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Fifth Grade - Geography - Overview - September
 

Overview

During the month of September, students are mostly reviewing skills and information learned in previous grades. This includes the continents, oceans, and lines of latitude and longitude. A new skill covered is using latitude and longitude coordinates to locate specific points on a map. Students are re-introduced to major lines of latitude and longitude and are taught new and more detailed facts about them. Introduced for the first time are climate zones and the ways in which the world's major lakes were formed. Throughout the geography lessons in the month of September, there exists a common theme of trying to find a hidden criminal, "Wandering Wanda." Students are given clues about Wanda's location during each lesson that allow them to progressively narrow down her whereabouts. In the last lesson, the final clues are given, and students work cooperatively to use their skills, the maps and the clues to name the city in which Wanda is hiding.

Fifth Grade - Geography - Lesson 1 - Review of Geographical Concepts

Objectives
Label the world's oceans and continents on a map.
Draw a compass rose.
Label the hemispheres on a map.
Identify lines of latitude and longitude.
Name continents located at given coordinates.

Materials
Classroom size map of the world with lines of latitude and longitude
Student map of world with lines of latitude and longitude (attached), one copy for each student
Overhead projector
Transparency made from student map (attached)

Suggested Books
Student Reference
Classroom Atlas. Skokie, Illinois: Rand McNally, 1997. This atlas has a wonderful full color world map that shows lines of latitude and longitude, along with countries and major cities on each continent.

The Nystrom World Atlas. Chicago: Nystrom, 1995. There are many maps in this book that show lines of latitude and longitude.

Teacher Background
This lesson provides a review of geographical concepts covered in previous grades.

Students were first introduced to oceans and continents in Kindergarten, and they have been reviewed consistently since. The Pacific and Atlantic oceans were covered in Reading Mastery IV Lessons 2 and 26. Hemispheres and the use of cardinal directions on a compass rose were first covered in Second Grade, and they too have been consistently reviewed. Directions were also read about in Reading Mastery III, Lesson 20, Reading Mastery IV, Lesson 2 and Reading Mastery V, Lesson 1. Latitude and longitude were introduced in Fourth Grade.

In the geography lessons in September, students will be challenged to find a "hidden criminal," Wanda. As lessons progress, they will get clues related to the topics, which will gradually narrow down her location. In the last lesson a final clue will be given, and students will be put into cooperative groups to use maps, their skills and the clues to figure out which city is Wanda's hideout. You may want to offer a small prize or reward ribbon to those teams who can locate Wanda.

Ideally, each classroom would have both the classroom size map of the world, with lines of latitude and longitude, and access to an overhead projector (see Materials). If you have one, but not the other, the lessons can be modified. When directed to show students an item on one or the other, use the one available. The geography lessons for the month of September also ask that you copy the student map several times. If paper supply or copying capabilities limit the amount you can copy, students may work in pairs or threesomes, sharing one map.

Procedure
Introduce today's lesson by telling students that you need them to help you find one of the world's Most Wanted criminals, "Wanda the Wanderer." Police cannot find Wanda because she wanders from city to city, hiding out and waiting to commit her next crime. Wanda is hiding right now in a city somewhere, and students will be getting clues as to where she is. By the end of September, they should have all the clues they need to find Wanda, and will be able to use their geographic detective skills to hunt her down. In order to be able to use the clues, they need to listen carefully to the information presented in geography class.

Pass out the student maps and ask: What is shown on this map? (the world) Ask: What do we call the large land masses on Earth? (continents) Ask: Who can name a continent? (As students respond, write the names of the seven continents on the board: Europe; North America; South America; Asia; Antarctica; Africa; Australia.) Using the classroom size map as a reference if needed, have students label the continents on their maps. Ask: How many oceans are there? (four) Ask: Who can name them? (Again, as students respond, write the names on the board: Arctic Ocean; Pacific Ocean; Atlantic Ocean; Indian Ocean.) Students should also label the oceans on their maps, using the classroom size map as a reference. Direct students' attention to the names "North America" and "South America," and ask why they think the continents are named this way (because North America is farther north than South America). Ask: Other than north and south, what are the cardinal directions? (east and west) Ask: Who would like to show which direction is east on the classroom size map? (Students should be able to do so.) Repeat the question to allow students to show the other three cardinal directions as well. Using the overhead map to prevent students from reversing directions, draw a compass rose with all four cardinal directions on it, and have students do the same on their own maps. Ask: What is a drawing like this on a map called? (a compass rose)

