©BCP&CKF DRAFT
 

Fifth Grade - Science - Overview - September
 

The six lessons in this unit deal with "Matter." Matter and its three states form the basis of the unit, which also includes atoms, elements, compounds, and the interactions among all those concepts. In addition, the unit includes classification as a scientific tool for organizing complex information, as well as the chemists John Newlands, Lothar Meyer, and Dmitri Mendeleev, who, while never having worked as a unit, contributed in varying degrees to the invention of the Periodic Table.

The aims of this unit are to provide a deeper and wider understanding of the nature of matter and of the scientific process than might have been obtained in Fourth Grade. By the conclusion of the unit, the following concepts should be fully understood: (1) everything in the world has something in common: matter, (2) there are many kinds of interactions among atoms, neutrons, protons, electrons, molecules, and compounds, and (3) for the purposes of simplification, large amounts of scientific information may be classified into orderly systems.

The order of the lessons may be changed, provided students do have the necessary background for any topic developed. The Core Knowledge Foundation, however, is of the view that effective instruction in science requires direct, hands-on experience, and observation. Every effort should thus be made to afford students as many opportunities as possible to experiment, to observe, and to get involved. The activities in this unit offer students possibilities for classifying, drawing conclusions, synthesizing, hypothesizing, writing about concepts, comparing and contrasting, evaluating and researching. However, you may wish to supplement the unit with materials of your choice. Please go ahead and do so.

This month's lessons were prepared as a follow-up on topics introduced during the months of March and April in the Fourth Grade. You may, as a result, have to spend more time on these topics for the benefit of those students who have not had this introduction. Those topics introduced in the Fourth Grade are: CHEMISTRY

A. Atoms: matter is made of particles too small for the eyes to see.

1. Models of atoms and their changes over time

B. Atoms are made of even tinier particles: protons, neutrons, electrons.

C. The concept of electrical charge

1. Positive charge (+): proton

2. Negative charge (-): electron

3. Neutral charge (neither positive nor negative): neutron

D. Unlike charges attract, like charges repel

E. Through observation, experiment, and measurement, introduce properties of matter:

1. Mass: the amount of matter in an object; similar to weight

2. Volume: the amount of space a thing fills

3. Density: how much matter is packed into the space an object fills

F. Vacuum: the absence of matter
 

Fifth Grade - Science - Overview - September
 

G. Elements: the basic kinds of matter, of which there are little more than a hundred

1. There are many kinds of atom but an element has only one kind of atom

2. Familiar elements, such as gold, copper, aluminum, oxygen, iron

3. Most things are made up of a combination of elements

Since students have had an introduction to this material in Fourth Grade and considering that the same material is covered in Direct Instruction Reading Mastery Level IV, you should freely pace these lessons, speeding up coverage where necessary.

You should ask students to keep a notebook in which they will keep vocabulary, class activities, and home assignments, etc.

Please note that Janice VanCleave's Chemistry for Every Kid, and 201 Awesome Magical, Bizarre, and Incredible Experiments have been included in this month's bibliography even if they were not suggested books in any lesson this month. This is so because these two titles were considered as great resources for use by your students.
 

Fifth Grade - Science - Lesson 1 - Matter
 

Objectives

Review the concept that everything is made up of matter.

Identify the properties of the three common states of matter: solids, liquids, gases.

Review the concept that matter may change from one state to the other.

Review the concept that all matter is made up of atoms.

Review the concept that an atom is made up of protons, electrons, neutrons.

Review the relation among those parts.
 

Materials

Labeled diagram of Helium atom, attached (for transparency)

Unlabeled diagram of Helium atom, attached (one per student)

Additional Activity

Ice cube

Dish

Stove, or other source of heat

Aluminum pan
 

Suggested Books

Teacher Reference

Core Knowledge Foundation, Share The Knowledge: Lessons from the Sixth National

Conference, 1997 Special Unit and Lesson Plans. Charlottesville: Core Knowledge Foundation, 1997.

Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

________ What Your 6th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.
 

Student Reference

Challoner, Jack. The Visual Dictionary of Chemistry. New York: DK Publishing, 1996. Large

type, abundant color photos, and clear illustrations, little text.

Cobb, Vicki. Chemically Active: Experiments You Can Do At Home. New York:

Lippincott, 1985. Written for the Sixth Grade level. A blend of theory and experiments.

Gardner, Robert. Science Projects: About Chemistry. Hillside: Enslow, 1994. (0-89940-531-7)

Full of experiments that can be done at home.

Laferty, Peter. MacMillan Encyclopedia of Science: Matter and Energy 1. New York:

MacMillan, 1991. Interesting presentation.

Mebane, Robert, C. Adventures with Atoms and Molecules: Chemistry Experiments for Young

People. Book 111. New Jersey: Enslow, 1991. Designed for upper elementary and middle school grades.

Neuman, Donald, B. Experiences in Science for Young Children. Prospect Heights: Waveland,

1978. Designed for use with younger children.

Parker, Steve. Chemistry: Things To Make, Experiments, Tricks. New York: Warwick, 1990.

Designed for students age eight and older. Abundant illustrations, easy presentation.
 

Teacher Background

Everything found in the universe is matter. The most distant star, the tiniest speck of dust

are matter. So are people, air, rain, and rock. Matter has volume and mass. Mass is the amount of material in an object. Mass resists being moved so that the easier it is to move an object, the lower its mass. Volume is the amount of space a thing fills.

Scientists classify matter into three common states: solids, liquids, and gases. The state of an object is determined by its density, or how closely packed its atoms are. Generally, solids are the densest, followed by liquids, with gases being the least dense. Here are some observable properties of the three states of matter. Solids have a definite volume and shape. Rock, wood, iron, plastic, and copper are examples of solids. Liquids have a definite volume, but not a definite shape. Water, oil, gasoline, and soda are examples of liquids. Gases, such as oxygen, nitrogen, and helium, have no definite shape or volume.

Matter may change from one state to another (directions for demonstration included). Water, for example, is a liquid at room temperature, but at very low temperatures, water changes to ice, which is a solid, and at very high temperatures, water changes to steam, which is a gas.

Further, all matter is made up of atoms. This means that water, ice, air, sugar, table salt, shoes, clothes, houses, cats, dogs, and clothes are made of atoms. Atoms are the basic building blocks of things, for an atom is the smallest particle of a substance that still has that substance's properties. An atom of gold is gold, and so forth. There are about a hundred different kinds of natural atoms and scientists have made a few more in laboratories. Oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, mercury, gold, silver, sulfur, and iron are examples of natural atoms.

