Baltimore Curriculum Project Draft Lessons

Introductory Notes

These lessons generally follow the grade-by-grade topics in the Core Knowledge Sequence, but they have been developed independent of the Core Knowledge Foundation. While the Core Knowledge Foundation encourages the development and sharing of lessons based on the Core Knowledge Sequence, it does not endorse any one set of lesson plans as the best or only way that the knowledge in the Sequence should be taught.

You may feel free to download and distribute these lessons, but please note that they are currently in DRAFT form. At this time the draft lessons on this web site do NOT have accompanying graphics, such as maps or cut-out patterns. Graphics will be added to this site later.

In participating BCP schools, these lessons are used in conjunction with the Direct Instruction skills programs in reading, language, and math. If you use or adapt these lessons, keep in mind that they are meant to address content and the application of skills. You will need to use other materials to ensure that children master skills in reading, language, and math.

BCP DRAFT HIST/GEO 22

Kindergarten - History/Geography - January Overview

The January lessons are an introduction to the continent of Africa. Geography and History will be taught simultaneously. The concepts introduced in science regarding the needs of animals will also be expanded upon as students discover the animals of Africa. Therefore, Science Lesson 23 will need to be taught prior to teaching History/Geography Lesson 10.

Craft Lesson 2 for January would make a good culminating activity for this unit. Children will make a paper kufi and discuss how the wearing of a kufi by Africans and African-Americans shows pride in their heritage.

Suggested Titles noted below are also specified on the individual lessons.

Suggested Titles

Aardema, Verna. Traveling to Tondo. NY: Knopf, 1991.

Aardema, Verna. Bringing the Rain to Kapiti Plain. NY: Dial, 1981.

Clifton, Lucille. All Us Come Cross the Water. NY: Holt, 1973.

dePaola, Tomie. Bill and Pete Go Down the Nile. NY: Putnam, 1987.

Dorros, Arthur. Rain Forest Secrets. NY: Scholastic, 1990.

Ellis, Veronica. AFRO-BETS First Book About Africa: An Introduction for Young Readers. Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1989.

Greenfield, Eloise. Africa Dream. NY: HarperCollins, 1977.

Hadithi, Mwenye. Greedy Zebra. Boston: Little Brown, 1984.

Hirschi, Ron. Discover My World: Desert. NY: Bantam, 1992.

McCauley, Jane R. Africa's Animal Giants. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1987.

Musgrove, Margaret. Ashanti to Zulu African Traditions. NY: Dial, 1976.

Norden, Carroll. The Jungle. Milwaukee: Raintree, 1978.

Podendorf, Illa. Jungles. Chicago: Children's Press, 1982.

Reynolds, Jan. Vanishing Cultures: Sahara. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1991.

Rowland-Entwisstle, Theodore. Jungles and Rainforests. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver, 1987.

Sabin, Louis. Wonders of the Desert. Mahwah, NJ: Troll, 1982.

Taylor, Barbara. Look Closer: Desert Life. NY: Dorling Kindersley, 1992.

Waters, John F. Camels: Ships of the Desert. NY: HarperCollins, 1974.

Wood, John Norris. Nature Hide and Seek - Jungles. NY: Knopf, 1987.

Yarbrough, Camille. Cornrows. NY: Putnam, 1979.

BCP DRAFT HIST/GEO 23

Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 9

Objectives

Recall the names and locations of the seven continents and four oceans.

Identify Africa as a continent bordered by the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

Color a map of Africa.

Materials

A classroom size world map

Copies of the map of Africa (attached)

Crayons

Procedure

Say: Today we are going to begin some lessons about one of the continents of the world. Ask: Who remembers what a continent is? (A continent is a large body of land.) Say: We are going to learn about the continent of Africa. Let's sing the Continent Song. Watch for what Africa looks like as I point to it. (Outline the shape of Africa with your finger and accentuate the word Africa as you sing just the first verse.)

The Continent Song

North America,

South America,

Europe, Asia, and AFRICA,

Don't forget Antarctica

Or way down under in Australia.

 

Draw attention to the shape of Africa again. Say: This is the continent of Africa. Everyone look carefully at how it is shaped. (Outline again with your finger the shape of Africa.) Ask: What is the name of this continent? (Africa)

Point to the oceans to the east and west of Africa. Ask: What do we call these large bodies of water? (oceans). Say: We can name these oceans that touch Africa by singing the next verse of the Continent Song. Let's sing just the second verse. You listen for the names of the oceans that touch Africa. (Sing the second verse, exaggerate with your finger and voice the words Atlantic and Indian.)