Next, tell students that there are many ways to divide the world to help us narrow down where Wanda is. Ask: If we divided the world exactly in half, because it is a sphere, what would each of the halves be called? (a hemisphere) Ask: If we divided the world this way, (use overhead to show a division taking place down 0 degrees longitude) what would this half (point to the eastern half) be called? (the Eastern Hemisphere) Ask: What would the other half be called? (the Western Hemisphere) Tell students that another way to divide the world is along this imaginary line (use overhead to point to the Equator). Ask: What would this hemisphere (point to Northern Hemisphere) be called? (the Northern Hemisphere) Ask: What, then, is the name of this hemisphere (point to Southern Hemisphere)? (the Southern Hemisphere) Tell students that they will now hear the first clue. Wanda is hiding in the Western Hemisphere. Encourage them to write this clue down on the back of their maps, as they will be hearing other clues and would not want to forget any. Ask: So, if Wanda is in the Western Hemisphere, in which continents could she be? (Europe, Africa, Antarctica, South America, North America) Which continents does this clue rule out for hiding places for Wanda? (Asia, Australia)

Next, tell students that we can divide the world into parts even smaller than hemispheres - parts so small that they can pinpoint a specific place, like Baltimore, on the globe. We divide the world this way by using two types of lines. The first type go around the world horizontally, like this. (Show students lines of latitude running parallel to the equator.) Ask: Does anyone know what these types of lines are called? (lines of latitude) Explain that one way to remember what they are called is to think about the word "fat." Fat can mean very wide, and these lines go around the wide part of the world, so to remember them, you may want to think of them as lines of "fatitude." The most well-known line of latitude goes around the exact middle of the world.

Ask: Who knows what line this is? (the Equator) The other lines of latitude measure distances north or south of the Equator. These distances are measured by degrees, the symbol for which is . The Equator is also known as 0latitude. Using the overhead map, show students the line which designates 20north. Explain that the small number on the edge of the map tells us how many degrees away from the equator the line is. Ask: How far away is this line? (twenty degrees) Ask: Is this line north or south of the equator? (north) Tell students that we therefore refer to this line as 20N. Repeat this procedure with several other lines of latitude, both north and south of the Equator.

Lines of latitude are not the only imaginary lines that divide the world. Ask: What are the other groups of lines called? (lines of longitude) Remind students that these lines run vertically around the world. Just like lines of latitude, they begin with 0, and the number at the top of the map tells us how many degrees away from 0 the line is. Point to 80west on the overhead map. Ask: Looking at the small numbers at the top of the map, how many degrees away from 0 is this line? (80) Ask: Is this line east or west from 0? (west) Ask: What do you think we then call this line? (80W) As was done with latitude, repeat with several more lines, both east and west of 0.

Tell students that just a line of latitude, or just a line of longitude, does not tell us very much about location. For example, if we said that a particular place was at 60E, it could be anywhere along this line. (Show students on overhead.) If we use lines of latitude and longitude together, though, they can tell us much. For example, if we said that a particular place was at 40 N and 60E, then we would know that this place is where 40N meets 60E. (Show students on overhead.) Using the overhead, show students several other examples of how two coordinates meet to pinpoint an exact location on the map. Next, give students these coordinates: 20S and 60W. Have students run their fingers along these two lines on their own maps to find where they meet. If necessary, model again how to do this on the overhead. Ask: What continent is at the intersection of these two lines? (South America) Repeat this procedure, asking students to name the continent located at the intersection of these coordinates: 40N, 120W (North America); 80S, 100E (Antarctica); 20S, 140E (Australia); the Equator, 60W (South America); 60N, 120E (Asia); 20S, 20E (Africa.)

Congratulate students on their ability to use this geographic skill, and tell them that they are now ready for their next clue about the location of Wanda. Tell students that Wanda is somewhere between 60N and 60S, and she is somewhere between 30W and 160W. Encourage students to write this information down on their maps, then further their understanding of this clue by showing them these lines of latitude and longitude on the overhead. Tell students that these clues narrow down the places that Wanda could be. Ask: On what continents could Wanda be? (North America or South America)

Collect student maps for future reference, and tell students that in the next lesson, they will more information about Wanda's whereabouts.

Suggested Follow-up Activities

A learning center or interactive bulletin board could be set up at which students match coordinates and continents, bodies of water, or cities. Students could also leave coordinates for classmates to use to find a specific geographic location.

Challenge students to use reference materials to locate the exact coordinates of Baltimore,

or any other city of significance in other studies, such as Mexico City, the site of the ancient city of Tenochtitlan, which is studied in History this month.

