BCP DRAFT HIST 85

Kindergarten -History/Geography- May Overview

The lessons for May center around the Fourth of July holiday. The American Revolution and the events leading up to America's quest for independence are introduced in First Grade. These lessons deal with the term democracy and the reason for the celebration of the holiday.

The American flag is reviewed this month.

The World Civilization Lessons conclude the study of the seven continents with an overview of the people and animals of South America. The two craft lessons for May are extensions of these lessons.

BCP DRAFT HIST 86

Kindergarten - American Civilization - Lesson 32

Objectives

Review the contributions of George Washington and Thomas Jefferson.

Define democracy as "rule of the people."

Materials

A book about George Washington

A book about Thomas Jefferson

Suggested Titles

Adler, David. A Picture Book of George Washington. New York: Holiday House, 1989.

This biography depicts the life of George Washington from his childhood to his presidency. It is appropriate for reading aloud.

Adler, David. George Washington: Father of Our Country. New York: Holiday House, 1988.

This is an excellent biography of the first president of the United States.

Adler, David. A Picture Book of Thomas Jefferson. New York: Holiday House, 1990.

The life and achievements of Thomas Jefferson are traced in this colorfully illustrated book.

Procedure

Review History/Geography Lesson 15. Ask: Do you remember the special American George Washington? What were some of the things that made George Washington a special American? (Allow children to recall information from History/Geography Lesson 15--George Washington was our country's first president. He is known as "the father of our country." Children may recall the legend of the Cherry Tree and Washington's honesty.)

Ask: Do you remember what a president is? (A president is the leader or head of our country. In the United States we don't have a king or a queen, but we do have leaders. We choose the people we want to lead us. In the United States we call our most important leader the president. Bill Clinton is our current president.)

Read one of the books listed above about George Washington.

Review History/Geography Lesson 16. Ask: Do you remember the special American Thomas Jefferson? What were some of the things that made Thomas Jefferson a special American? (Allow children to recall information from History/Geography Lesson 16--Thomas Jefferson was our third president. He lived at the same time George Washington did. He loved books and music and gardening. Thomas Jefferson wrote an important paper called the Declaration of Independence.)

Say: Remember in the paper the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson wrote that "All men are created equal." That idea was new to many people.

Read a book about Thomas Jefferson.

Say: Listen to this word democracy. (Allow the children to say democracy.) Say: The word democracy is a very important word to Americans. Democracy means "rule of the people."

At the time of George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, America was a brand new country. Most people in most parts of the world did not rule themselves. Most people were ruled by kings or queens who made all the decisions about everything. When our country began, we decided to BCP DRAFT HIST 87

Kindergarten - American Civilization - Lesson 32

do things differently. In America, we decided to choose whom we wanted to lead us. When we

say America is a democracy, we mean there is no king or queen to decide things. People talk about what they think is best for our country. Then we make our own decisions about what to do. Thomas Jefferson wrote about democracy in the Declaration of Independence. George Washington was chosen as America's first president.

Demonstrate democracy by allowing the children to vote on something such as which book you should read aloud or which classroom or recess game should be played next. Give the children two or three choices of books (for example) to vote on. Explain that the book with the most votes is the one that you will read. Tell them that they may vote for only one book. Allow the children to cast their votes by raising their hands. Count the votes aloud and record the numbers on the board. Assist the children in recognizing the winning book. Explain that they have participated in a democracy. By choosing which book to read and the book with the most votes winning, they have had an opportunity to enjoy democracy or "rule of the people." (Be sure to read the book they voted for!)

BCP DRAFT HIST 88

Kindergarten - American Civilization - Lesson 33

Objectives

Identify holidays as special days that are celebrated in different ways.

Recognize the significance of Independence Day.

Materials

A book to read aloud about the Fourth of July

A map or a globe

Suggested Titles

Teacher Resource

Barkin, Carol and Elizabeth James. The Holiday Handbook. New York: Clarion, 1994.

A handbook of secular holidays describing their origins, ways to celebrate them and other facts.

