BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 68

Kindergarten - History/Geography - April Overview

The continents of Australia and Antarctica are introduced this month as well as the North Pole, South Pole, and equator. Children should be able to locate these continents on a map or globe, identify a few of the animals associated with each continent, and discover the people of Australia.

BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 69
Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 27

Objectives

Review North America, Africa, Europe and Asia.

Identify Australia as the smallest continent.

Identify Australia as an island continent nicknamed "the land down under."

Color a map of Australia.

Materials

A classroom size world map

Copies of the map of Australia (attached) one per student

Crayons

Pictures of the flora and fauna of Australia (obtain from the books listed below or other sources)

Suggested Titles

Kids Discover Magazine. "Australia," 1996.

This magazine is designed for children ages 7 to 12. The illustrations and photographs are excellent. Captions could be read aloud to the kindergarten student. This publisher can be contacted at (212) 242-5133. Back issues are available.

Moore, Robert. Looking at Lands: Australia. London: Macdonald, 1983.

This is a good informational book. The full-page photographs are wonderful to share with children. You may wish to read excerpts from the text as it is too complex to read in its entirety.

Procedure

Say: Today we are going to begin some lessons about the smallest continent in the world.

First, let's see if you remember some of the other continents we have studied.

Draw attention to the world map. Point to North America. Say: This is the continent that we live on. The United States of America, Mexico and Canada are located on this continent. Ask: Who can name this continent? (North America)

Point to Africa. Say: This continent is home to the Nile River, the longest river in the world and to the Sahara Desert, the largest desert in the world. Ask: Who can name this continent? (Africa)

Point to Europe. Say: You can find the Eiffel Tower and the London Bridge on this continent. Ask: What continent is it? (Europe)

Point to Asia. Say: This continent is a neighbor of Europe. It is the largest continent in the world. Ask: What is the name of this continent? (Asia)

Say: Look at the map. Can you find the smallest continent? Sing the Continent Song to yourself if you need help in remembering its name. (Allow children to respond.)

Say: Australia is the smallest continent in the world. Australia is really a large island. Remember that an island is a piece of land with water all around it. Look carefully at the water surrounding Australia. (Accentuate with your finger how Australia is surrounded by water on all sides.) Ask: Can you name the two oceans that touch Australia? (Pacific and Indian oceans)

Say: Australia is sometimes called "the land down under." Remember the words to the Continent Song? Way down under in Australia! Look carefully at the location of Australia.

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Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 27

Ask: Can you guess why it has this nickname? (Allow children to speculate.) Say: Australia is called the "land down under" because it lies entirely south of the equator. Point to the equator on the map. Say: The equator is an imaginary line that divides the world into two parts: the northern part of the world and the southern part of the world. (Note how Australia lies completely below the equator in the southern half of the world.)

Say: Because Australia is located in this half of the world, people living there experience seasons differently. When we are enjoying summer, they are having winter. When it is spring here, it is fall there. When we are playing in the snows of winter, they are playing in the warm summer sunshine.

Say: Australia is a truly different continent. Although it has a few mountain ranges, Australia is the flattest continent in the world. It is also one of the driest places on earth. Large cities and huge empty spaces can both be found in Australia. Desert sands blow in the western portion of the continent and beautiful fish swim in the waters off the eastern coast of Australia. We will learn about the people and the animals that call this continent home.

Distribute the map of Australia. Children should lightly color the map yellow and the oceans blue.

Show pictures of Australia from one of the books listed above.





















































BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 71

Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 27

Name_______________________________

Australia

Lightly color the continent of Australia yellow. Color the Pacific and Indian oceans blue.



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Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 28

Objectives

Recall that Australia is the smallest continent.

Identify some of the animals found in Australia.

Materials

A classroom size world map

A book with photographs or illustrations about the animals of Australia

Suggested Titles

Teacher Resources

Copycat Magazine. "Animals of Australia," January/February 1997.

This issue has a great section devoted to the animals of Australia. A mini-booklet, suitable for duplication, and a wonderful read-aloud story are included.

Taylor, Barbara. The Animal Atlas. New York: Knopf, 1992.

This oversized text is full of beautiful illustrations of the animals of the world. The sections on Australia include animals of the outback, the rainforests and woods, and the Great Barrier Reef. Each animal illustration includes a short description suitable for reading aloud.