Fifth Grade - Geography - Lesson 2 - Special Lines of Latitude and Longitude

Objectives
Label the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn on a map.
Explain the relationship of the two above Tropics to seasons and temperature.
Describe the climatic characteristics of the Arctic, Tropic and Temperate zones.
Identify the Arctic and Antarctic Circles on a map.
Label the Prime Meridian and the International Date Line on a map.
Explain the relationship of the above two lines of longitude to time and date.

Materials
Classroom size map of the world with lines of latitude and longitude
Students' maps of world begun in Lesson 1
Overhead projector
Transparency made from student map, used in Lesson 1
Globe
Transparency made of Time Zones map, attached

Suggested Books
Teacher Reference
Hirsch, E.D. What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell Publishing, 1993. This book contains excellent background material on all the topics covered in today's lesson.

Teacher Background
In this lesson, students review the Prime Meridian, the International Date Line and the importance of 180 longitude, all of which were introduced in the Fourth Grade. The relationship of these lines to time and date is also reviewed. In Second Grade, students learned about the rotation and revolution of the Earth around the Sun, and the result of these actions, day and night and the seasons. This was also covered in Reading Mastery IV, Lessons 12 and 13. In this lesson, students are introduced to the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn and the Arctic, Temperate and Tropic climate zones. Tropic Zone climate characteristics are addressed in Reading Mastery VI, Lesson 44.

Students will get two more clues about Wanda's location in this lesson.

Procedure
Pass back the maps the students began in Lesson 1. Give them a moment to quietly and independently re-read the clues they have written about Wanda's whereabouts on the back of their maps, and encourage them to recall what these clues tell about where Wanda might be. Then, briefly review with them the terms "latitude" and "longitude." Remind students that in Lesson 1, a student told you the name of the most well-known line of latitude. Ask: What was this line? (the Equator) Ask: How many degrees latitude is the Equator? (zero) Have students recall what they know about the climate (weather over a long period of time) at the Equator. (It is very warm.) Tell students that because it is so warm around the Equator, we call the area around it the Tropic Zone. (Write this term on the board.) The Tropic Zone extends north to another line of latitude called the Tropic of Cancer. (Students may find this name intriguing. If time permits, tell them that it was named by ancient astronomers for a constellation named Cancer, which means "crab" in Latin.) The Tropic of Cancer is located at 23N. Using the overhead, point out the approximate location of the Tropic of Cancer on the map transparency, and have students also find it on their own maps. Once they have done so, they should use a pencil and a straight edge to mark and label this line. Ask: If the Tropic Zone extends to 23N, how far south do you think it will go? (23) The Tropic Zone ends at another important line of latitude, the Tropic of Capricorn, which is indeed located at 23S. (Again, students may find this name interesting. Like the Tropic of Cancer, the Tropic of Capricorn was named by ancient astronomers for a constellation. This constellation is called Capricorn, which means "goat horn" in Latin.) Using the overhead, point out the approximate location of the Tropic of Capricorn, and have students do the same on their maps. They should then use a straight edge and their pencils to mark and label this line.

Now, ask students to recall what they know about the climate at the North Pole and on the continent of Antarctica. (It is very cold all year.) Tell students that, just as there is a Tropic Zone that includes the regions of the world where the climate is warm year round, there is another type of zone that includes the regions of the world where is it cold year round, and it is called the Arctic Zone. (Write this term on the board.) Because it is very cold both in the very northernmost and the very southernmost sections of the world, there are actually two Arctic Zones. One begins at 67N, and as this line circles the top of the world, the area north of it is referred to as the Arctic Circle. (Show on a globe.) Use the overhead to guide students as they mark and label 67N, and write "Arctic Circle" above this line. Ask: Where do you think the other Arctic Zone begins? (67S) Just as 67N circles the north end of the globe to create the Arctic Circle, 67S circles the southern end of the world to create the Antarctic Circle. (Show on globe.) Again, students should mark and label 67S and should write just to the south of it "Antarctic Circle."

