Baltimore Curriculum Project Draft Lessons

Introductory Notes

These lessons generally follow the grade-by-grade topics in the Core Knowledge Sequence, but they have been developed independent of the Core Knowledge Foundation. While the Core Knowledge Foundation encourages the development and sharing of lessons based on the Core Knowledge Sequence, it does not endorse any one set of lesson plans as the best or only way that the knowledge in the Sequence should be taught.

You may feel free to download and distribute these lessons, but please note that they are currently in DRAFT form. At this time the draft lessons on this web site do NOT have accompanying graphics, such as maps or cut-out patterns. Graphics will be added to this site later.

In participating BCP schools, these lessons are used in conjunction with the Direct Instruction skills programs in reading, language, and math. If you use or adapt these lessons, keep in mind that they are meant to address content and the application of skills. You will need to use other materials to ensure that children master skills in reading, language, and math.

Kindergarten - American Civilization - December Overview

The American Civilization lessons for December explore the culture of the Wampanoag. These lessons will reintroduce the term resources from November. The students will discover that like the Sioux, the Wampanoag also used the resources available to them to meet their needs.

There are several follow-up activities listed at the end of these lessons. The activities may be completed following the teaching of the unit, or they may be used throughout the month.

Suggested Titles

Doherty, Katherine M. And Craig A. The Wampanoag. New York: Franklin Watts, 1995.

Peters, Russell. Clambake: A Wampanoag Tradition. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1992.

Sewall, Marcia. People of the Breaking Day. New York: Antheneum, 1990.

Siegel, Beatrice. Indians of the Northeast Woodlands Before and After the Pilgrims. New York:

Walker and Company, 1992.

Waters, Kate. Tapenum's Day: A Wampanoag Indian Boy in Pilgrim Times. Photographs by Russ Kendall. New York: Scholastic, 1996.

Weinstein-Farson, Laurie. The Wampanoag. New York: Chelsea House Publications, 1989.


Kindergarten - American Civilization - Lesson 5


Review that American Indians were the first people to live in the United States.

Recall that American Indians are members of special groups called tribes.

Review information learned regarding the culture of the Sioux.

Identify the Wampanoag as a tribe located in the northeastern United States.

Suggested Titles

Doherty, Katherine M. and Craig A. The Wampanoag. New York: Franklin Watts, 1995.

Peters, Russell. Clambake: A Wampanoag Tradition. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1992.

Sewall, Marcia. People of the Breaking Day. New York: Atheneum, 1990.

Siegel, Beatrice. Indians of the Northeast Woodlands Before and After the Pilgrims. New York: Walker and Company, 1992.

Weinstein-Farson, Laurie. The Wampanoag. New York: Chelsea House Publications, 1989.


American Indian Groups map

Teacher Information

The Wampanoag (wam-puh-NO-ag) are a tribe of the Algonquian-Ritwan language family and of the Eastern Woodlands culture area. For thousands of years the Wampanoag have lived in present day southeastern Massachusetts, including the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket, and eastern Rhode Island. They are called "people of the dawn" because they live in the east.

Living in harmony with the land was a dominant spiritual belief of the Wampanoag. They believed that all parts of the natural world--plants, animals, trees and rocks--had special spirits. Hunters asked each animal for forgiveness before they killed it. They believed that the spirits would be offended if they killed more animals than they could use. They were careful to take just enough.

The Wampanoag leader was called a sachem (SAY-chem). Massasoit was the Wampanoag sachem during the time when the Pilgrims arrived. After the first Thanksgiving and for the duration of Massasoit's life, relations between the Pilgrims and the Wampanoag were good. Years later, after Massasoit died, his younger son Metacomet became sachem. He was known as King Philip to the English settlers. By the time Metacomet took over as leader of the Wampanoag, many more Europeans had arrived in New England and settled on the land that belonged to various tribes. In 1675 King Philip united the Wampanoag with other tribes in the area. They attempted to drive the Europeans out in a struggle called King Philip's War.

In a recent United States census, more than 2,000 people identified themselves as Wampanoag. The majority of these people live in Massachusetts. Some Wampanoag support themselves today through the production of traditional craft items. Baskets, beadwork, pottery, and other traditional crafts are sold at Plimouth Plantation in Plymouth, Massachusetts. The Wampanoag from Gay Head were federally recognized in 1987. The Wampanoag in Mashpee are currently appealing a case decided in 1979 in which the courts refused to recognize them. They presently have a petition filed for federal recognition.


Kindergarten - American Civilization - Lesson 5


Ask: Who remembers who the first people to live in the United States were? (American Indians were the first people to live in the United States.) Ask: Do you remember what we call the special groups that the American Indians lived in? (They were called tribes.)