Video

Australia's Improbable Animals. National Geographic Video. Stamford, CT: Vestron Video, 1987.

This sixty minute video shows the variety of strange and magnificent animals that live in Australia.

Read Aloud

Arnold, Caroline. Kangaroo. New York: Morrow, 1987.

Photographs and simple text tell the true story of an orphaned kangaroo named Sport. Eversole, Robyn Harbert. Flood Fish. New York: Crown, 1995.

Beautiful illustrations accompany this story about a child from the Australian outback who tries to imagine how the dry riverbed has become full of fish. This book is appropriate for reading aloud.

Fox, Mem. Possum Magic. New York: Harcourt, 1980.

The story of Grandma Poss and Hush. Grandma make Hush invisible and they must find the right food to eat that will undo the spell. A glossary of Australian food terms and map of the route they took are included.

Powzyk, Joyce. Tasmania: A Wildlife Journey. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shephard, 1987.

Watercolors over pen-and-ink sketches illustrate the wildlife and geography of Tasmania. This book is suitable for reading aloud.

Stodart, Eleanor. The Australian Echidna. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1991.

The echidna, similar to a porcupine, is one of Australia's most interesting creatures. This book is full of photographs and information suitable for reading aloud.

Winch, Gordon. Enoch the Emu. Milwaukee: Gareth Stevens, 1988.

The story of an emu from the Australian outback and his egg-hatching experience.





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Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 28

Procedure

Point to Australia on the map. Ask: Who remembers the name of this continent? (Allow children to respond.) Ask: Who remembers Australia's nickname? ("the land down under") Why is it called that? (Australia lies completely below the equator. Review that the equator is an imaginary line that divides the world in half.)

Say: The center portion of Australia is known as the outback. (Locate the outback region of Australia on the map.) This is a dry, desert-like region. There are often long periods of time with little or no rainfall. Ask: Do you think this would be a good place for animals to live? (Allow children to speculate, ask why/why not to their responses.)

Say: There are some unusual animals that call the outback home. Many of these animals avoid the heat of the day by staying in their underground homes. Ask: How could this protect the animals? (Allow the children to speculate.) Say: Some small animals sleep underground all summer long. The animals that live in this hot, dry area are able to store water from their food. A number of animals have long back legs which allow them to move quickly and find what food is available. Ask: Do you know the name of the animal that has long back legs and short front legs? This animal carries its young in a pouch and hops with great speed (kangaroo).

Say: The kangaroo is an animal of the Australian outback. (Show a picture of a kangaroo from one of the sources listed above.) Kangaroos are well suited to desert life. They can go for weeks and even months without drinking water! They eat plants that are full of water and then store that water in their bodies. A baby kangaroo is called a joey. It lives in its mother's pouch until it is able to hop along beside her.

Say: Kangaroos aren't the only animals of the outback. The wombat, an animal that looks something like a rabbit with short ears, avoids the heat of the day by staying deep in his underground home. Wombats eat grass and can go without water for months. (Show a picture of a wombat.) The emu is a bird that can't fly. It has strong legs and big feet that help it to run very fast. It eats grass and berries and insects. (Show a picture of an emu. You may wish to compare the emu to an ostrich.) There are many animals that call the Australian outback home. (Show pictures of other animals found in the outback.)

Say: The edges of Australia are not dry like the outback. These areas are hot and wet, very wet! (Point to the northeastern section of Australia where the rainforests are located.) This area is home to many unusual animals. The sugar glider is a squirrel-like animal that has extra skin between its front and back legs. It spreads its front and back legs to make its body like a parachute so it can glide from tree to tree. The taipan is one of the most poisonous snakes in the world. A bite from this snake can kill a person in minutes. (Show pictures of the animals of Australia's rainforest.)

Say: In the southwest and southeast corners of Australia there are cooler, drier woods. (Locate these regions on the map.) Many birds nest in this area during the winter. The trees and shrubs are a good place for finding food. One of Australia's most famous animals lives in these woods. The koala lives here because it eats only the leaves of certain types of trees that grow in these woods. (Show a picture of a koala.) The koala may look like a little bear, but it is not. Momma koalas have pouches for their young just the way kangaroo mommas do. The kookaburra is a bird that lives in the woods of Australia. The kookaburra has a noisy, laughing BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 74

Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 28

call that tells other kookaburras to keep out of its area. The kookaburra often calls out its warning early in the morning, waking everyone who might be near.