Have students put a finger into a part of their map not in the Tropic or Arctic Zones. Ask: What do you think the climate is like in the region of the world? (cool/cold in the winter, warm/hot in the summer) Tell students that this region is known as the Temperate Zone. (Write this term on the board.) Just as there are two Arctic Zones, there are two Temperate Zones. Use the classroom size map or the overhead to show how the two Temperate Zones are "sandwiched" in between the Tropic Zone and the Arctic Zones. Ask: If you were traveling north from Antarctica (show on overhead), where would the Temperate Zone begin? (at 67S) Ask: If you continued to travel north, at what line of latitude would you cross into the Tropic Zone? (the Tropic of Capricorn, or 23S) Ask: Continuing to travel north, at what line of latitude would you cross into the other Temperate Zone? (the Tropic of Cancer, or 23N) Ask: If you kept moving north, what zone would you be in at 68N? (the Arctic Zone) Ask: What zone do we live in? (the Temperate Zone) Ask: How do you know this, considering our climate? (It is cold in the winter and hot in the summer. It is not cold all year as it is in the Arctic Zones, nor is it warm all year as it is in the Tropic Zone.)

Tell students they are now ready for the next clue regarding Wanda's location. The city where Wanda is hiding is located in the more northern of the two Temperate Zones. Students should write this clue on the back of their maps, and then take a moment to look at the front of their maps to visually picture the zones where Wanda might is. Some students will probably already start to combine clues to really narrow down possible locations, and this is fine, though if students aren't doing this yet, they will be instructed to do so in the next lesson.

Next, tell students that so far today, they have learned about special lines of latitude and the climate zones that are related to them. Now they are going to learn about special lines of longitude, some of which they have heard of, and their relation to date and time. Have students find 0 longitude on their maps. Ask: Does anyone remember the name of this line? (the Prime Meridian) The Prime Meridian passes through Greenwich, England, which is the location of a famous observatory. Ask: Why do you think the word "prime" is in its name? (It is the "prime," or most important line, of longitude because all other lines of longitude are measured east or west from this line.) There is another reason why this line is considered very important. Ask students to remember that the Earth rotates on its axis as it revolves around the sun. Ask: How long does it take for the Earth to make one complete rotation? (24 hours) Ask: When it is day time on one side of the world, what time of day is it on the opposite side? (night) Because it is different times of day around the world, depending on whether or not a particular spot is facing the sun, there are different time zones. (Write the term "time zone" on the board.) The other reason why the Prime Meridian is important is because it is the reference point for measuring time. Starting at the Prime Meridian, we divide the world into 24 time zones. Ask: Why do you think there are 24 time zones? (There are 24 hours in a day.) Put the transparency of time zones on the overhead and point out the Prime Meridian. Have students notice that each time zone is one hour's difference from the zones on either side of it. Students should now find the Prime Meridian on their maps and label it.

Now have students' find 180 longitude on their own maps. Ask: Is this line on the left or right side of your paper? (There should be some discrepancy, as 180 is on both sides.) Engage students in a brief discussion as to why this line is on both sides. Then, show students on a globe that 180 is on the exact opposite side of the globe from the Prime Meridian. If you start at the Prime Meridian and move west, when you are exactly opposite from the Prime Meridian, you will be at 180. The same thing is true if you travel east. For this reason, 180 is not designated east or west because it is right in the middle, just as 0, the Prime Meridian, is not designated east or west. 180 longitude is also a special line of longitude. Ask: Does anyone remember why? (its relationship to the International Date Line) Again, have students look at the transparency of the Time Zones map. Point out the zigzagging line that travels close to and on 180. This is the International Date Line, which divides the twelfth time zone in half. The eastern half of this zone subtracts twelve hours from Greenwich's time, while the western half of this zone adds twelve hours to Greenwich's time. There is always a one day difference between the western and eastern sides of this time zone. The western half is always one day ahead of the eastern half. Have students draw an arrow to 180 longitude (either on the left or right) on their maps, and next to the arrow, write "International Date Line."

Tell students that they are now ready for the next clue about Wanda's location. Direct their attention to the overhead and, using the Time Zones map, tell them that when people are getting ready for bed in Los Angeles, Wanda has already gone to bed. After students have had time to write this clue on the back of their maps, ask: What does this clue mean about the time zone Wanda is in? (It is earlier there than it is in the time zone that includes Los Angeles.)

To summarize today's lesson, ask: What is today's weather probably like in the climate zone where Wanda is? (Since this lesson is taught in September, the weather would most likely be mild, but not hot.) Ask: What are the names of the other two types of climate zones? (Arctic and Tropic) Ask: Where is the Tropic Zone? (in between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn) Instruct students to lightly shade in the two Arctic Zones, and observe their ability to do this. Ask: What is the most important line of longitude? (the Prime Meridian) Ask: What is the International Date Line? (a line that runs along and next to 180 longitude, at which the date changes) Express pride in the students' ability to remember today's concepts and tell them that in the next lesson, they will get the final clues they need to find Wanda. Collect student maps for use in the next lesson.