Show the students a map of the United States that shows the places where some American Indians once lived. (A map follows this lesson.) Say: Remember the lessons we have completed about the Sioux Indians? (Point to the Sioux tepee on the map.) Say: The Sioux were just one of many American Indian tribes. Who can remember some of the things we have learned about the Sioux? (Allow time for recall of the information presented previously about the lifestyle of the Sioux. The Sioux lived on the plain. They lived in tepees and hunted buffalo. They traveled across the plain to hunt the buffalo.)

Say: Today we are going to begin a study of another tribe of American Indians. Remember that each tribe lived in different ways. The things we have learned about the Sioux may not be the same for this other tribe. We will learn how this tribe is much different from the Sioux.

Say: The name of the tribe we will learn more about is called the Wampanoag (wam-puh-NO-ag). Do you remember that name? (Children may recall History Lesson 8. The Wampanoag were introduced as the tribe that helped the Pilgrims. If children do not recall that information provide it to them now.)

Locate the Wampanoag on the American Indian Groups map. Say: The Wampanoag lived in the eastern part of the United States, far from where the Sioux lived. Look carefully at the type of home the Wampanoag lived in. It is much different from the Sioux home.

Ask: Who remembers how the Sioux made their home? (They made their home out of buffalo hides.) Ask: Why did the Sioux use buffalo hide to make their home? (The Sioux hunted buffalo and used all the parts of the animal. The hide was tough and lasted for many years. The tepee was easy to take apart and put back together again. The Sioux traveled and needed shelter that was easy to move.)

Say: Look again at the Wampanoag home. Is it a tepee made of buffalo hides? (no) Say: The Wampanoag did not live in tepees. They lived in homes called wigwams. These homes were made by bending and tying together long poles that were cut from small trees. The poles made a frame that woven mats were then tied to. The mats were made out of tree branches that were woven together. Often tree bark was used with the mats to create the walls of the wigwam. A hole was left at the top of the home to allow smoke from cooking fires to escape.

Ask: Do you remember the word resources? What does it mean? (Resources are the things from nature that people use.) What resource did the Wampanoag use to make their homes? (They used trees.) Ask: How is that different from the homes the Sioux made? (The Sioux used buffalo hides.) Say: Even though both tribes used different materials to make their homes, they both used the resources that were available to them.

Conclude this lesson by reading one of the books listed under Suggested Titles.


Kindergarten - American Civilization - Lesson 6


Develop an understanding of the lifestyle of the Wampanoag.

Discover that the Wampanoag used the natural resources around them to meet their needs.

Participate in an art activity.


A classroom size US map

Brown paper grocery bags

Scissors, glue

Hole punch





Ask: Who remembers the name of the American Indian tribe that lived in wigwams? (Wampanoag) Ask: Do you remember how they made their wigwams? (They used trees to make a wigwam.) Remember that resources are the things from nature that people use.

Say: The Wampanoag lived in the forests of the northeast so there were lots of trees for them to use. Can you think of any other resources that might be found in the forest that the Wampanoag could use? (Allow time for speculation. Encourage children to name animals found in a forest such as deer, rabbits, bears, squirrels. They should also name other food sources found in the forest such as nuts, berries, and seeds)

Say: The Wampanoag lived close to the Atlantic Ocean (point to the eastern shore of Massachusetts) during the warm summer months and then traveled inland into the forests during the winter to escape the cold wind from the ocean. Ask: Can you name any resources they might have used from the ocean shore? (They could use fish, clams, lobster, crab, and shells.)

Say: Just like the Sioux, the Wampanoag used the resources they could find in their area to make their houses, to eat for food, and to make into their clothing. Ask: Who remembers what animal was important to the Sioux? (the buffalo) The Wampanoag did not use the buffalo because it did not live in the forest. The Wampanoag used the deer. Ask: Can you name some ways that the Wampanoag might have used a deer? (Encourage children to think about all parts of the deer and how it could be used. The skin was used for clothing, the meat for food, the bones for tools.)

Say: The Wampanoag used all parts of the deer. The meat was eaten fresh or dried. The deer skins were made into clothing and shoes. The insides were used for bags and the tough tissues of the deer were used for thread. The deer bones were made into sewing needles and fish hooks. Wampanoag hunters asked the animal for forgiveness before they killed it. They did not leave any of the animal for waste. They killed an animal only if they needed it.

Say: The Wampanoag dressed simply. Men wore deerskin loincloths. A loincloth is a long piece of hide secured with a belt that hangs down from the waist in both the front and back. The belts were made out of snakeskin.