Although they are mostly empty space, atoms are made of smaller particles. Each atom has a nucleus, which is in its center. Most of the mass of the atom is concentrated in that nucleus. The nucleus contains protons and neutrons while on the outside of the nucleus are electrons. Electrons are lighter than and spin about the nucleus. The nucleus has a positive electric charge because it contains neutrons with no electrical charge and protons with a positive electrical charge. Electrons, on the other hand, have a negative electrical charge. These two charges are equal and balance each other.

Atoms are so tiny that about 100 billion of them would fit on the average period in a printed book. If the nucleus were the size of a tennis ball, the nearest electron would be a kilometer (a mile and a half) away. A proton in an atom is about 2,000 times heavier than an electron. The hydrogen atom, for example, is the simplest of all, with only one proton in its nucleus. The number of electrons in an atom is equal to the number of protons, so that the hydrogen atom with one proton has one electron. Helium has two electrons and two protons.

Vocabulary

1. Atom: The atom is the smallest piece of a substance that still has the properties of that

substance. Atoms are made up of three main particles: protons, neutrons, electrons.

2. Density: Density refers to how closely packed the atoms in a thing are.

3. Electron: An electron is a negatively charged particle inside the atom.

4. Gas: Gases are the least dense state of matter. A gas does not have a definite shape or volume. It fills whatever space that is available to it.

5. Liquid: Liquids are the state of matter that is less dense than the solid state but more dense than the gaseous state. Liquids have a definite volume but not a definite shape. They take the shape of the container that they are in.

6. Matter: Matter is what all materials consist of. Anything that takes up space and weight is matter. Matter is classified into three states: solids, liquids, gases.

7. Nucleus: (of an atom) The nucleus of an atom is the center that contains the protons and the neutrons tightly packed together. It is the denser part of the atom, as compared to the less dense electrons.

8. Proton: A proton is a positively charged particle inside the nucleus of an atom.

9. Solid: Solids are the densest state of matter. Matter in the solid state has a definite shape and volume. It keeps its original shape even when placed in a container of another shape.

Please note that this lesson is a review of materials previously introduced in Fourth Grade and so its delivery can be speeded up or otherwise altered. Note also that Reading Mastery IV deals with states of matter in Lessons 104-108, and molecules in Lessons 109-112.
 

Procedure

Tell students that during September and October, they will study the topic, matter introduced in Fourth Grade. Ask them to identify the discipline which deals with matter, or tell them that this means they will be studying Chemistry. Ask them to define this discipline, or remind them that Chemistry is the study of the way materials are put together and how they behave under different conditions.

Remind students that everything in the universe that has weight and takes up space is matter and that everything in the universe is matter. Or, ask them what is matter. You may then write the definition on the board or on chart paper. Call on students to use these two properties, weight, and space, to identify examples of matter. If students identify sound, emotions such as love, hate, fear, feelings such as anger, and thoughts as examples of matter, state that they are not, or ask other students to correct this. To correct the problem, ask students to refer to the two properties of matter; weight, and space. Ask, whether love, for example, has weight (It does not.) and whether it takes up space? (It does not.) Emphasize the conclusion that love is not matter. You may, however, offer examples that are not matter, even if none is offered by your students.

Next, set up a two column table on the board, or on chart paper, while explaining that this is meant to distinguish what is matter from what is not. Label the left hand column "matter," and the right, "not matter." Place the examples "rock" under the "matter" column and "hate" under the "not matter" column. Ask students to do the same in their notebooks and to provide ten examples of matter and at least 5 that are not matter. They may also respond orally.

Remind students that since all things are matter, that matter appears in many different forms, and looks different. Illustrate this point by using a wide range of examples of matter such as pencils, erasers, books, rocks, etc. that you will request students to supply from their classroom surroundings. Be sure to highlight by name and state, examples of liquids, gases, and solids. Point to the extraordinary range in which these examples of matter appear. Explain that this variety makes understanding the range of matter very difficult. Tell them that in order to simplify and organize the knowledge of many things, scientists classify them, or put them in classes. To illustrate the concept of classification, explain that their fifth grade room is an example of a class of students and show that the idea of a single class of fifth graders is easier to grasp than the idea of thirty or however many girls and boys of varying sizes, etc. in your class.

Tell students that classes must have at least one thing in common. Ask them what their own class has in common? (age)

Referring to examples available in the classroom, a book, a rock, water, soda, air, etc., tell your students that scientists classify matter into three states. Ask what they are, or tell them that they are solids, liquids, and gases. You may first do so on the board, then ask students to draw in their notebooks a three-column table with "solids," "liquids," and "gases" as headings. Ask them to place examples of matter that they know from home and school in the appropriate columns. This exercise could be done orally.

You may first do the following on the board, then ask students to list the properties of solids (firm, etc.), liquids, (wet), and gases, (invisible) in their notebooks. They may also respond orally. You may do this by questioning or you may emphasize that solids have definite volume and shape and that this means that they keep their shape when placed in a container of another shape. Remind your students that they can touch solids and that these solids will keep firm when

touched. Emphasize that liquids have a definite volume but not a definite shape, which means that they take the shape of the container they are in. Tell students that they can pour liquids and that liquids are soft and wet when touched. Emphasize that gases have neither definite volume nor definite shape and that they tend to fill up whatever space is available to them. Explain that they cannot see most gases and cannot feel most gases unless they are moving, as in a gust of wind. Examples of gases are oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, helium.

Remind students that classifying matter as solids, liquids, or gases is another way of saying how tightly packed their atoms are. You may also ask them to define the word "density." Or, given the above definition of the term, "density," that is "how tightly packed a substance's atoms are," you may ask them to supply the term. Tell them that atoms are particles that make up all matter but that they are so small they cannot be seen by the naked eye. Tell them that the atoms of solids are very tightly packed together, more so than the atoms of liquids. Tell them that the atoms of liquids are less tightly packed together than those of solids but less so than those of gases, and that the atoms of gases are the most loosely packed of all. You may do this by posing the appropriate questions.

Finally, summarize this part of the lesson and check understanding of it, by posing the following questions:

1. What is everything made up of? (matter)

2. Name three examples of matter? (answers will vary)

3. Are love, happiness, and anger matter? (no)

4. What are the three common states of matter? (solids, liquids, gases)

5. Give three examples of solids. (answers will vary)

6. Give three examples of liquids. (answers will vary)

7. Give three examples of gases. (answers will vary)

8. What about atoms determines whether they are solids or liquids or gases? (how closely packed their atoms are)

9. Are the atoms in oxygen as closely packed as those in wood? (no) Why? (One is a gas and the other is a solid.)

10. Why do scientists classify things? (to organize things)

Remind students that all matter is made up of atoms and that atoms are tiny particles that cannot be seen even with a microscope. Explain that the word "atom" comes from a Greek word that means "indivisible," that is, "cannot be divided or broken."