Pacific Ocean,

ATLANTIC Ocean,

INDIAN, Arctic, they're both Oceans.

North Pole, South Pole, Equator,

I know all about maps and globes!

Point to the Atlantic Ocean. Ask: Can anyone name this ocean? (Atlantic) Say: The Atlantic Ocean touches Africa. Point to the Indian Ocean. Ask: Can anyone name this ocean? (Quickly sing the song yourself if children cannot name the Indian Ocean, stopping when you sing Indian.) Say: The Indian Ocean touches Africa on the other side.

BCP DRAFT HIST/GEO 24

Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 9

Say: Africa is a continent full of many different things. There are deserts and mountains,

long rivers, and jungles. The continent is full of many wild and different animals. There are many interesting people who call Africa home. We will be learning all about Africa in the days ahead.

Distribute the map of Africa. Children should lightly color Africa yellow and the oceans blue. Do not color any of the other geographical features today. The map will be developed further in the next lesson. Therefore, the teacher should collect and save the maps.







































































BCP DRAFT HIST/GEO 24a

Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 9

Name_________________________________________________

AFRICA

Lightly color the continent of Africa yellow. Color the Atlantic and Indian Oceans blue.



MAP GRAPHIC

BCP DRAFT HIST/GEO 25

Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 10

Objectives

Recall that Africa is a continent bordered by the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

Locate and label the Sahara Desert, the Nile River, and Mount Kilimanjaro on the map of Africa.

Infer that Africa is a continent of diverse geographical features.

Discover the animals common to a desert oasis region.

Participate in an art activity.

Materials

A classroom size world map

Map of Africa (started in Lesson 9)

Crayons

8 x 11 brown construction paper per student

Scissors, glue

Suggested Title to Read Aloud

de Paola, Tomie. Bill and Pete Go Down the Nile. New York: Putnam, 1987.

Books with Good Photographs to Use with the Lesson

Hirschi, Ron. Discover My World: Desert. New York: Bantam, 1992.

Reynolds, Jan. Vanishing Cultures: Sahara. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1991.

Sabin, Louis. Wonders of the Desert. Mahwah, NJ: Troll, 1982.

Taylor, Barbara. Look Closer: Desert Life. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1992.

Waters, John F. Camels: Ships of the Desert. New York: HarperCollins, 1974.

Teacher Information

The Sahara Desert is the largest desert in the world. It is about 1000 miles wide and about 3200 miles long from east to west. The total area of the desert is more than 3,500,000 square miles of which some 80,000 square miles consist of partially fertile oases. Around 6,000 years ago the Sahara was a fertile land with fish-bearing rivers flowing through hills where game used to hide. As conditions gradually became drier, however, and desertification set in, farmers abandoned their land. The climate now is uniformly dry; most areas average less than 5 inches of rain per year, and some get none at all for years at a time. The temperature range is extreme, ranging between freezing to more than 130 degrees Fahrenheit. Except in the oases, the desert is almost devoid of vegetation, except for some stunted, thorny shrubs that grow in the western Sahara. The chief tree of the oasis is the date palm. Gazelle and antelope are found in many parts of the desert, as are jackal, fox, badger, and hyena. The dromedary camel is the main form of transportation. The soles of its feet and its leg joints are protected by thick pads against desert heat. Its nostrils and eyes have guards against flying sand. The camel also is equipped to live several days without water and is capable of chewing and digesting thorny desert plants.

Desert animals will be discussed in this lesson. References to Science Lesson 23 will be made. Be sure you have covered that lesson prior to teaching this one.



BCP DRAFT HIST/GEO 26

Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 10

Procedure

Distribute the maps of Africa from Lesson 9. Ask: Who remembers the name of this continent? (Africa) Who can name the oceans that touch Africa? (The Atlantic and the Indian Oceans touch Africa.)

Say: Africa is a continent full of many different things. One of the special things about Africa is a long, long river. The longest river in the world is located in Africa. It is called the Nile.

Say: The Nile River starts in the middle of Africa at a lake called Lake Victoria. Find Lake Victoria on your map and color it blue. The Nile flows up the continent of Africa to a sea that is to its north. Trace over the line on your map with a blue crayon. You are tracing the route of the Nile River.