Say: Women wore deerskin dresses or long skirts with a cape. Everyone had moccasins. BCP DRAFT HIST 14

Kindergarten - American Civilization - Lesson 6

They were made out of moose hides because it was stronger than deer hide. When the weather

turned colder, or when traveling in the forest, the men wore deerskin leggings. During winter they also wore fur capes that reached the ground. Children dressed like the adults and babies were coated with a layer of animal grease, wrapped in soft skins, and carried on a cradle board by their mothers. (Several of the books listed under Suggested Titles in this month's overview depict the clothing of the Wampanoag. Use these photos as a visual aid.)

Say: The Wampanoags had no pockets in their clothing. Instead, they made pouches of deerskin to carry tools and food. The pouches hung from their waists or necks.

Conclude the lesson by reinforcing that the Wampanoag used the resources found in the forest to clothe themselves and to provide shelter. The food of the Wampanoag will be discussed in a future lesson.

Suggested Follow Up Activity

Children will enjoy making pouches out of brown grocery bags.

Directions for making pouches

1. Tell children the brown grocery bag will be used to represent deerskin.

2. Cut out front section of bag.

3. Fold front section in half and glue halves together.

4. Fold 5" up from bottom and staple on each side.

5. Fold top down for flap. Punch two holes at crease and thread a 36" length of yarn through the holes. Tie in a knot.

6. Decorate the pouch with designs.


Kindergarten - American Civilization - Lesson 7


Continue to develop an understanding of the culture of the Wampanoag.

Discover the types of food common to the Wampanoag.

Participate in a science activity planting corn.

Participate in a cooking activity.


Growing Corn activity sheet

2 or 3 corn seeds per student

Clear plastic cups

Potting soil

Ingredients for making Journey Cake (Jiffy Corn Muffin Mix has a simple recipe on the box or follow directions in body of this lesson. You will need eggs, milk, corn meal, and sugar.)


Say: Today we are going to learn about the kinds of foods eaten by the Wampanoag. Ask: Who remembers where the Wampanoag lived? (They lived in the forest during the winter and by the seashore during the summer.)

Write forest on the board. Say: The Wampanoag were good hunters. Can you think of some animals they could hunt to use for food while they lived in the forest? (They hunted for deer and bear with bow and arrows, and they snared rabbits and squirrels.)

Write ocean on the board. Say: The Wampanoag made fish hooks out of deer bones. They were good fishermen. Can you think of some food the Wampanoag might have eaten during the summer while at the seashore? (They ate fish, clams, lobsters and crabs.)

Say: Remember, the Sioux traveled in search of buffalo. They did not stay in one place for very long. The Wampanoag were not like that. They made a permanent home in the woods for the winter and another home along the seashore for the summer. Because they did not leave their home, they were able to plant a garden and raise crops.

Say: Although they did hunt, the Wampanoag were mostly farmers. The main crop for the Wampanoag was corn. They also grew beans, pumpkins, zucchini, and other squashes. They gathered seeds, nuts, and berries from the woods.

Say: The Wampanoag were very good corn farmers. Remember the Wampanoag were the American Indians who taught the Pilgrims how to grow corn. After the Wampanoag men cleared the fields, it was usually the women that planted the corn.The soil was loosened with a hoe made from a clam shell. Chopped up horseshoe crabs or fish were added to the soil to make it rich for planting. The earth was mounded and three or four corn kernels were planted in each "corn hill." The children were to shoo away any birds that might steal the newly planted crop.


Kindergarten - American Civilization - Lesson 7

Help children understand the process of planting corn by reading them the following verse. Children should pantomime each action as you read aloud.

Let us plant the corn,

Known as ewa'chim.

Who'll prepare the fields?

Women and children!

Use a clam-shell hoe,

Loosen and enrich.

Dig in the soil, then

Add a little fish.

Build up the dirt,

Make a little mound.

Use a planting stick,

Poke holes in the ground.

Plant four corn kernels -

One in each small hole.

Cover up, water,

Wait for them to grow.

Watch it carefully,

Shoo away the crow.

Tend the corn, weed it,

Soon it will grow.

After many months,

The stalks grow so tall.

Then it will be time

To harvest in the fall.

Copycat Magazine Nov/Dec 94

Say: Corn was prepared in many different ways. The most common way was to grind it into meal and boil it with fish or meat. Another favorite way to eat corn was to moisten the meal with water until it was thick like paste. This mixture was made into little cakes and then baked in hot ashes. The Wampanoag called these cakes journey cakes. They tucked the journey cakes into their pouches to eat when they were traveling.