Remind students that in spite of its size, the atom has a structure or arrangement. Illustrate the structure of the atom by pointing to those parts in a transparency of the labeled diagram of the Helium atom, that you will have projected. You may also ask students to identify these parts on their copies of the unlabeled diagram of the Helium atom. In the atom's center is a nucleus. Around this, are electrons, labeled (-) to show their negative electrical charge. Electrons are lighter than the nucleus. The nucleus is made up of protons and neutrons. Protons have a positive electrical charge and are labeled (+). The neutrons have a neutral charge, that is, they are neither positive nor negative. There is always one proton for every electron so that the two charges are equal and neutralize each other to give the atom an electrically neutral charge. Be sure to draw attention to the representation of electrical charges (+) and (-), the number of particles in the atom and their positions in relation to one another.
 

Additional Activities

Tell students that you are about to perform two demonstrations simultaneously and that they are to make observations relating to states of matter. Label or otherwise identify this as demonstration A. In A, you will bring water to a boil in an open container. In the demonstration labeled B, let a cube of ice stand on an open dish. Ask students to state in scientific terms what is happening in A. (Water changes from liquid to a gas.) Ask: What is happening in B? (Water changes from a solid to a liquid.) In a second step, ask them to generalize their observation by stating it in terms of "matter" and "states." (Matter may change from one state to another.) Emphasize that matter may change from one state to another. Water, for example is a liquid at room temperature. At very low temperatures, water changes to ice, which is a solid. At very high temperatures, water changes to steam, which is a gas.

You may also have students create a sense poem about each state of matter: solid, liquids, and gases or an example of each state, such as an apple for solids, water for liquids, and helium for gases. Explain that since we know the world through our five senses, sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, a sense poem is simply the act of describing each state or object using each faculty. The result is a poem of at least five lines, one for each description derived from each sense. Here is an example of a sense poem about liquids.

Liquids

Liquids look soft. (sight)

Liquids taste sweet. (sight)

Liquids sound like moving cars. (hearing)

Liquids feel wet. (touch)

Some liquids smell sweet, others smell like freshly fallen snow. (smell)

Explain that a sense poem can be much more fun when students use specific examples of each state and they set their imaginations free. Allow them to be as creative as they can get. Here is an example of a sense poem about a specific solid.

Apples

If at first, an apple feels like polished wood (touch)

Or looks like a worn tennis ball (sight)

Hold it close, its fragrance might recall primrose petals (smell)

Bite in and enjoy its taste of honey (taste)

And if it goes "crunch," hey, you made the right choice. (sound)

Fifth Grade - Science - Lesson 2 - Atoms
 

Objectives

Review the structure of atoms.

Understand that atoms are constantly in motion.

Understand that electrons move around the nucleus in paths called shells.
 

Materials

Standing fan

Labeled diagram of Helium atom, attached (for transparency)
 

Suggested Books

Teacher Reference

Core Knowledge Foundation, Share The Knowledge: Lessons from the Sixth National

Conference, 1997 Special Unit and Lesson Plans. Charlottesville: Core Knowledge

Foundation, 1997. Offers interesting ideas for teaching "Matter."

Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

________ What Your 6th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.
 

Student Reference

Challoner, Jack. The Visual Dictionary of Chemistry. New York: DK Publishing, 1996. Large

type, abundant color photos, and clear illustrations, little text.

Cobb, Vicki. Chemically Active: Experiments You Can Do At Home. New York:

Lippincott, 1985.

Gardner, Robert. Science Projects: About Chemistry. Hillside: Enslow, 1994.

Haines, Gail, K. The Elements. New York: Franklin Watts, 1972.

Laferty, Peter. MacMillan Encyclopedia of Science: Matter and Energy 1. New York:

MacMillan, 1991. "Atoms and Molecules."

Mebane, Robert, C. Adventures with Atoms and Molecules: Chemistry Experiments for Young

People. Book 111. New Jersey: Enslow, 1991.

Neuman, Donald, B. Experiences in Science for Young Children. Prospect Heights: Waveland,

1978.

Parker, Steve. Chemistry: Things To Make, Experiments, Tricks. New York: Warwick, 1990.
 

Teacher Background

Two sorts of movement take place within atoms. The atom vibrates very rapidly in place, while within it, electrons, which do have a great deal of energy, move in definite areas around the nucleus. The path in which the electron moves around the nucleus is called a "shell" or an "energy level," because it is determined by the energy of the electrons. Scientists believe that the effect of the electrons' movement is to form a cloud around the nucleus. That cloud is similar to the blur a fan makes when it is spinning fast. It is a blur because, on account of the great speeds at which the blades travel, one cannot see the individual blades of the fan, in the same way one cannot see the movement of the electrons.

Note that this lesson builds upon knowledge of the structure of the atom, reviewed in

Lesson 1, and calls for the use of a transparency of the diagram of the helium atom from that

lesson. Note also that Reading Mastery IV deals with atoms in Lesson 109.
 

Vocabulary

1. Energy levels: An energy level is the path that an electron takes on its way around the atom.

An energy level is also known as a shell.
 

Procedure

Start by recalling the structure of the atom from Lesson 1. As a very quick review of that lesson, tell students that they will respond orally to the following questions related to the structure of an atom. What is an atom? (the smallest particle of a substance that still has the properties of that substance) How many parts are there to the atom? (two, or three) Name those parts. (nucleus, and electrons, or protons, neutrons, and electrons depending on answer to previous question) Illustrate the information reviewed about the structure of the atom, by projecting the diagram of a model of the helium atom used in Lesson 1.

Once the above information has been mastered, inform students that in this lesson, they will learn two properties of the atom. (1) The atom, as a whole, does not stand still, but vibrates in place. (2) The electron, very much like the earth in orbit around the sun, moves around the nucleus.

By way of introducing this new information to students, explain that the image they might have received from the diagram of the atom needs to be corrected in two ways. First, students might have got the impression that the atom, as a whole, was static, that it did not move. Tell them that this is not at all so, that the atom is very dynamic, that it vibrates very rapidly while staying in place. You may ask students to visualize the shaking going on in a vehicle whose engine is idling while the vehicle is stationary, at a stoplight, for example. You may explain that the atom only seemed static in the diagram because it is a drawing, but that a moving picture such as a video image would have shown this much better. Emphasize that all atoms in all states of matter move. The atoms in gases move faster because they are less tightly packed, followed by the atoms of fluids which move less quickly because they are more tightly packed. Explain that there are spaces in between atoms even of solids, and that these atoms bump into each other.