Say: Just off the coast of Australia is a huge underwater area called the Great Barrier Reef. (Locate the region just off the northeast coast.) Tiny animals called corals have formed the area. Many animals find food and shelter among the corals. Beautiful fishes, giant clams, and many types of sponges can be found in the Great Barrier Reef. (Show pictures of the animals found here.)

Ask: Which of these regions would you like to visit? (Allow the children to respond.)

Conclude the lesson by reading some of the titles suggested above.

Suggested Follow-Up Activity

See the Music Lesson 22 Kookaburra. Show sections from the video listed above.

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Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 29

Objective

Discover the people of Australia.

Materials

A classroom size world map

One of the books listed below

Pictures of the Aboriginal people (obtain from sources listed previously or below)

A picture of the Sydney Opera House (obtain from sources listed previously or below)

Suggested Titles

Cobb, Vicki. Imagine Living Here: This Place is Lonely. New York: Walker, 1991.

Colorful illustrations and simple text make this book suitable for reading aloud. It is about life in the Australian outback.

Lester, Alison. My Farm. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1994.

The author tells about her childhood on an Australian farm located near the coast. This is a wonderful read-aloud book.

Maddern, Eric. Rainbow Bird: An Aboriginal Folktale From Northern Australia. Boston: Little, Brown, 1993.

Beautifully illustrated, this folktale tells the story of Clever Bird Woman and her battle with the mean, greedy Crocodile Man. Suitable for reading aloud.

Martin, Michael. Children of the World: Australia. Milwaukee: Gareth Stevens, 1988.

This book presents the life of a young boy living in a small city in southeastern Australia. His family, home, school and amusements, as well as some of the traditions and celebrations of his country, are explained.

Oodgeroo. Dreamtime: Aboriginal Stories. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard, 1993.

Written by an Aboriginal author from the Nunukul tribe, these stories are the author's memories of crabbing and carpet snakes, sad-eyed kookaburras, family and friends. In the second half of the book, the author offers a collection of folktales. Beautifully illustrated and suitable for reading aloud.

Teacher Information

The first people of Australia are known as Aborigines, from two Latin words (ab origine) meaning "from the beginning." Scientists believe Aborigines traveled to Australia from Southeast Asia on boats and via a land bridge. The first European settlers to arrive in Australia were prisoners - - - murderers, thieves, and poor people sent to jail for failing to pay their debts. Britain had been sending prisoners to the American colonies, especially Virginia and Maryland, for years. The onset of the Revolutionary War ended this practice and they had to look elsewhere. They decided to locate a prison in Australia. The eleven ships of Britain's First Fleet carried more than 500 men and nearly 200 women convicts, as well as 200 British soldiers to guard them. The prisoners worked by day on community farms and spent the night in jail. After the prisoners had served their time, Britain officials granted land to the freed prisoners and to the soldiers who had guarded them. Australia remained a prison colony for eighty years. During that time, ships brought thousands of convicts to Australia. They cleared land and built farms and roads.

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Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 29

Procedure

Point to the continent of Australia. Ask: Who remembers the name of this continent? (Australia) Say: We have learned about some of the areas of Australia and the animals that can be found in those regions. Ask: Who can name some of the animals found in Australia? (Allow children to recall information covered in Lesson 28.)

Say: Today we are going to learn about the people of Australia. The earliest people of Australia are known as Aborigines (a-bor-IJ-in-eez). (Show pictures of the Aboriginal people.) The Aboriginal people have lived in Australia for a very, very long time. The first Aborigines were hunters and gatherers, moving from place to place to find different foods at different times of the year. Aborigine men hunted with wooden spears. The hunter threw the spear with a thrower called a woomera. Boomerangs were also used to stun or kill animals. (Draw a simple sketch of a boomerang on the chalkboard.) Say: A boomerang is a curved stick. When it is thrown it returns to the person who threw it. Ask: Why would this be a good weapon? (Allow speculation.)