Say: Another interesting feature of Africa is Mount Kilimanjaro. Mount Kilimanjaro is located on your map, too. It is the triangle shape near Lake Victoria. Color Mount Kilimanjaro purple. Mount Kilimanjaro is the highest mountain in Africa. It has two peaks. Farmers grow coffee beans on its lower slopes.

Say: The largest feature of Africa is a huge desert. A desert is a very dry place. Very little rain falls in a desert. It is hot and sandy in most deserts. The largest desert in the world is located in Africa. It is called the Sahara Desert. Look at your map and find the area that is shaded at the top of Africa. That is the Sahara Desert region. Color it brown.

Say: It is not easy to live in a desert. Ask: Why do you think it would be hard for things to live in a desert? (It's hot and dry there. There isn't much water.) But some plants and animals make it their home. Ask: Who remembers what an animal needs to live? (Science Lesson 23) (Animals need food, water, and a home.)

Say: Some desert animals make their homes in burrows or dens to escape the heat. Desert animals may rest or hide when the sun is bright and hot. Many desert animals come out when it is coolest. Some animals come out at night and some come out early in the morning.

Say: There are several different animals that are found in some places of the Sahara Desert. The gazelle and antelope and the fox and badger are some of the animals you would find there. The camel is one of the most useful desert animals. The camel has bushy eyebrows and long eyelashes to protect its eyes from the sand and sun. It has thick pads on its feet to protect it from burning its feet on the hot sand.

Read one of the books listed above about desert life. The books listed under Suggested Titles all discuss how plants and animals survive desert life.

Conclude the lesson by pointing out that Africa has many unique features. The continent has the largest desert, the longest river, and a huge mountain.

















BCP DRAFT HIST/GEO 27

Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 10



Suggested Follow-Up Activity

Read Bill and Pete Go Down the Nile, by Tomie de Paola.

Read the following poem to the children about camels. Explain that camels are known for their bad behaviors and that they are difficult animals to train.

Make a stand-up camel.

Commissariat Camels

We haven't a camelty tune of our own

To help us trollop along.

But every neck is a hairy trombone,

Rtt-ta-ta-ta! Is a hairy trombone.

And this is our marching song:

Can't! Don't! Shan't! Won't!

Pass it along the line!

Rudyard Kipling

Directions for stand-up camels:

1. Duplicate the camel (attached) on brown construction paper (8 x 11) per student.

2. Children will cut out the camel by following the dashed lines.

3. Add facial details with a black crayon.

4. Fold the tab and stand the camel upright.

5. Read the poem again and allow children to march their camels along as you read.



































BCP DRAFT HIST/GEO 27a

Kindergarten - History/ Geography - Lesson 10

Camel pattern

GRAPHIC

BCP DRAFT HIST/GEO 28

Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 11

Objectives

Recall the major geographical features of Africa.

Discover the animals common to Africa's grasslands and jungles.

Participate in an art activity.

Materials

Select one of the books listed below from each section to use for illustrations.

A classroom size world map

Colored chalk (green, yellow, brown)

8 x 11 green construction paper per student

8 x 11 blue construction paper per student

Crayons, scissors, glue

Suggested Titles

Jungle (Rainforest) Titles

Dorros, Arthur. Rain Forest Secrets. New York: Scholastic, 1990.

Norden, Carroll. The Jungle. Milwaukee: Raintree, 1978.

Podendorf, Illa. Jungles. Chicago: Children's Press, 1982.

Rowland-Entwisstle, Theodore. Jungles and Rainforests. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver, 1987.

Wood, John Norris. Nature Hide and Seek - Jungles. New York: Knopf, 1987.

Desert Titles

Aardema, Verna. Traveling to Tondo. New York: Knopf, 1991.

Aardema, Verna. Bringing the Rain to Kapiti Plain. New York: Dial, 1981.

Hadithi, Mwenye. Greedy Zebra. Boston: Little Brown, 1984.

McCauley, Jane R. Africa's Animal Giants. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1987.

Procedure

Seat children so they can all see the classroom map. Point to Africa. Ask: Who remembers the name of this continent? (Africa). Ask: Can anyone name some of the special features of Africa? (Allow children time to recall Mount Kilimanjaro, the Nile River, and the Sahara Desert. Point to each of the areas named on the map.)

Say: We have learned that Africa is a continent full of many different things. Not only will we find the great Sahara Desert in Africa, but also a jungle and grasslands can be found there. (Point to the west central section of Africa along the equator.)