Next, point to the circle linking the two electrons in the diagram of the helium atom. Tell students that this circle was not a part of the atom, but the representation of a path of those two electrons which it links. Emphasize that these two electrons have a path because they are moving, circling the nucleus at great speeds. Use the analogy of the earth orbiting the sun to illustrate the path the electron takes in spinning around the atom's nucleus. In this analogy, the electrons would be similar to the earth in that they are spinning in the same way that the earth orbits. And, the nucleus would be like the sun, in that they are stationary. Tell your students that this path is definite, that the electron maintains its course, and that the path is called a "shell" or an "energy level." Project the diagram representing the helium atom. Point out the shell or energy level on the image. Explain that this path is called an energy level because the movement is powered by the energy of the electron. Explain that if students could see a molecule, they would observe a feature similar to a cloud around the nucleus. Explain that this would not be an actual cloud but that it would be the blur caused by the electrons spinning at very high speeds around the nucleus. To illustrate this effect, ask students to recall seeing a fan at rest, and that

same fan in motion. Point out that, at rest, they would have seen the individual blades of the fan. Explain that once the fan was moving rapidly they might have stopped seeing the individual blades and seen instead a foggy circular effect of the moving blades. Tell them that the movement of the electron of the atom is similar.

Next carry out this check for understanding of the lesson. Ask students to provide the answers to the following questions:

1. Are atoms stable? (no)

2. Do electrons move? (yes)

3. What is a shell? (the path an electron takes in making its way around the nucleus)

4. What is another name for "shell"? (energy level)

5. Why is an electron's path around the nucleus called an energy level? (because it is powered by

the energy of the electron)

6. In what way are the electrons and the nucleus of an atom similar to the earth and the sun? (the

atom spins around the nucleus of the atom in the same way the earth orbits around the sun)

7. Why would there be a cloud around the nucleus of an atom? (because the electrons would be

spinning so fast around the nucleus that they would create this effect)
 

Additional Activity

In order to illustrate the concept of a cloud formed by the movement of the electron(s) around the nucleus, carry out this demonstration, which has been adapted from Core Knowledge Foundation's Share The Knowledge. First, show your students a fan that is at rest. Direct their attention to a singe blade. Ask students to watch one blade and try to keep watching it after the fan is turned on. Turn the fan on. Ask students to describe what they saw. Explain that as the blade's speed increased, they lost sight of the individual blade and saw the blur. Emphasize that if the electron were visible, it would look something like that blur, hence the term 'cloud' to describe the effect.
 

Fifth Grade - Science - Lesson 3 - Elements and The Periodic Table
 

Objectives

Describe what makes up an element: atoms.

Find examples of elements in their surroundings.

Recognize familiar elements on the Periodic Table.
 

Materials

Diagram of chlorine and oxygen atoms, attached (for transparency)

List of common elements, attached (for transparency)

Worksheet of common elements, attached (for transparency)

Diagram of Periodic Table, attached (for transparency, and one copy per student)

Symbols of the elements on the Periodic Table, attached (for transparency, and one copy per student)
 

Suggested Books

Teacher Reference

Core Knowledge Foundation, Share The Knowledge: Lessons from the Sixth National

Conference, 1997 Special Unit and Lesson Plans. Charlottesville: Core Knowledge

Foundation, 1997.

Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

________ What Your 6th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.
 

Student Reference

Cobb, Vicki. Chemically Active! Experiments You Can Do at Home. New York: Lippincott,

1985.

Fitzgerald, Karen. Oxygen (in The Story of series) New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

Fascinating series, striking photographs, simple language.

Haines, Gail, K. The Elements. New York: Franklin Watts, 1972.
 

Teacher Background

Note that the following aspects of this lesson develop topics introduced during the months of March and April in the Fourth Grade. This material is covered in Direct Instruction Reading Mastery Level IV, Lessons 106-108. For the benefit of those students who have not had this introduction, you may have to spend some more time on these topics.

Elements: the basic kinds of matter, of which there are little more than 100

1. There are many kinds of atoms but an element has only one kind of atom

2. Familiar elements, such as gold, copper, aluminum, oxygen, iron

3. Most things are made up of a combination of elements

An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary means. An element is made up of atoms. There are about a hundred elements occurring in nature and scientists have used machines to create about twenty more. Each element is made up of only one kind of atom. The most familiar elements (not necessarily, most abundant) are gold, copper, aluminum, oxygen, iron. Most of the elements found on earth are metals. Elements

have a name, an atomic symbol, and an atomic number. Some well-known elements and their

symbols are as follows: hydrogen H, helium He, carbon C, nitrogen N, oxygen O, sodium Na, aluminum Al, silicon Si, chlorine Cl, iron Fe, copper Cu, silver Ag, gold Au.

To make things more simple, chemists developed a shorthand for elements. Every element has a symbol in the form of a capital letter and in some cases, a second lowercase letter. Usually the capital letter is the first letter of the element's name in English or Latin.

The atomic number is the number that tells how many protons are in the nucleus of an atom of that element. The number of protons in the nucleus, the atomic number, determines what the element is. For example, the hydrogen atom, the simplest and lightest atom, has one proton. Oxygen is one of the important elements on the surface of the earth. It is present in air and water. Oxygen has eight protons in the nucleus of its atom. Elements with high atomic numbers have as many as 7 electron shells.

The Periodic Table is a tool for organizing scientific information on the elements. This lesson will only introduce students to the idea of the Periodic Table and aim for their recognition of the elements studied as they appear on the Periodic Table. Tell students they will study the Periodic Table in more detail in an upcoming lesson and that they should attach their copies of the Periodic Table in their notebooks for further reference at that time.

Vocabulary

1. Atomic number: The atomic number of an element is the number that tells how many protons

there are in the nucleus of that element's atom.

2. Atomic symbol: The atomic symbol of an atom is a kind of shorthand developed by chemists

It is usually in the form of a capital letter and in some cases, a second lowercase letter. The

capital letter is usually the first letter of the element's name in English or Latin.

2. Element: An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance by

ordinary means.

Please note that the chlorine atom is included in a diagram only for the purpose of illustrating a complex atom by comparison with a simpler helium atom. Chlorine is not part of the thirteen common elements that form the focus of this unit.
 