Say: Today many Aborigines live in cities and towns, and some live on the lands set aside for them by the Australian government. Wherever they live, most Aborigines continue to have a deep respect for the land and for their religious beliefs.

Say: The people who live in Australia are called Australians. Most Australians live in one of the five large cities of the country. These five cities are all located near the coast. (Point to Brisbane, Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, and Perth on the map.) Ask: What do you think some of the activities might be for the people that live in these cities? (Allow speculation.) Say: Swimming, boating and surfing are some of the favorite pastimes of the city people. They also like to play sports, go to sports events, and watch sports on television. In the city of Sydney there is a famous landmark. Ask: Do you remember what a landmark is? (History/Geography Lesson 25- -A landmark is an object that a particular place is known for. Review the Eiffel Tower, The London Bridge, and The Great Wall of China.) Say: The Sydney Opera House is a famous Australian landmark. (Show a picture of The Sydney Opera House.) People from all over the world travel to Sydney to attend musical performances held in this beautiful opera house.

Say: Australians speak a form of English different from American English. (Share some of the following Australian terms and words with the children.)

Aussie a person from Australia

barbie barbecue

billabong pool of water in an otherwise dry river

bloke man or person

nipper a young child

g'day good morning, good afternoon, hello

mate a friend

sunnies sunglasses

togs a swimsuit

tucker food

take a bo-peep take a look

biscuits cookies

Sheila a girl

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Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 29

Say: Some Australians live in the outback. Ask: Do you remember what the Australian outback is like? (hot, dry desert region) Ask: What are some of the animals that live in the outback? (kangaroo, wombat, emu) Say: Living in the outback can be hard work and dangerous at times. Brush fires, floods and long periods of dryness are all problems here. Outback towns are small. The families that live here may have to travel many hours to get to a city to see their doctors and to do their shopping. The people that live here raise cattle and sheep. Outback children do not attend schools like you do. They get their lessons through radios. Every morning children from kindergarten to sixth grade are at their radios for morning assembly. They hear messages from the principal and some of their teachers. Students use two-way radios and talk twice a day to their teachers while other students listen in. They mail in their homework and get back corrections from their teacher.

Ask: Would you like to live in the city or the outback? (Allow for discussion.)

Read from some of the books listed above.

Suggested Follow-Up Activity

See the Art/Craft Lesson on Aboriginal artwork.

You may wish to introduce the children to opera as a continuation of the Sydney Opera House. My Favorite Opera for Children presented by Luciano Pavarotti (London Records) is a good choice. This is a collection of eighteen selections that introduce children to the world of opera. Selections include pieces from Mozart's Magic Flute, Humperdinck's Hansel and Gretel, Bizet's Carmen, and "The Ride of the Valkyries" from Wagner's Ring Cycle.

 

BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 78

Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 30

Objectives

Identify Antarctica as a continent located at the South Pole.

Color a map of Antarctica.

Materials

A globe

Pictures of Antarctica (obtain from sources listed below)

Copies of the map of Antarctica (attached) one per student

Crayons

A glass of water and an ice cube

Suggested Titles

Teacher Resources

Kids Discover Magazine. "North and South Poles," August/September 1991.

See Lesson 27 for how to contact this publisher.

Taylor, Barbara. Arctic & Antarctic. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1995.

Part of the "Eyewitness Books" series, this text is full of photographs and illustrations of these polar regions. Captions may be read aloud as appropriate.

Video

Arctic & Antarctic. Eyewitness Video. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1996.

Based on the "Eyewitness Books" series this 35 minute video explores the life and legends of these polar regions.

Read Aloud

Lye, Keith. Take a Trip to Antarctica. New York: Watts, 1984.

This book provides a simple introduction to Antarctica.

Procedure

Draw attention to the globe. Ask: Who remembers what this is called? (a globe) Ask: What does a globe represent? (Geography Lesson 3--A globe is a model of the earth.) Position the globe so the North Pole is toward the children. Say: This is the top of the globe. (Point to the North Pole) Say: This is the North Pole. This northern polar area is called the Arctic. This is where the Arctic Ocean is located. It is very cold and icy here.