Sandak, Cass. Patriotic Holidays. New York: Crestwood, 1990.

Discusses the origins and traditions surrounding the Fourth of July, President's Day, and other American holidays.

Read Aloud Titles

Dalgliesh, Alice. The Fourth of July Story. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.

In simple text the story of the thirteen colonies, the movement for independence, and the writing of the Declaration of Independence explain that the Fourth of July is more than fireworks and picnics.

Gore, Willma Willis. Independence Day. Hillside, NJ: Enslow, 1993.

Describes the origins and past and present celebrations of Independence Day.

Hoff, Syd. Henrietta's Fourth of July. Champaign, IL: Garrard, 1981.

A farmer and his barnyard friends join in the annual Fourth of July festivities.

Keller, Holly. Henry's Fourth of July. New York: Greenwillow, 1985.

Henry celebrates our country's birthday with his family and friends.

Shachtman, Tom. America's Birthday: The Fourth of July. New York: Macmillan, 1986.

The Fourth of July celebration along the coast of New Hampshire is presented in text and photographs. Appropriate for reading aloud.

Teacher Information

The first official Fourth of July celebration occurred in 1777. John Adams argued that July 2--the date the colonists voted for independence--should have been the day for celebration. Others thought it should be the day independence was officially declared. July 4th was the day agreed upon. The first Fourth of July celebration was loud and exciting. Bells rang all day and ships fired their cannons to salute the thirteen colonies. By the early 1800s the traditions of parades, picnics and fireworks were firmly established. By about 1810, most cities acknowledged the Fourth of July as a national holiday. The people of Boston did not celebrate the Fourth of July until much later. They held Patriot's Day to honor the start of the Battle of Lexington and Concord. It wasn't until 1883 that Bostonians joined the rest of the nation in celebrating the Fourth of July. The holiday was popular in the South, but was not celebrated during the Civil War.

BCP DRAFT HIST 89

Kindergarten - American Civilization - Lesson 33

An amazing coincidence occurred on July 4, 1826. While the nation observed the fiftieth Independence Day, two signers of the Declaration of Independence, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, died peacefully at their homes in Massachusetts and Virginia.

Procedure

Ask: What is a birthday? (Allow discussion. Point out that birthdays celebrate the day on which you were born and that they are special days for people. A birthday happens once every year.) Ask: Is everyone's birthday on the same day? (Make sure the children understand that a person's birthday is celebrated once a year and that different people's birthdays are usually on different dates.)

Say: Our country also has special days. These days are called holidays. A holiday is a special day that is celebrated by many people. Ask: Can you name some holidays? (List responses on the board. Emphasize that like birthdays, each holiday is celebrated once a year, that holidays come on different days of the year.) Ask: How are some of these holidays celebrated? (Name one of the holidays listed and allow the children to describe how the holiday is celebrated. Firm up that holidays are celebrated in different ways.)

Say: A special holiday in America is called Independence Day or Fourth of July.

Ask: Do you remember what the word democracy means? (rule of the people) Remember that when our country began, we decided we did not want to be ruled by a king or a queen. We wanted to choose whom we wanted as our leaders.

Point to England on the map or globe. In the early years of our country, most people who came to America, came from England. As you can see, there's a whole ocean between England and America. Ask: Do you know the name of this ocean? (Atlantic) In England, the people were ruled by a king. Remember at that time the king made all the decisions about everything and everyone was supposed to obey him. The people who came to America from England were supposed to obey the king of England. For a long time they did. Sometimes, the people of America argued with the king. They did not always want to do what he ordered. The people of America began to talk about ruling themselves. And that's what they did! On July 4, 1776, Americans decided to be free from England and rule themselves. The Fourth of July is the birthday of the United States of America. It is the date we decided to become a new country, our own country.

Say: The Fourth of July is also called Independence Day because it is the day we said we would no longer be part of England. We said that America was now independent. Independent means we were free to choose our own leaders and make our own rules.