Procedure

Start by recalling that students were introduced to elements in Fourth Grade. Remind them that elements are made up of atoms and that an element is thus a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary means. Recall that there are about a hundred natural atoms and that scientists have used machines to create some twenty additional elements. Remind students that in spite of the fact that so many elements exist, each element is made up of only one kind of atom. Remind students that the most familiar elements, though by no means, the most abundant, include gold, copper, aluminum, and iron. Draw their attention to the fact that most of the elements found on earth are metals.

Inform students that elements have certain properties that distinguish them from one another. Tell them that these properties include a name, an atomic symbol, and an atomic number. Project the list of Some Common Elements and their Symbols. Explain that chemists have assigned names to elements. Explain that some of those names are from Latin words. Indicate the names on the left side of each column. Explain, that to make things even simpler,

chemists have shortened these names to create symbols for each element. The symbols are on the right. Indicate that this shorthand is, in the case of hydrogen, for example, one uppercase letter. Ask students to find the relation between the symbol "H" for hydrogen and its name. You may tell them that it represents the first letter of the name. Explain that some symbols contain a second letter. Take, for example, helium, and indicate that this lowercase "e" is the second letter in the name "helium." Ask students to read the list of element names and symbols.

Inform students that another property of an element is its atomic number. Inform them that the atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom of that element. Tell them that it is this property, the number of protons, that determines what the element is. If it has an atomic number of 8, it is oxygen. If it has an atomic number of 17, it is chlorine. Remind students of the structure of the atom studied in Lesson 2. Recall that there were three particles in the atom. They were electrons, spinning outside the nucleus, and protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Remind them that the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons.

Now, project the diagram showing the structure of an oxygen atom and a chlorine atom. Indicate the features that are constant in an atom. These are the presence of electrons, shells, protons and neutrons. Ask students to comment on the differences between the chlorine and oxygen atoms. Emphasize that the difference is the number of protons in the nucleus and that the number of electrons that are visible in the diagram mirrors the number of protons. To test for understanding of the lesson, ask the following questions.

1. What is an element? (An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler

substance by ordinary means.)

2. About how many natural elements are there? (a hundred)

3. Can scientists create atoms? (yes)

4. True/False. An element may be made up of many different kinds of atoms. (false)

5. What is an atomic symbol? (a shorthand of the element's name)

6. What is an atomic number? (An atomic number is the number that tells how many protons

there are in the nucleus of that element's atom.)

7. What are the atomic symbols for gold, silver, iron, and copper? (Au, Ag, Fe, and Cu)

8. What elements do these symbols represent: H, He, and C? (hydrogen, helium, carbon)

Distribute the diagram of the Periodic Table of Elements, and the list of Symbols of the Elements to students. Project a transparency of the same. Inform students that these are to be kept for the next lesson, Lesson 4. Identify both the diagram and the list. Explain to students that the Periodic Table is a tool for organizing the elements according to their similarities. Inform students that the next lesson will be devoted to the Periodic Table. Carry out this preparatory activity before studying the Periodic Table in detail in the upcoming lesson. Ask students to identify the symbols and locate the thirteen elements, hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sodium, aluminum, silicon, chlorine, iron, copper, silver, and gold on the Periodic Table.
 

Additional Activity

Prepare a transparency from the attached worksheet. You may ask your students to do the exercise in class, individually or in groups, at the end of this lesson or at the start of the upcoming lesson. The exercise may be copied onto the board.
 

Fifth Grade - Science - Lesson 3 - Elements and The Periodic Table

Some Common Elements and their Symbols

Hydrogen = H
Helium = He
Aluminum = Al
Oxygen = O
Silicon = Si
Sodium = Na
Chlorine = Cl
Iron = Fe
Copper = Cu
Silver = Ag
Nitrogen = N
Gold = Au
Carbon = C

Name:



 

Here are some common elements. What are their symbols?
 

Hydrogen =
Helium =
Aluminum =
Oxygen =
Silicon =
Sodium =
 

Here are some chemical symbols. What elements are they?
= Cl 

= Fe 

= Cu 

= Ag 

= N 

= Au 

= C


 
 
 

SYMBOLS OF THE ELEMENTS
Ac=Actinium 
Ag=Silver 
Al=Aluminum 
Am=Americium 
Ar=Argon 
As=Arsenic 
At=Astatine 
Au=Gold 
B=Boron 
Ba=Barium 
Be=Beryllium 
Bi=Bismuth 
Bk=Berkelium 
Br=Bromine 
C=Carbon 
Ca=Calcium 
Cd=Cadmium 
Ce=Cerium 
Cf=Californium 
Cl=Chlorine 
Cm=Curium 
Co=Cobalt 
Cr=Chromium 
Cs=Cesium 
Cu=Copper 
Dy=Dysprosium 
Er=Erbium 
Es=Einsteinium 
Eu=Europium 
F=Fluorine 
Fe=Iron 
Fm=Fermium 
Fr=Francium 
Ga=Gallium 
Gd=Gadolinium 
Ge=Germanium
H=Hydrogen 
I=Iodine 
In=Indium 
Ir=Iridium 
K=Potassium 
Kr=Krypton 
La=Lanthanum 
Li=Lithium 
Lu=Lutetium 
Lr=Lawrencium 
Md=Mendelevium 
Mg=Magnesium 
Mn=Manganese 
Mo=Molybdenum 
N=Nitrogen 
Na=Sodium 
Nb=Niobium 
Nd=Neodymium 
Ne=Neon 
Ni=Nickel 
No=Nobelium 
Np=Neptunium 
O=Oxygen 
Os=Osmium 
P=Phosphorous 
Pa=Protactinium 
Pb=Lead 
Pd=Palladium 
Pm=Promethium 
Po=Polonium 
Pr=Praseodymium 
Pt=Platinum 
Fm=Fermium 
Pu=Plutonium
Ra=Radium 
Rb=Rubidium 
Re=Rhenium 
Rh=Rhodium 
Rn=Radon 
Ru=Ruthenium 
S=Sulfur 
Sb=Antimony 
Sc=Scandium 
Se=Selenium 
Ag=Silver 
Sm=Samarium 
Sn=Tin 
Sr=Strontium 
Ta=Tantalum 
Tb=Terbium 
Tc=Technetium 
Te=Tellurium 
Th=Thorium 
Ti=Titanium 
Tl=Thallium 
Tm=Thulium 
U=Uranium 
Unp=Unnilpentium 
Unq=Unnilquadium 
V=Vanadium 
W=Tungsten 
Xe=Xenon 
Cl=Chlorine 
Y=Yttrium 
Cm=Curium 
Yb=Ytterbium 
Zn=Zinc 
Zr=Zirconium 

Fifth Grade - Science - Lesson 4 - The Periodic Table
 

Objectives

Understand the organization of the Periodic Table.