Position the globe so the South Pole is toward the children. Say: This is the bottom of the globe. Can you guess what is found here? (Allow speculation.) Point to the South Pole. Say: This is the South Pole. The southern polar region of the world is called the Antarctic. The continent of Antarctica is found here. It is a frozen lonesome continent. It is too cold here for trees, plants, most animals and even disease germs. No one lives here, but scientists do work here for short periods of time. They study the weather and the way rocks under the ice are formed. It is so cold that there is no rain. Only snow falls, but not very much. That means that Antarctica is as dry as a desert! (Show pictures of the frozen continent from sources listed above.) Note that like Australia, Antarctica is located south of the equator.

Say: When snow falls, it turns into ice. The ice is broken up by ocean tides and waves forming what is known as an iceberg. Icebergs come in many sizes and shapes. An iceberg is BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 79

Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 30

very large, but it floats. (Demonstrate by filling a glass with water. Drop in an ice cube. Allow

the children to observe how the ice cube floats. Note how much of the ice cube is above the water and how the rest of the ice cube is below the water line.)

Say: Antarctica is also one of the windiest places on Earth. The wind speed can reach 200mph. That is as fast as a race car. In the winter months, it is dark all the time here.

Say: Antarctica is a large continent, but because of these icy conditions only a few tiny insects and spiders manage to survive on the land. But the waters around Antarctica are rich in food. Many plants and animals can live in these waters. During the brief summer season, some animals even come ashore. We will learn about some of the animals that live in the waters off the continent.

Distribute the map of Antarctica. Children should color the land purple and the oceans blue. Note that the continent is bordered completely by ocean water and is therefore an island continent like Australia. The water is a continuation of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans. Point out the mountain symbols on the map. Tell children that there are many ice-covered mountains in Antarctica. Some of these mountains are quite tall.

Read from the books listed above or show the video Arctic & Antarctic.

























































BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 80

Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 30

Name__________________________________

Antarctica

Lightly color the continent of Antarctica purple. Color the ocean waters blue.

BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 81

Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 31

Objectives

Discover the animals of Antarctica.

Materials

A globe

A book with photographs or illustrations about the animals found in Antarctica

Penguin coloring paper (attached)

Crayons

Suggested Titles

Teacher Resources

Kids Discover Magazine. "North and South Poles," August/September 1991.

This issue has information about the polar regions including illustrations of the animals found there. See Lesson 27 for how to contact this publisher.

Mailbox Magazine. "Positively Penguins," Primary, December/January 1994-95.

This issue includes a section on penguins including a mini-booklet suitable for duplication.

Taylor, Barbara. The Animal Atlas. New York: Knopf, 1992.

This oversized text is full of beautiful illustrations of the animals of the world. Each animal illustration includes a short description suitable for reading aloud.

Taylor, Barbara. Arctic & Antarctica. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1996.

Part of the "Eyewitness Books" series, this text is full of photographs and illustrations of these polar regions including the animals that live there.

Read Aloud

Barrett, Norman. Penguins. New York: Watts, 1991.

Part of the "Picture Library" series, this text depicts the habitats, feeding habits, life cycle and different species of penguins.

Benson, Patrick. Little Penguin. New York: Philomel, 1990.

An Adelie penguin's trek across Antarctica teaches her about friendship as she meets an Emperor penguin and a whale.

Somme, Lauritz and Sybille Kalas. The Penguin Family Book. Natick, MA: Picture Book Studio, 1988.

This picture book gives a close-up view through photography of the penguins that inhabit Bouvet Island in Antarctica.

Wood, Audrey. Little Penguin's Tale. San Diego: Harcourt, 1989.

Searching for fun in his polar world, Little Penguin dances with gooney birds, plays at the Walrus Polar Club and narrowly escapes being eaten by a whale.

Procedure

Point to Antarctica on the globe. Ask: What is the name of this frozen continent? (Antarctica) Ask: Do people live in Antarctica? Why not? (It is too cold for people to live in Antarctica.)





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Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 31

Say: Not only is it too cold for people, but trees and plants can't live in Antarctica either. Since there is no plant life and all the water is frozen, animals cannot live on the land of Antarctica. Only very tiny insects live on the frozen land. But the seas around Antarctica are full of food for the plants and animals that live in the waters off the coast of the continent. Penguins, whales, and seals are some of the more common animals that live in these waters.