Ask: Do you remember who wrote the Declaration of Independence? (Thomas Jefferson) The Declaration of Independence explained why our country should be free of England.

Discuss how Baltimore celebrates the Fourth of July. Say: Because Independence Day comes during the summer when the weather is warm, many people celebrate it by having picnics and parades. Ask: Have you ever seen fireworks on the Fourth of July? (Allow children to discuss Fourth of July celebrations.) Say: The American Flag is displayed on the Fourth of July and many people wear clothing that is red, white and blue. Ask: Why do you think the flag is an important part of the Fourth of July celebration? (We display the flag to show our loyalty to America.)

BCP DRAFT HIST 90

Kindergarten - American Civilization - Lesson 33

Share the following poem with the children.

Fourth of July

Everyone's excited

on the 4th of July.

We stand along the sidewalk

when the band goes by.

And then we have a picnic;

we have apple pie.

And at night we watch the rockets,

throwing stars across the sky.

Aileen Fisher

Conclude the lesson by reading one of the titles listed above.

BCP DRAFT HIST 91

Kindergarten - American Civilization - Lesson 34

Objectives

Understand that symbols stand for things.

Recognize the American flag as one of the most important symbols of our country.

Discover some of the flags from other countries.

Materials

An American flag

Pictures of flags from other countries (obtain from an encyclopedia or a book listed below)

Construction paper scraps (optional)

Glue and scissors (optional)

Suggested Titles

Devereux, Eve. Identifying Flags. Secaucus, NJ: Chartwell, 1994.

A good source to use in sharing the different world and state flags.

Fisher, Leonard Everett. Stars & Stripes: Our National Flag. New York: Holiday House, 1993.

Presents various American flags and gives brief historical information about each. Suitable for reading aloud.

Haban, Rita. How Proudly They Wave: Flags of the Fifty States. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1989.

Describes the history and significance of each state's flag.

Mayer, Albert I. The Story of Old Glory. Chicago: Children's Press, 1970.

This book tells the history of the American flag as it developed from the Union Jack into a totally different symbol. This book is appropriate to use as a read-aloud.

Radlauer, Ruth Shaw. Honor the Flag: A Guide to Its Care and Display. Lake Forest, IL: Forest House Publishing, 1992.

Suitable for reading aloud, this book explains in simple terms how to care for the flag.

Spier, Peter. The Star-Spangled Banner. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1973.

Illustrates three verses of our national anthem.

Yenne, Bill, editor. Flags of the World. Secaucus, NJ: Chartwell, 1993.

A good source to use to show illustrations of the different flags of the world.

Procedure

Draw on the board some symbols that the children are familiar with (street signs, MacDonald's arches, a Christmas tree, etc.) Ask the children what they think of when they see each of the symbols. Say: These things are symbols. Symbols are used to represent many things.

Some symbols are used to represent the United States of America.

Say: One of the most important symbols of our country is the American flag. (Display the flag.) Ask: Who can describe the flag? (Encourage children to name colors, shape and design.) Count the flag's stars. Say: The American flag has fifty stars. Each star stands for a state. There are fifty states that make up the United States of America.

Ask: Can you name places where you have seen the American flag displayed? (at schools, post offices, buildings, in parades, etc.) Every day the American flag is displayed. People are showing their pride in America when they fly the flag. It helps us to remember the people who started our country and that we are a free country that enjoys a democracy.

BCP DRAFT HIST 92

Kindergarten - American Civilization - Lesson 34

Say: Many Americans say the Pledge of Allegiance to our flag each day. The Pledge of Allegiance is a promise to be true to our country. (You may wish to have the children stand and recite the pledge.)

Read the following poem:

Our Flag

When we say the Pledge of Allegiance aloud,

We think of our flag and feel very proud.

Our flag waves for me and you,

with its stars and stripes of red, white, and blue.

A shining star for every state,

It reminds us that our country is great.

Virginia Dooley

 

Say: Almost every country has a flag. (Display flags from other countries. Note similarities in shapes and colors where appropriate.)