Say: This area of Africa is very wet and very hot. It rains nearly every day here. This area can get as much as 80 inches of rain a year and the temperature rarely drops below 80 degrees. 80 degress is a typical hot summer day for our area.This hot and humid area is called a jungle or rain forest. (Help children to understand this large amount of rain by showing a ruler. Tell the children the ruler is one foot. The rainforest receives nearly seven feet of rain. Lay the ruler across the chalkboard or on the floor to demonstrate seven feet.)

Say: In this area it is very green with trees, vines, and flowers. There are more than a million different types of insects found here, and many unusual animals. Monkeys, parrots, toucans, and jaguars make their homes in the rainforest of Africa.

BCP DRAFT HIST/GEGO 29

Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 11

 

Read one of the books about the rainforest (jungle) listed above.

Ask: How is the desert different from the jungle? (Allow children to discuss how the

climate, the animals, and the colors are different.)

(Point to the area just south of the Sahara Desert and North of the equator, around to the east and southeast sections of Africa. Basically, everything except the Sahara and the Rainforest is Grasslands.)

Say: This section of Africa is grasslands. African grasslands have hot summers and warm winters. Patches of grass, bushes, and small trees can be found here. The Serengeti National Park is located in Africa. It is a park that is trying to protect the animals that live in this area. Hunting is not allowed here. But many people travel to the park to see the animals and take pictures of them. Zebras, elephants, giraffes, lions, and cheetahs are just some of the animals that can be seen at the Serengeti National Park.

Read one of the books listed above about Africa's grasslands and the animals that live there.

Review that all animals, whether they live in a jungle, the grasslands, or the desert need the same things to live. Food, water, air and a home (shelter) are required of all living things. Compare the homes and food of the different animals of Africa.

Suggested Follow-Up Activity

Create a grasslands animal picture.

1.Distribute the green construction paper to each student. Demonstrate how to draw a wavy horizontal line across the paper. Cut along this line.

Graphic



2. Use the sides of the colored chalk to blend colors onto the green paper.

Graphic





3. Glue the green paper (grasslands) to the blue paper (sky).

Graphic









4. Children should draw an animal of the African Grasslands on the chalked areas of the paper to create a grasslands scene.

Connecting Geography to Literature by Leigh Hoven-Severson (Teacher Created Materials, 1992) is an excellent source for African Grassland animal pictures.

BCP DRAFT HIST/GEO 30

Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 12

Objectives

Discover that Africa is home to many people.

Materials

Classroom size world map

Pictures of African people (past and present)

Several of the suggested titles

African artifacts, copies of folktales

Recordings of African music

Suggested Titles

Baer, Edith. This is the Way We Go to School: A Book About Children Around the World. New York: Scholastic, 1990.

Clifton, Lucille. All Us Come Cross the Water. New York: Holt, 1973.

Ellis, Veronica. AFRO-BETS First Book about Africa: An Introduction for Young Readers. Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1989.

Feelings, Muriel. Moja Means One: Swahili Counting Book. New York: Dial, 1971

Feelings, Muriel. Jambo Means Hello: Swahili Alphabet Book. New York: Dial, 1974.

Gray, Nigel. A Country Far Away. New York: Orchard, 1989.

Grifalconi, Ann. The Village of Round and Square Houses. Boston: Little Brown, 1986.

Greenfield, Eloise. Africa Dream. New York: HarperCollins, 1977.

Haskins, Jim. Count Your Way Through Africa. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda, 1989.

Isadora, Rachel. At the Crossroads. New York: Greenwillow, 1991.

Margolies, Barbara. Rehema's Journey: A Visit to Tanzania. New York: Scholastic, 1990.

Morris, Ann. Bread Bread Bread. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard, 1989.

Morris, Ann. On the Go. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard, 1990.

Morris, Ann. Shoes Shoes Shoes. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard, 1995.

Musgrove, Margaret. Ashanti to Zulu African Traditions. New York: Dial, 1976.

Powell, Jilian. Traditions Around the World: Food. New York: Thomson Learning, 1995.

Schermbrucker, Reviva. Charlie's House. New York: Viking, 1991.

Seeger, Pete. Abiyoyo. New York: Macmillian, 1986.

Spier, Peter. People. Garden City: Doubleday, 1980.

Ward, Leila. I Am Eyes: Ni Macho. New York: Greenwillow, 1978.s

Williams, Karen. Galimoto. New York: Morrow, 1990.