Say: The blue whale is the biggest animal ever to have lived on Earth. It is even bigger than the largest dinosaur. (Show a picture of a blue whale.) Say: The blue whale lives in the waters off the continent of Antarctica. It eats krill, a small shrimp-like creature that swims in the water. It takes lots and lots of krill to fill up a blue whale!

Say: There are several types of seals that live in the waters off of Antarctica. The leopard seal lives around the edge of the ice where it hunts smaller seals and penguins. It also eats krill and fish. The elephant seal is the largest of all seals. A big male can weigh up 8,800 pounds. That is as heavy as more than four elephants put together! He roars a warning to other males through his big nose, which acts as a loudspeaker. (Show pictures of the seals of Antarctica.)

Say: One of the most spectacular sights of the Antarctic is the millions of penguins gathered at their noisy summer homes. (Show pictures of penguins.) Say: Penguins are birds that are excellent swimmers. Penguins' wings do not help in flying. They act as paddles and help the penguin swim very quickly. Two types of penguins, the Adelie and the Emperor, come up onto the frozen land of Antarctica. The Emperor penguin is the largest penguin. It is nearly four feet tall and weighs 65 pounds. (Measure four feet with a yardstick.) The gentoo, macaroni, chinstrap, rockhopper, and king penguins all live in the waters off Antarctica. Penguins come in different sizes, but they all have the same color pattern. Their bellies are white and their backs are dark (black or blue-gray). Each penguin type has a special head marking or headband. Scientists believe the head markings help penguins recognize each other and stay together.

Conclude the lesson by reading some of the books listed above.

Suggested Follow-Up Activity

Distribute the penguin paper (attached). Instruct the children to color the penguin's back and flippers black. They should leave the belly area white. Children may add their own special head markings to their penguin. Tell the children to add details such as icebergs and frozen land to the picture.

























BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 83

Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 31

Name_____________________________________

Color the penguin's back and flippers black. Leave the belly white. Add your own head markings.



BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 84

Kindergarten - History/Geography - Australia/Antarctica

Bibliography

Read Aloud Titles

*Arnold, Caroline. Kangaroo. New York: Morrow, 1987.

*Barrett, Norman. Penguins. New York: Watts, 1991.

*Benson, Patrick. Little Penguin. New York: Philomel, 1990.

*Cobb, Vicki. Imagine Living Here: This Place is Lonely. New York: Walker, 1991.

*Eversole, Robyn Harbert. Flood Fish. New York: Crown, 1995.

*Fox, Mem. Possum Magic. New York: Harcourt, 1983.

*Lester, Alison. My Farm. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1994.

*Lye, Keith. Take a Trip to Antarctica. New York: Watts, 1984.

*Maddern, Eric. Rainbow Bird: An Aboriginal Folktale From Northern Australia. Boston: Little, Brown, 1993.

*Martin, Michael. Children of the World: Australia. Milwaukee: Gareth Stevens, 1988.

*Oodgeroo. Dreamtime: Aboriginal Stories. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard, 1993.

*Powzyk, Joyce. Tasmania: A Wildlife Journey. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard, 1987.

*Somme, Lauritz and Sybille Kalas. The Penguin Family Book. Natick, MA: Picture Book Studio, 1988.

*Stodart, Eleanor. The Australian Echidna. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1991.

*Winch, Gordon. Enoch the Emu. Milwaukee: Gareth Stevens, 1988.

*Wood, Audrey. Little Penguin's Tale. San Diego: Harcourt, 1989.

Teacher Resource Titles

*Copycat Magazine. "Animals of Australia," January/February 1997.

*Kids Discover Magazine. "Australia," 1996.

*Kids Discover Magazine. "North and South Poles," August/September 1991.

*Mailbox Magazine. "Positively Penguins," Primary, December/January 1994-95.

*Moore, Robert. Looking at Lands: Australia. London: Macdonald, 1983.

*Taylor, Barbara. The Animal Atlas. New York: Knopf, 1992.

*________. Arctic & Antarctica. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1996.

Videos

*Arctic & Antarctica. Eyewitness Video. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1996.

*Australia's Improbable Animals. National Geographic Video. Stamford, CT: Vestron Video, 1987.

*indicates annotation in a lesson