Say: Each state also has its own flag. (Display pictures of a variety of state flags. Be sure to show a picture of the Maryland state flag.)

Teacher Note: The designs and colors on Maryland's flag come from the state seal which was sent from England soon after the first settlement was made. The black and gold colors and design stand for the Calvert family. The red and white colors and design stand for the Crossland family. Crossland was the family name of the first Lord Baltimore's mother.

Ask: Why do you think each country and each state has its own flag? (Allow discussion.)

Children may enjoy creating their own flags. Provide scraps of construction paper, glue and scissors and allow the children to make flags. Play patriotic music such as "The Star-Spangled Banner," "America," and "Your a Grand Old Flag." Wee Sing America: Songs of Patriots and Pioneers (Price, Stern, Sloan, 1988) contains standard patriotic songs plus some poetry readings. Allow the children to march in a parade with their flags.

Suggested Follow-Up Activity

Make a flag cake. Allow the children to participate in the class cooking experience.

Ingredients

One yellow or white cake mix

One container white frosting

Blueberries

Mini-marshmallows

Strawberries

Follow directions on the cake mix. Bake the cake in a rectangular baking pan. When the cake is cool, spread the frosting over the top of the cake. In the upper left corner use blueberries to make a five-inch blue square. Put a circle of thirteen mini-marshmallows on the blueberries to represent the stars on the first U.S. flag. Use strawberry slices to create the red stripes.

BCP DRAFT HIST 93

Kindergarten - American Civilization - Independence Day

Bibliography

Read Aloud Titles

*Adler, David. A Picture Book of George Washington. New York: Holiday House, 1989.

*________. George Washington: Father of Our Country. New York: Holiday House, 1988.

*________. A Picture Book of Thomas Jefferson. New York: Holiday House, 1990.

*Dalgliesh, Alice. The Fourth of July Story. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.

*Fisher, Leonard Everett. Stars & Stripes: Our National Flag. New York: Holiday House, 1993.

*Gore, Willma Willis. Independence Day. Hillside, NJ: Enslow, 1993.

*Hoff, Syd. Henrietta's Fourth of July. Champaign, IL: Garrard, 1981.

*Keller, Holly. Henry's Fourth of July. New York: Greenwillow, 1985.

*Mayer, Albert I. The Story of Old Glory. Chicago: Children's Press, 1970.

*Radlauer, Ruth Shaw. Honor the Flag: A Guide to Its Care and Display. Lake Forest, IL: Forest House Publishing, 1992.

*Shachtman, Tom. America's Birthday: The Fourth of July. New York: Macmillan, 1986.

*Spier, Peter. The Star-Spangled Banner. Garden City: NY: Doubleday, 1973.



Teacher Resource Titles

*Barkin, Carol and Elizabeth James. The Holiday Handbook. New York: Clarion, 1994.

*Devereux, Eve. Identifying Flags. Secaucus, NJ: Chartwell, 1994.

*Haban, Rita. How Proudly They Wave: Flags of the Fifty States. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1989.

*Sandak, Cass. Patriotic Holidays. New York: Crestwood, 1990.

*Yenne, Bill editor. Flags of the World. Secaucus, NJ: Chartwell, 1993.

*indicates annotation in a lesson

BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 94

Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 35

Objectives

Review North America, Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, and Antarctica.

Identify South America as the continent south of North America.

Locate the Andes Mountains and the Amazon River.

Color a map of South America.

Materials

A classroom size world map

A globe

Copies of the map of South America (attached)

Crayons

Procedure

Draw attention to the world map or globe. Say: We have been learning about the continents of the world.

Point to Australia. Say: This is the smallest continent in the world. Ask: What is the name of this continent? Do you remember its nickname? (the land down under)

Point to Antarctica on the globe. Say: This continent is too cold for trees, plants, people and most animals. Ask: What is the name of this continent?

Point to Africa. Say: The Nile River and the Sahara Desert can be found here. Ask: What is the name of this continent?

Point to Europe. Say: The countries of France and England can be found here. Ask: What is the name of this continent?