Kindergarten - American Civilization - Lesson 7

Say: Today we are going to make a journey cake that is very much like the journey cake made by the Wampanoag. Direct children to wash their hands and prepare for a cooking activity.

Journey Cake (Makes about 20)

or follow the recipe on Jiffy Corn Muffin Mix (Johnny Cakes)

1 large egg

1 cups milk

3/4 to 1 cup corn meal

1 teaspoon sugar

1 teaspoon salt

Preheat a griddle or electric skillet to 375. Mix together milk and egg. Add dry ingredients. Batter will be thin. Spray a griddle with vegetable spray. Pour batter onto the griddle as you would pancakes. When bubbles form and edges are dry, turn cakes over and cook on the other side. Flip onto a plate and serve alone or with jelly.

Conclude this lesson by firming up that the Wampanoag were primarily farmers and that corn was their staple food. Children should also be firm in understanding the value of natural resources to American Indians.

Suggested Follow Up Activity

Assist the children in setting up a corn growing experiment. You will need 2 or 3 corn seeds per student; clear plastic cups; soil; water.


1. Fill a clear, plastic cup with soil halfway to the top.

2. Plant 2 or 3 corn seeds near the sides of the cup and cover with soil.

3. Water the seeds until the soil is moist. Continue to keep moist, but not soggy.

4. Give full sunlight.

5. When the plants reach 6" tall they may be transplanted.

Children may complete the science observation log by drawing the progress of their corn plant.


Kindergarten - American Civilization - Lesson 7



On the chart draw what your plant looks like as it grows.

Week 1

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4


Kindergarten - American Civilization - Lesson 8


Continue to develop an understanding of the culture of the Wampanoag.

Discover the types of chores, games and transportation of the Wampanoag.

Participate in an art activity.


Pottery geometry worksheet

Canoe patterns

Tan construction paper (8 x 11) one per student

Crayons, scissors, glue


Game materials (small stone, four or five disposable drinking cups, 2 popsicle sticks)


Say: The word transportation means how people travel from one place to another. (The word transportation and how people travel in a community is also discussed in Geography Lesson 9. If you have already taught that lesson, ask children to recall the methods of transportation common in a community.) Say: The Wampanoag had two ways to travel. They walked or they canoed. (If children are not familiar with a canoe explain that it is a light weight boat that is moved with a paddle. Draw a simple canoe on the board.)

Say: There were walking trails throughout the Northeast. Some of these trails can still be found today, but most have been covered with roads and highways. The Wampanoag's other form of travel was the canoe. Remember that they used the resources around them to meet their needs. Can you guess what resource they used to make a canoe? (They used trees.)

Say: Listen and I will tell you how the Wampanoag turned a tree into a canoe.

First, a tree was selected. Then, a fire was built around the base of the tree.

When the fire had burned the tree, the burnt wood was chipped away with stone axes. After the tree fell, the bark and limbs were removed.

Then the inside of the tree was burned out. This formed the place where the people could sit inside.

Clam shell tools were used to scrape out the rest of the inside of the boat.

The ends were rounded with fire and an axe.

They built their canoes in different sizes. Small canoes carried one or two people while the largest canoes could carry as many as forty people.

In their dugout canoes, the Wampanoag traveled and fished all over the rivers, ponds, and open ocean of their homeland.

Say: The Wampanoag were hard working people. Everyone in the village had chores to do. Ask: Do you know what a chore is? (A chore is a job or a task.) Ask: Do you have any chores that you have to do? (Encourage children to think about chores performed at home and also at school.)

Say: Wampanoag children also had chores to complete. A Wampanoag girl learned what she needed to know by watching her mother and grandmother.

She was taught how to plant and tend fields, how to find herbs and nuts and berries, and prepare food.


Kindergarten - American Civilization - Lesson 8

A Wampanoag girl learned how to tan deerskin and turn it into clothing. Girls learned how to make birch bark containers and drinking cups.

Say: Wampanoag boys were taught to hunt deer and bear, fish the streams and rivers, and trap small animals in snares.

They learned to make arrows from tree branches with points from bone or eagle claws. They learned about making fish hooks from deer bone.

They were taught to watch the shape of the clouds and the colors of the sea to learn when to move the family.

They collected firewood from the forests, gathered water from the streams, and chased birds away from the corn fields.

Say: Even though there was much work to be done, the Wampanoag also enjoyed games and craft activities.

Children enjoyed helping their mothers dig clay from the riverbed.

They watched as their mothers kneaded the clay and shaped it into beautiful pots.

A favorite activity for children was to make dogs, dolls, and dugout canoes from small bits of clay.

