Northwest Passage, a water route, through North America? (no)

Discuss with students the meaning of the word "treasure," and throughout the ensuing discussion, keep a list of the explorer's real and imagined treasures on the board. Ask: For the English and French, would the Northwest Passage have been a treasure? (yes) Ask: Why? (It would have allowed them to take a quick route to India that would have eliminated the need to take same route as the Dutch. It would have therefore been something of great value for them.) With the students, conclude that a treasure may be something you are looking for and finally find, and could also be a geographical feature such as a passage. The English and French did not find the treasure they were looking for. Ask: Can you think of any other explorers who went looking for a specific treasure but did not find it because it did not exist? (Answers will vary. If not given, prompt the students to remember Ponce de Leon's search for the Fountain of Youth and Coronado's unsuccessful quest for the Seven Cities of Gold.) For each example given, ask: Why was this considered a treasure?

Have students now think of treasures that were found by the explorers in this unit. These treasures were both geographical finds and treasures in the more common sense of the word, riches. Ask: What was Magellan looking for that could be considered his "treasure"? (the Strait of Magellan) Ask: Why was this geographical feature a treasure for him? (It allowed him to sail from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, and thus around the world.) Ask: Can you think of another explorer who found treasure in either sense of the word? (Cortes and Pizarro found and took the gold of the Aztecs and Incas, respectively. Dias found treasure in the Cape of Good Hope and Cabral landed on Brazil and claimed it for Spain. Balboa found the geographical treasure he was looking for when he found the "South Sea" and he also found gold and pearls. Land, found across the ocean, could be considered a treasure for Columbus.) For each of the treasures given as examples by the students, push them to support their choice by describing why it would be considered a treasure.

Next, tell students that in each of the history lessons, we have made a replica of a tool an explorer would have used. The final tool is to be a map. Ask: How do you think an explorer would have used a map? (Answers will vary, but should center on the use of a map to navigate.) If possible, show students photos and illustrations of old maps from the books listed above. Point out to students that many of the maps the explorers used were incorrect, and for some, no maps existed of the areas to which they were traveling. Some map makers, if unsure of the geography of a region, would just make it up! Tell students that today, they will be making a treasure map. They are to choose one of the treasures listed on the board, either real, such as the Strait of Magellan, or imagined, such as the Seven Cities of Gold. They then should draw a map of its location, using the world map as a reference if necessary. The map may be done in grand scale, showing the entire world, or it could be of a much smaller area. The only requirements are that it should include a title, compass rose and key, and should clearly show the treasure they have selected. If an imagined treasure is selected, students will need to be much more imaginative in drawing the map. Pass out crayons (markers may bleed in the next step) and watercolor paper and allow students to begin.

As students complete their maps, call small groups to the back or side of the room to treat the paper to make it look old. First, each student should fold the map several times until it is a small square. The creases should be fairly sharp. The students should then unfold their maps and paint a thin coating of cool tea on them, using either the paintbrushes or the tea bags. Once the whole paper is damp, they should paint a little more tea on patches of it. Before the paper dries, they may want to blot some parts of it with a paper towel to make them look more faded than other parts. Maps should then be placed on a flat surface to dry completely.

End class by asking students to identify each of the tools that were made during the unit, and to summarize their use. Students may also want to share their maps with one another.
 

Suggested Follow-up Activities

Students may enjoy researching what tools modern-day explorers use, or may want to research further the English or French explorers.

If the bulletin board with the other tools of the explorers was created, add a treasure map or two to it.
 

Bibliography

Read Aloud

Mathews, Sally Schofer. The Sad Night. New York: Clarion Books, 1994. (0-395-63035-5)

*Yolen, Jane. Encounter. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1992. (0-15-225962-7)

Student Reference:

Carson, Robert. The World's Great Explorers: Hernando De Soto. Chicago: Children's Press, 1991. (0-516-03065-5)

*Fritz, Jean. Around the World in a Hundred Years. New York: Scholastic, Inc., 1994. (0-590-48910-0)

Grant, Neil. English Explorers of North America. New York: Julian Messner, 1970.

*Hakim, Joy. The First Americans. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. (0-669-36832-6)

Jacobs, William Jay. Champlain. New York: Franklin Watts, 1994. (0-531-20112-0)

________. LaSalle. New York: Franklin Watts, 1994. (0-531-20141-4)

Macaulay, David. Ship. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1993. (0-395-52439-3)

*Matthews, Rupert. Eyewitness Books: Explorer. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991. (0-679-81460-4)

*Roop, Peter and Connie. I, Columbus: My Journal 1492-1493. New York: Avon Books, 1990. (0-380-71545-7)

Stein, R. Conrad. The World's Great Explorers: Francisco de Coronado. Chicago: Children's Press, 1992. (0-516-03068)

Twist, Clint. Magellan and da Gama: To the Far East and Beyond. Austin, TX: Raintree Steck- Vaughn Publishers, 1994. (0-8114-7254-X)

Unstead, R.J. See Inside a Galleon. New York: Warwick Press, 1978. (0-531-09062-0)

Teacher Resources:

Baxter, Nicola. Explorations. New York: Franklin Watts, 1994. (0-531-14339-2)

Hirsch, E.D. What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. (0-385-41119-7)

________. What Your First Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1991. (0-385-31026-9)

________. What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1992. (0-385-31257-1)

Howard, Cecil. Pizarro and the Conquest of Peru. New York: American Heritage Publishing Co., 1968.

Strohl, Mary and Susan Schneck. Explorers Cooperative Learning Activities. New York: Scholastic Professional Books, 1993. (0-590-49232-2)
 

*Required or strongly recommended