Suggested Follow-up Activities

There are many fascinating facts about the Arctic and Tropical climate zones. Students could independently or in pairs research one of these zones and report their findings to the class.

The concept of time zones is rather abstract. To help students grasp it, a learning center or file folder activity could be established that requires students to tell the time in a given city if it is noon, for example, where they live.
 

Fifth Grade - Geography - Lesson 3 - The Formation of Large Lakes of the World

Objectives
Locate the large lakes of the world on a map.
Classify the large lakes of the world according to the way they were formed.
Use geographic skills to identify the location of a fictitious hidden person.

Materials
Classroom size map of the world
Students' maps of the world begun in Lesson 1
Student map: Major Lakes of the World, (attached) one copy for each student
Transparency of the map of the Major Lakes of the World
Overhead projector
Overhead markers
Student map of the major cities in the United States and Canada, (attached) one copy for each pair of students
Crayons or magic markers for each student

Suggested Books
Student Reference
Classroom Atlas. Skokie, Illinois: Rand McNally, 1997. This atlas has maps that show each of the lakes discussed in today's lesson in greater detail.

The Nystrom World Atlas. Chicago: Nystrom, 1995. This atlas also has maps showing the large lakes of the world in greater detail.

Teacher Reference
Hirsch, E.D. What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell Publishing, 1993. This book contains good background information on today's lesson.

Teacher Background
In today's lesson, students are introduced to the various ways that the large lakes of the world were formed. They have already been familiarized with several of these lakes. In Second Grade, they learned about all of the Great Lakes, and the acronym for remembering their names, HOMES. Lake Michigan was learned about specifically in Reading Mastery III, Lesson 51. Students learned the location of Lake Titicaca in Second Grade, and Lake Victoria was covered in Kindergarten. The students will receive a map that shows all of these lakes, and will color the lakes according to the way they were formed. A map key will be made to designate the meaning of each color.

Students will be given the last clues about Wanda's location, and will be given time to work in small groups to try to find the city where she is hiding.

Procedure
Tell students that today, they will finish their detective work and will hopefully find Wanda. The F.B.I. has just sent a message that Wanda is hiding in a city near one of the world's large lakes, so today they will learn about them, and then receive the final clue. Remind students to listen carefully so that when they get the final clue, they are able to use today's information to locate Wanda.

Pass out maps of the Major Lakes of the World and tell students that they will be learning today how each of these lakes were formed. Have students think first about how puddles form. Ask: In what part of sidewalks and streets do puddles form? (where there is an indentation in the concrete or asphalt) Some lakes form just like puddles - where there is a large dip or depression in the land, rain water collects faster that it can evaporate, and a lake is formed. These lakes, formed in what are called "lake basins," can also collect water from melting snow, glaciers, rivers, streams, brooks and underwater springs. Many of the lakes formed in lake basins have river outlets that carry some of their water to the ocean or to a sea. One of these great lakes has an outlet that is the longest river in the world. Ask: Who remembers the name of the longest river in the world? (the Nile River) Ask: What continent is the Nile River on? (Africa) Challenge students to find the Nile, and the lake from which it flows. Ask: What lake feeds the Nile water? (Lake Victoria) Students should lightly shade Lake Victoria red, as this is demonstrated on the overhead transparency. Tell students that another large lake formed in a lake basin is also in Africa, located northwest from Lake Victoria. Ask: Can you find this other large lake? What is its name? (Lake Chad) Students should also shade it red.

Sometimes, though, a lake has no outlet, and if it is in the desert, evaporation occurs so rapidly that minerals build up in the water. These lakes become very salty and can dry up completely. Several of the lakes on the student map are salty lakes for this reason. Have students find the Caspian Sea on their maps as it is pointed out on the overhead transparency. Inform students that this is one of these lakes. The Caspian Sea is the largest inland body of water in the world--it is just about the size of the country of Japan! Have students shade the Caspian Sea red as this is done also on the transparency. Tell students that the other salty lake to be discussed today is just to the east of the Caspian Sea. Ask: Can you find this other salty lake? What is its name? (the Aral Sea) Students should also shade this body of water red. Tell students that another large salty lake is in North America. It has the word "salt" in its name. Ask: Can you find it? What is it called? (Great Salt Lake) Again, students should shade this lake red.