Say: Everyone enjoyed playing games. Wampanoag boys loved games of running and swimming.

Wampanoag girls played with dolls made from wood, deerskin, or corn husks.

All children loved playing leap frog, follow-the-leader, darts, and pebble games.

Popular games of today such as football, hockey, and handball were played long ago by the Wampanoags.

Say: Today we will pretend that we are Wampanoag children.

We will do some of the things they did so long ago.


Choose from the following activities:

1. Take the class outside and play leap frog or follow-the-leader. Play a game of stick ball with your class. Use a pine cone for a ball just as the Wampanoag children did.

2. If the weather is not suitable for outside play, teach the children how to play Hide The Stone or Which Hand. Both are typical pebble games played by the Wampanoag.

Hide The Stone

Number of Players: two

Materials: small stone, four or five paper drinking cups (The Wampanoag would have used moccasins.)

To Play: In turn each player secretly hides the stone under one cup. The other player tries to guess where the stone is hidden.

Which Hand

Number of Players: two

Materials: two bones (use popsicle sticks) - one decorated through the center

To Play: In turn each player holds a "bone" in each hand in such a way that the center of each is concealed. The other player tries to guess which hand holds the decorated "bone."


Kindergarten - American Civilization - Lesson 8

3. Make small objects out of clay.

4.Complete the Pottery Geometry paper that follows.

5. Make a canoe


Canoe pattern(trace several onto tagboard);

1 piece of tan construction paper per student (8 x 11); crayons; scissors; glue; stapler.


1. Fold the tan paper lengthwise. Place the flat side of the pattern on its fold.

2. Trace around the pattern.

3. Cut out except on folded edge.

4. Glue or staple the ends together.

5. Add the paddle, decorate the canoe.


Kindergarten - American Civilization - Lesson 8

Canoe Pattern

Copy the canoe pattern onto tagboard. Make several patterns for your class. Directions for making the canoe are located on the previous page.


Kindergarten - American Civilization - Lesson 8


Pottery Geometry

The Wampanoag women made pottery from clay. The clay was dug at a riverbank. It was kneaded and shaped into beautiful pots. Then it was placed on hot coals to harden. Often the pots were decorated with designs using dyes from plants.

Find the shapes used to decorate the pot below. Color the triangles blue. Color the squares red. Color the circles yellow. You may color the rest of the pot any color you choose.



square circle


Kindergarten - American Civilization - Follow Up Activities


Compare and contrast the Sioux and the Wampanoag using a venn diagram.

Solve basic addition sentences using pictographs.

Listen to and retell a simple American Indian legend.


The following activities may be used to culminate the lessons on American Indians. These activities may be done over the course of several days.

1. Draw a venn diagram on the chalkboard. Lead the children through a discussion comparing and contrasting the Sioux and the Wampanoag. (Sample venn diagrams follow.)

2. Recall the use of pictographs as a means of writing and telling stories. Assist the children in completing the math activity using pictographs to solve basic addition sentences. (Worksheet follows.)

3. Tell the children the following American Indian legend. Explain that a legend is a story that is told from one person to the next without being written down. This legend was told by American Indians to explain why we have day and night. Following the reading of the legend, children will make simple stick puppets of the hare and the fox. Children then will retell the legend using their stick puppets. (Puppet paper follows.)

Directions for puppets

A. Copy the puppets for each student.

B. Children color and cut out the puppets.

C. Glue the base of the puppet to craft sticks.

Legend of Day and Night

Long ago words were magic. Everything was dark all the time. A fox and a hare had an argument.

"Darkness," said the fox. He wanted darkness for hunting.

"Day," said the hare. He wanted daylight to find grass.

The hare won the argument because he was more powerful. Day came instead of night. The fox's word was powerful too. When day was over, night came.

From then on they took turns--the nighttime of the fox followed the daylight of the hare. That is why we have day and night.


Following the reading of the legend, ask: Is this really why we have day and night? Be sure children understand that a legend explains something that is an unknown. American Indians told many legends explaining things in nature. We know today that the alternation of day and night is caused by the spinning of the earth as it travels around the sun.


Kindergarten - American Civilization - Pictograph Math


Picture Math

Count the American Indian symbols in each group and write the number below it.



_____ + _____ = _____




_____ + _____ = _____


_____ + _____ = _____



Kindergarten - American Civilization - Stick Puppet Patterns

Duplicate one set of puppets for each child. Two sets of puppets are included to cut down on dulplication expense.

Hare and Fox Graphic!


Kindergarten - American Civilization - Venn Diagram

Sioux and Wampanoag: How are they alike and how are they different?

Venn Diagram Graphic

This is set to print landscape