Recognize elements on the Periodic Table.

Understand the properties of metals and non-metals and locate them on the Periodic Table.

Learn about Newlands, Mendeleev and Meyer, inventors of the Periodic Table.
 

Materials

Diagram of the Periodic Table, (one copy per student, and transparency-see Lesson 3)

List of the Elements and their Symbols, (one copy per student, and transparency-see Lesson 3)
 

Suggested Materials

Teacher Reference

Core Knowledge Foundation, Share The Knowledge: Lessons from the Sixth National

Conference, 1997 Special Unit and Lesson Plans. Charlottesville: Core Knowledge Foundation, 1997.

Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

________ What Your 6th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.
 

Student Reference

Challoner, Jack. The Visual Dictionary of Chemistry. New York: DK Publishing, 1996. Large type, abundant color photos, and clear illustrations, little text.

Cobb, Vicki. Chemically Active: Experiments You Can Do At Home. New York: Lippincott, 1985.

Gardner, Robert. Science Projects: About Chemistry. Hillside: Enslow, 1994.

Haines, Gail, K. The Elements. New York: Franklin Watts, 1972.

Laferty, Peter. Macmillan Encyclopedia of Science: Matter and Energy 1. New York: Macmillan, 1991. "Atoms and Molecules."

Mebane, Robert, C. Adventures with Atoms and Molecules: Chemistry Experiments for Young People. Book 111. New Jersey: Enslow, 1991.

Neuman, Donald, B. Experiences in Science for Young Children. Prospect Heights: Waveland, 1978.

Parker, Steve. Chemistry: Things To Make, Experiments, Tricks. New York: Warwick, 1990.
 

Teacher Background

Please note that this lesson builds on material introduced in Lesson 3.

The Periodic Table is a scientific tool that organizes elements with common properties. On the Periodic Table, elements are arranged for example, according to their increasing mass. Atomic mass is the amount of material in the atom of an element. The Periodic Table arranges elements into vertical columns or so-called "families" of elements because these members have related physical properties. There are also horizontal rows called "periods" on the Periodic Table. They show the increasing atomic mass of the elements. Each box is a summary of the element. Moving from left to right, each element has one more electron than the preceding element. The first period has two elements. The second has eight.

There are two main groups of elements on the Periodic Table, metals, and non-metals. These groups are separated by a stair-step. The metals, such as silver, iron, and copper are predominantly on the left side of the Table, except hydrogen, which is a gas. The non-metals, such as oxygen, carbon, and helium, are on the right side of the Periodic Table.

Metals may be hard and shiny. They conduct electricity and heat and, as a result, are described as conductive. They can be drawn into wire, hence the description, ductile. Metals are also malleable, that is they can be hammered into sheets. About 75% of the elements are metals. All metals are solid except mercury, which is liquid at room temperature. Of the non-metals, one is a liquid, (bromine) and the others are brittle solids or gases. They don't conduct electricity.

In 1863, John Newlands, an English chemist arranged the elements according to their increasing atomic mass. He discovered the Law of octaves when he noticed that every eighth element tended to repeat, or recur, hence the term "periodic." In 1868, Lothar Meyer, a German chemist, worked on organizing the elements. And in 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev, a Russian chemist, arranged the elements by atomic mass and into horizontal periods. Mendeleev even left blank spaces on his table for elements yet to be discovered. Some were eventually discovered and the result is Mendeleev is usually given credit for the table.

Vocabulary

1. Conductivity: Conductivity is the property of metals that allows them to channel heat or lectricity.

2. Ductile: Metals are described as ductile because they can be drawn into wire.

3. Family: Families are vertical columns on the Periodic Table. Their members have related physical properties.

4. Malleability: Malleability is the property of metals that allows them to be hammered into sheets.

5. Periods: Periods are horizontal rows on the Periodic Table. They show the increasing atomic mass of the elements.

6. The Periodic Table: The Periodic Table is a scientific tool that organizes elements with common properties.
 

Procedure

Ask students to refer to their copies of the diagram of the Periodic Table. Project a transparency of the same. Inform students that in this lesson, they will be looking more closely at the Periodic Table.

Remind them that the Periodic Table is a system of classification and that classifying things is a way of organizing complex information. Recall the example of classification of matter into solids, liquids, and gases from Lesson 1. Emphasize that classification is a way of grouping things with similarities. Tell them that the Table is a way of classifying elements according to two similarities; their atomic weight, and their physical properties.

Ask them to look at the Table as a whole. Explain that it is made up of boxes, vertical columns, and horizontal rows. Point to these features. Draw their attention to the dark stair-step to the right of the Table starting from number 5 down and across to number 85. Tell them that this stair-step serves as a sort of separation between the left and right portions of the table and that the elements on the left are for the most part, metals. Point to examples of metals, such as, silver (47), aluminum (13), iron, (26), and copper (29). Tell them that the elements on the right are not metals, or non-metals, being mostly gases and brittle solids such as nitrogen (7), and oxygen (8). Tell them that the vertical columns group elements with similar physical properties. Highlight for example, the column that consists of the elements copper (Cu, 29), silver (Ag, 47), and gold (79, Au). Tell students that vertical columns are called "families" because they contain elements with related properties. The elements in that "family" are metals. Emphasize that since these are metals they share the following characteristics. For example, metals are often hard and shiny. They channel electricity and heat, and can be drawn into wire, or hammered into sheets, as zinc is hammered into sheets for roofing. Inform students that the elements on the right side are non-metals, mainly gases and brittle solids. They have very different properties from those of metals. They do not channel electricity or light as metals do. Tell them that this quality of channeling light or electricity is called "conductivity." Tell them that they are not ductile, that is they cannot be drawn into wire. They are not malleable, which is the quality that allows things to be hammered into shape.

Tell them that the elements in horizontal rows are arranged in order of increasing values of their protons. Choose, for example, row 4 which includes the numbers 19 to 36. Point out that the numbers increase from left to right. Draw their attention to any individual box, 26, for example. Tell the students that the box contains a summary of the element. Show them that there are two features in this box, the symbol "Fe" for the element iron, and the number "26," which tells us how many protons there are in the nucleus of an iron atom. Emphasize that since the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons are usually the same, what we derived from the box was a picture of the element. The Periodic Table as a whole gave us a picture of all the elements and allowed us to compare and contrast them. Tell students that the horizontal rows are called "periods."

Review the lesson by asking students to locate the following elements, hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sodium, aluminum, silicon, chlorine, iron, copper, silver, and gold, and asking the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons their atoms contained.