Yarbrough, Camille. Cornrows. New York: Putnam, 1979.

Teacher Information

This lesson provides a very general overview of the people of Africa. If possible, enhance this lesson by displaying African carved artifacts and jewelry, and by listening to African stories and music.

Procedure

Display a world map. Briefly review the continents by first naming and then pointing to them. Remind the children that Africa is the continent that they have most recently studied. Ask BCP DRAFT HIST/GEO 31

Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 12

them to recall that Africa has deserts, mountains, grasslands, and jungles.

Tell the children that Africa is a very big piece of land divided into many smaller pieces called countries. Say: Those countries have towns, villages, cities, and neighborhoods. Many people live in these places.

Using pictures or illustrations from books, show the children that the majority of people in Africa today are dark-skinned. Explain that dark-skinned people have always lived in Africa. Be certain that the children get to see the many shades of skin color and the variety of people.

Tell the children some people who live in Africa dress very much like we do, and some other people who live there dress quite differently. Remind the children that most of Africa is usually warm so people may not wear as many clothes as we wear here, or they may wear very loose fitting clothes.

Tell the children that the people live in many different types of homes in Africa. Show as many of the various dwellings as possible. Tell the students that most people live in very simple houses but there are some houses that are very fancy. Some people in Africa are very poor and live in houses that are only as big as one room and don't even have bathrooms.

Tell the children that the people in Africa speak many different languages and have very different customs. Say: Many people are farmers. Some people raise animals, and some people are teachers or doctors or secretaries. There are African people who are wonderful musicians and those who are great storytellers. Some are children who go to school just as you do. People in Africa have families just as you do and they eat meals and play games and go to church, too.

Say: Some people in Africa have lives very much like ours. The parents go to work or take care of young children, and the children who are old enough go to school. The family has a car and drives to the places they cannot walk. Other people have very different lives.

Tell the children that some African people live far from the cities in groups called tribes. Ask how many recall the Native American tribes they learned about earlier in the year. Some of these tribes move from place to place. These are people who travel raising herds of animals. Tell the children that these people grow their own food, raise animals and have their own laws. Some of the people who live in these tribes have never even visited a city with streets and buildings and cars.

Share some of the suggested books with the students or show pictures of past and present African life, distinguishing between the two, of course. Help the children to see the parallels of life in Africa to other parts of the world. Take the time to discuss as much as possible.

Be certain that the children learn that the people of Africa have given the rest of the world beautiful woven cloth, intricate carvings and jewelry, wonderful songs and music, and marvelous stories.



BCP DRAFT HIST/GEO 32

Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 13

Objective

Discover that slaves were brought from Africa to America.

Materials

Classroom size world map

Teacher Information

It is difficult to address the subject of slavery with children so young, therefore the lesson provided is very basic. The lesson is not intended to deal with all the horrors of slavery, nor the complexity of issues that surround it.

Procedure

Have the children recall the continent of Africa and the people who live there. Tell the children that a long time ago people from other continents sailed to Africa. They saw African people who lived in villages and cities who looked different from them and spoke a different language. These sailors, who were not from Africa, captured some African people and took them away to be slaves.

Say: A slave is someone who belongs to another person called the owner. The owner can sell the slave or make him or her do any work the owner wants. The slave doesn't own anything and has to work for no pay. Sometimes slaves are beaten by their owner because the owner doesn't like what they did. Sometimes they are killed.

Tell the children that the people who took the Africans and made them slaves came back again and again to steal more people. They put handcuffs and chains on the people and led them around the way we put a dog on a leash. They took many Africans and sold them to many people in different places. Sometimes they took families and sold each member of the family to a different owner. Some children never saw their parents again. The slaves forgot their language and everything about their first home in Africa.

Say: The African people who were captured were very angry and very sad. They were taken away from their families and brought to a place they did not know, where people spoke a language they did not speak. They were made to work very hard every day for all of the day. Tell the children that a very sad part of this story is that many of these African people were brought to America. The people had a long, terrible ride crushed together in a ship. Before they got to America some of the people got sick and died.

Continue talking about slavery in America by telling the children that the slaves in America usually worked on very big farms called plantations. They worked from the time they got up until they went to sleep at night. Slaves who were children could not go to school or even learn how to read or write. They weren't even allowed to play.

It is so sad to think that anyone would think it is okay to own another person. Ask: Do you think that it would ever be okay to say you own a person the way you own your house, or your car, or your dog?