Tell students that they have now shaded five of the largest lakes in the world red. Ask: What do all of these lakes have in common? (They were all formed in lake basins.) This being the case, ask :What do you think that red will stand for in our map key? (lakes that were formed in lake basins) Have students begin a map key in the corner of their maps, and the first entry in it should read "lake basin" and should be followed by a square shaded red. Students may find creating a map key easier if it is also done on the overhead as a model for them.

Tell students that another way that lakes can be formed has to do with a beaver. Ask: Can you guess what this second way is? (dams) Natural dams are formed in several ways. Certainly, a beaver can form a small pond through the construction of a dam, but this isn't the way that the large, naturally dammed lakes in the world were formed. Sometimes, a landslide or glacier will carry rocks and deposit them in a river, blocking the river's flow. If there is a sharp bend in a river, it is possible for the water in the river to flow so fast, it overruns the bend in the river, and flows past it. The bend that was once part of the river is now isolated and is a lake. None of the lakes shown on the student map were formed this way, so this is not needed in the map key.

Have students find Lake Maracaibo on the northern edge of South America. Point out its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean. Ask: Considering how close it is to the ocean, can you guess

how it was formed? (Water from the ocean flowed into land and was blocked from going back out to sea.) Explain to students that lakes can be formed this way when the action of waves carries sand and silt and deposits this material at the mouth of a bay. It is interesting to note that eventually, wave action carried back to sea the sand and silt that it had once deposited to form Lake Maracaibo. Now, a narrow channel connects Lake Maracaibo to the ocean once again, but Lake Maracaibo has retained its name as a lake. Instruct students to shade this lake green. Ask: What will green represent in our map key? (lakes formed by wave action) Both students and teacher should add the designation "wave action" to the map key.

Tell students that a fourth way that lakes are formed is related to the first way discussed, lake basins. Sometimes a fault, or crack, in the Earth's crust is caused when the crust shifts. Water can fill in this crack in the same ways it would in a lake basin. One of the lakes formed this way is in the Andes Mountains. Ask: On what continent are the Andes? (South America) Ask: Who can find this lake? What is it called? (Lake Titicaca) Students should then shade this lake in yellow. Tell students that another lake formed by a fault in the Earth's crust is the most northern of the Great Lakes. Ask: Using your map, can you tell which lake this is? (Lake Superior) As students shade it in yellow, inform them that it is the largest freshwater lake in the world. The third lake on the student map to be formed this way is the only lake shown, but not yet colored, in Africa. Ask: What is the name of this lake? (Lake Tanganyika) It, too, should be shaded in yellow. Ask: What will yellow represent in the map key? (lakes formed through faults in the Earth's crust) "Faults in Earth's Crust" should then be added to each map key and assigned the color yellow.

Another way that some of the world's large lakes were formed is by glacier action. Tell students that a glacier is a large mass of ice. Long ago, glaciers covered much of North America, Europe and Russia. As they slowly moved, they scoured out parts of the land, creating valleys and basins. These basins then filled with water and became lakes. Four of the Great Lakes were formed this way. Students should locate Lakes Huron, Michigan, Erie and Ontario on their maps. All four of these lakes should be shaded in blue. Then, "glacier action" should be added to the map key with a blue square beside it.

Tell students that they are now ready for their final Wanda clues. As a prelude to it, ask: On the basis of the previous clues, what continent do you know Wanda to be on? (North America) This being so, if the last clue has to do with a lake, take a moment to look at the lakes of North America. Wanda will be in a city on a lake that was formed one of three ways. Ask: What are the three ways the major lakes of North America were formed? (glacier action, a fault in the Earth's crust and lake basin) Put students into pairs, then pass out the student maps that were begun in Lesson 1 and the maps showing the major cities in the United States and Canada. Tell students to use both of these maps, as well as their map of the world's largest lakes, and the clues written on the world map to figure out where Wanda is hiding. Then, give students the final clues: Wanda is hiding in a city shown on the cities map that is on the southern tip of a lake formed by glacier action. This lake is further west than 80W longitude. Students should work in pairs to figure out what city Wanda is hiding in. At the end of the class period, all pairs should write their final answer on a piece of paper and the papers collected. Then, ask: What city did Wanda wander to? (Chicago) Congratulate all the pairs who figured this out, and compliment all teams on their effort.

Suggested Follow-up Activities

In the same theme as the "Wanda" activity, students could individually select a secret city and write out clues for their classmates. The clues could incorporate climate zones, time zones, latitude and longitude, continents, oceans and lakes. These clues to secret cities could be stored in file folders for classmates to work on in spare time, and returned to their originators for checking.