Finally, provide the biographies of the scientists provided in the "Teacher Background" section of this lesson. Introduce the names, nationalities, and contributions of Newlands, Meyer, and Mendeleev to students, emphasizing that it is Mendeleev who was the latest of the three to arrange the Periodic Table and that he is credited with having invented it. You may ask them to search for signs of such credit in the names of elements on the Table of Symbols of Elements, diagram 7 (Mendelevium).
 

Additional Activity

Ask students to research in a general or scientific encyclopedia the lives of the chemists John Newlands, Lothar Meyer, and Dmitri Mendeleev in relation to the Periodic Table. They may, for example, present a three-page paper (a page per chemist) complete with photographs on the subject. They may also present their findings orally. Ask that they state their opinion on whether only Mendeleev should get all the credit for inventing the Periodic Table and that they support their position with a reasonable premise, for example, credit must be given to whom it is due. You may also ask them to consider how those three scientists would see the issue of credit for inventing the Periodic Table if they were listening on their lesson. They may also discuss the motivation of scientific discovery, for example, why do scientists work? Is it for fame, for knowledge sake, for money, or to help mankind?
 

Fifth Grade - Science - Lesson 5 - Molecules
 

Objectives

Understand that molecules make up matter.

Understand that atoms may join together to form molecules and compounds.

Recognize the formulas for the common compounds: water, salt, carbon dioxide.
 

Materials

Additional Activity

Scissors

Colored paper

Glue

White paper for collage backing
 

Suggested Books

Teacher Reference

Core Knowledge Foundation, Share The Knowledge: Lessons from the Sixth National Conference, 1997 Special Unit and Lesson Plans. Charlottesville: Core Knowledge Foundation, 1997.

Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

________ What Your 6th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

Vuke, Mary. "Chemistry for Third Graders? Absolutely!" Challenge, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1997, 46.
 

Student Reference

Challoner, Jack. The Visual Dictionary of Chemistry. New York: DK Publishing, 1996. Large type, abundant color photos, and clear illustrations, little text.

Cobb, Vicki. Chemically Active: Experiments You Can Do At Home. New York: Lippincott, 1985.

Gardner, Robert. Science Projects: About Chemistry. Hillside: Enslow, 1994.

Haines, Gail, K. The Elements. New York: Franklin Watts, 1972.

Laferty, Peter. Macmillan Encyclopedia of Science: Matter and Energy 1. New York: Macmillan, 1991. "Atoms and Molecules."

Mebane, Robert, C. Adventures with Atoms and Molecules: Chemistry Experiments for Young People. Book 111. New Jersey: Enslow, 1991.

Neuman, Donald, B. Experiences in Science for Young Children. Prospect Heights: Waveland, 1978.

Parker, Steve. Chemistry: Things To Make, Experiments, Tricks. New York: Warwick, 1990.
 

Background Knowledge

Atoms do not stay together. They interact with each other and combine to form molecules, which are two or more atoms combined. All matter is made up of molecules. The oxygen in the air we breathe, for example, is in the form of molecules of two oxygen atoms combined. "O2" is the symbol for oxygen. It is the symbol for a regular oxygen molecule with two atoms. Simple molecules may have only two atoms. Complex molecules may have many thousands of atoms. Aspirin molecules contain 21 atoms. Sugar may have up to 150,000 atoms in its molecules.

When atoms from different elements join together to form a molecule, they form compounds. Water is such a compound. Its chemical formula is H2O, read as "H-two-O." It means that two hydrogen atoms are joined with one oxygen atom to form one molecule of water.

When a compound forms, it is difficult to separate. The elements in a compound lose their own chemical and physical properties and bond to form the new compound. Water is one such example of a compound.

The formula is similar to the shorthand symbol for an element. Chemists use formulas to represent compounds. A formula represents a molecule of the compound. It tells what atoms and how many of each atom is found in that molecule. The symbol of the atom is used in the formula. To the right, and slightly lower is the number of atoms of that element. If there is no subscript of a number, then only one atom of that substance is used. See the chart below for three common compounds and their formulas.

Vocabulary

1. Compound: A compound is a substance that is formed when two or more elements come together.

2. Molecules: Molecules are two or more atoms joined together. They are the smallest part of a substance that still has the properties of that substance.

Please note that Reading Mastery IV deals with molecules in Lessons 109-112.

Procedure

Inform students that atoms do not stay together. Tell them that they interact with each other and combine to form molecules. Tell them that all matter is made up of molecules. Gases, liquids, and solids, are made up of molecules. Illustrate this principle by telling students that the oxygen in the air we breathe is in the form of molecules. Tell them that these oxygen molecules are the result of two atoms of oxygen combining. Tell them that the symbol for such an oxygen molecule is "O2". Explain that "O" which is the symbol of oxygen is followed by a subscript "2" that is the number of atoms in this molecule. Draw attention to the fact that in this case the two atoms are of the same element. Explain, however, that some molecules are less complex than others. Some molecules contain hundreds of atoms.

Next, tell them that when atoms from two elements or more combine, they form a compound. Tell them that water is such a compound. Tell them that each compound is represented by a chemical formula in the same way they learned that elements are represented by a symbol. Emphasize that the formula is a shorthand for the compound. Write the formula of water on the board. That formula is H2O. Explain that the formula is read as "H-two-O." Explain that the "H" is the symbol of hydrogen and that "O" is the symbol of oxygen. Draw attention to the subscript "2" below and to the right of H. Explain that this number tells the number of hydrogen atoms in a water molecule. Explain also, that if there is no subscript as is the case of "O" then only one atom is present. Explain that the elements in a compound lose their properties and bond to form a new compound. Tell them that in the case of the compound water, the two components, hydrogen and oxygen were gases but that the result is a liquid.

Finally, guide students in decoding the formulas of salt, water, and carbon dioxide, by writing these formulas on the board or on chart paper and asking students to identify the element as well as the number of atoms of that element in the molecule of that substance. The compounds are as follows:
 
Common Name Chemical Name Formula
Salt Sodium Chloride NaCl
Water Hydrogen Oxide H2O
Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide CO2

Additional Activity

Ask students to make models of molecules of sodium chloride, hydrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide. Tell them to use different colored paper to represent different atoms. Provide scissors or other cutting instruments, paper and circular shapes for tracing, and glue for putting the models together. Guide students by displaying the formulas on the board or on chart paper and by reminding them that a compound is by definition at least two elements. You may wish to have them first make line drawings of the molecules and have them checked by you before committing themselves to making their collages.
 

Fifth Grade - Science - Lesson 6 - Physical and Chemical Change
 

Objectives

Describe physical change.

List specific examples of physical change.

Describe chemical change.

List specific examples of chemical change.
 

Materials

Strips of paper

Colored pencils
 

Suggested Books

Teacher Reference

Core Knowledge Foundation, Share The Knowledge: Lessons from the Sixth National Conference, 1997 Special Unit and Lesson Plans. Charlottesville: Core Knowledge Foundation, 1997. Offers interesting ideas for teaching "Matter."

Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

________ What Your 6th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993.
 

Student Reference

Challoner, Jack. The Visual Dictionary of Chemistry. New York: DK Publishing, 1996. Large type, abundant color photos, and clear illustrations, little text.

Cobb, Vicki. Chemically Active: Experiments You Can Do At Home. New York: Lippincott, 1985.

Gardner, Robert. Science Projects: About Chemistry. Hillside: Enslow, 1994.

Haines, Gail, K. The Elements. New York: Franklin Watts, 1972.

Laferty, Peter. Macmillan Encyclopedia of Science: Matter and Energy 1. New York: Macmillan, 1991. "Atoms and Molecules."

Mebane, Robert, C. Adventures with Atoms and Molecules: Chemistry Experiments for Young People. Book 111. New Jersey: Enslow, 1991.

Neuman, Donald, B. Experiences in Science for Young Children. Prospect Heights: Waveland, 1978.

Parker, Steve. Chemistry: Things To Make, Experiments, Tricks. New York: Warwick, 1990.
 

Teacher Background

Matter goes through two sorts of change; physical and chemical. In physical change, matter changes in size, shape, or physical appearance but remains the same substance with no change to its molecular structure. It could even be changed back to its original state. Only physical properties such as color, odor, shape, and hardness happen here. Painting a house in different colors and freezing water are examples of physical change.

In chemical change, there is change to the actual molecules of the substance. The result is a new substance which is different from the original chemicals used to make it. Energy is needed or given off during chemical change. An iron nail rusting, and baking bread are chemical changes. Chemical change occurs through chemical reaction.

Cutting wood, or paper, breaking glass, and freezing water only change the size and shape of these substances. Water changes from a liquid to a solid when its temperature falls below 32F or 0C. This its freezing point. Ice changes to water at 32F or 0C. This is its melting point. In its solid state, its molecules are packed closer than in its liquid state.

When wood burns, oxygen in the air combines with the carbon in the wood. The results are a compound, carbon dioxide that is given off into the air, and ashes. Rusting iron is a slow reaction between iron and oxygen. Milk turning sour is also an example of a chemical change.

Vocabulary

1. Physical change: Physical change occurs in matter when the size, shape, or physical appearance is altered. A change in form or state of a substance does not alter its chemical composition.

2. Chemical change: Chemical change occurs in matter when the actual molecules of a substance are changed, and a new substance is formed.
 

Procedure

Tell students that matter goes through two sorts of change; physical and chemical. In physical change, matter changes in size, shape, or physical appearance but remains the same substance. It could even be changed back to its original state. Only physical properties such as color, odor, shape, hardness happen here. Painting a house in different colors, and freezing water are examples of physical change. To illustrate this, hand students strips of white paper and colored pencils. Ask them first to color those strips. Explain that what they are doing, changing the paper's appearance by coloring is a form of physical change. Then, direct them to fold, and tear the paper into smaller bits. Tell them that this too is a form of physical change.

Tell students that chemical change is far more complex. Explain that in chemical change, there is change to the actual molecules of the substance. Tell them that the result is a new substance which is different from the original chemicals used to make it. Energy is needed or given off during chemical change. Illustrate this process by referring to the formation of water in Lesson 5. Explain that this was a case of chemical change in that a compound, water was the result of two different elements, hydrogen and oxygen coming together. Tell students that an iron nail rusting, and baking bread are chemical changes.

Remind students that in Lesson 1, they studied states of matter. Summarize by telling them that physical change such as cutting wood or paper, breaking glass, and freezing water only change the size and shape of these substances. Emphasize that freezing water is a change of state.

Explain, however, that when wood burns, oxygen in the air combines with the carbon in the wood. The results are a compound, carbon dioxide is given off into the air, and ashes. They are an example of chemical change, just as milk turning sour is.
 

Bibliography
 

Teacher Reference

Core Knowledge Foundation, Share The Knowledge: Lessons from the Sixth National Conference, 1997 Special Unit and Lesson Plans. Charlottesville: Core Knowledge Foundation, 1997.

Hirsch, E. D. What Your 5th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. (0-385-21464-7)

*________What Your 6th Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1993. (0-385-41120-0)

Vuke, Mary. "Chemistry for Third Graders? Absolutely!" Challenge, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1997, 46.

Student Reference

Cash, Terry. 175 More Science Experiments To Amuse and Amaze Your Friends: Experiments, Tricks, Things To Make. New York: Random House, 1990. (0-679-80390-4)

Challoner, Jack. The Visual Dictionary of Chemistry. New York: DK Publishing, 1996. (0-7894-0444-3)

Cobb, Vicki. Chemically Active: Experiments You Can Do At Home. New York: Lippincott, 1985. (0-397-32079-5)

________ Science Experiments You Can Eat. New York: Scholastic, 1972. (0-590-45388-2)

Fitzgerald, Karen. Oxygen (in The Story of series) New York: Franklyn Watts, 1996. (0-531-20225-9)

Gardner, Robert. Science Projects: About Chemistry. Hillside: Enslow, 1994. (0-89940-531-7)

Haines, Gail, K. The Elements. New York: Franklyn Watts, 1972. SBN (531-00756-4)

Laferty, Peter. Macmillan Encyclopedia of Science: Matter and Energy 1. New York: Macmillan, 1991. (0-02-941141-6) "Atoms and Molecules."

Mebane, Robert, C. Adventures with Atoms and Molecules: Chemistry Experiments for Young People. Book 111. New Jersey: Enslow, 1991. (0-89490-254-7)

Neuman, Donald, B. Experiences in Science for Young Children. Prospect Heights: Waveland, 1978. (0-88133-682-3)

Parker, Steve. Chemistry: Things To Make, Experiments, Tricks. New York: Warwick, 1990. (0-531-19085-4)

VanCleave, Janice. Chemistry for Every Kid. New York: John Wiley, 1989. (0-471-62085-8)

________ 201 Awesome Magical, Bizarre, and Incredible Experiments. New York: John Wiley, 1994. (0-471-31011-5)
 

*Strongly recommended for lessons.