Point to Asia. Say: This is the largest continent. The Great Wall of China can be found here. Ask: What is the name of this continent?

Point to North America. Say: This is our home continent. The United States, Mexico, and Canada can be found here. Ask: What is the name of this continent?

Put your finger on the Pacific Ocean side of North America. Slide your finger down the coast line. Tell the children that on most maps north is up and south is down. As you slide your finger down ask the children in what direction you are going. When you reach South America tell the children you are no longer in North America. You are in the next continent that they will be learning about. Ask if anyone can name the continent.

Say: The continent of South America is a beautiful continent that has tall mountains, a long river and green forests. The very southern tip of South America is icy! Even a dry, dry desert can be found in South America (the Atacama Desert in northern Chile). Locate the equator. Review that the equator is an imaginary line that divides the world into two parts. Point out that the equator runs through part of South America.

Locate the Andes Mountains. Point out that the Andes Mountains run all the way down the Pacific side of South America. Say: This is the longest mountain range in the world. (The children will learn more about the people and animals of the Andes in a future lesson.)

Locate the Amazon River. Say: The Amazon River begins high in the Andes Mountains, then goes on until it runs through a thick, hot jungle called a rain forest. Beautiful plants and unusual animals can be found in this region. (The children will learn more about the people and

animals of the rainforest region in a future lesson.)

Say: South America is home to many plants, animals and people. We will be learning more about this large, beautiful continent.

Distribute the map of South America. Direct the children to trace over the Amazon River with a blue crayon. Tell them to use a brown crayon to trace over the inverted v shapes that represent mountains on a map. Review that the mountain range located in South America is called the Andes Mountains. Children may lightly color the rest of the map green. Draw attention to the two oceans that touch South America. Identify the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The children should color the ocean areas blue.

BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 96

Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 35

Name___________________________________________

South America

Trace over the Amazon River with a blue crayon. Trace over the Andes Mountains with a brown crayon. Lightly color the continent of South America green. Color the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans blue.



BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 97

Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 36

Objectives

Review the location of the Andes Mountains and the Amazon River.

Locate the Andean Countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia).

Discover the people and animals of the Andean Countries.

Materials

A classroom size world map

Pictures of the flora, fauna, and geographical features of the Andean region (obtain from books listed below)

Pictures of a llama, chinchilla and condor (obtain from books listed below)

Suggested Titles

Cobb, Vicki. This Place is High. New York: Walker, 1989.

The living conditions in the Andes Mountains of Bolivia for the people and unusual animals that live there is told in simple text and beautiful illustrations. Suitable for reading aloud.

Ehlert, Lois. Moon Rope. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1992.

A bilingual folktale from Peru about a fox who longs to go to the moon. Beautifully illustrated.

Grabham, Sue, editor. Circling the Globe, Volume 6: South America. Austin, TX: Steck-Vaughn, 1995.

Excellent resource for showing photographs and illustrations of all of the areas of South America including the Andean region. Sections may be read aloud.

Jacobsen, Karen. A New True Book: Bolivia. Chicago: Children's Press, 1991.

Explores the geography, history, and people of Bolivia through simple text and color photographs. Suitable for reading aloud.

Procedure

Draw attention to the world map. Call on a student to locate South America. Point to the Atlantic Ocean as it borders South America. Ask: Who can name this ocean? Point to the Pacific Ocean as it borders South America. Ask: Who can name this ocean?

Draw your finger down the Andes Mountain range. Ask: Can anyone remember the name of this very long line of mountains?

Point to the countries of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina and Chile that are affected by the Andes. Say: In this region of South America the people, animals and plants live in the Andes Mountains. Ask: What might be some of the problems with living in the mountains? (Allow speculation.)

Point to the coastline of Colombia. Say: Hot, humid forests can be found along the coast of this country. Point to the equator. Say: The equator runs through this country. In this area, the weather is hot and sticky. There are areas of very hot deserts, but enough rain falls here that crops such as cotton can be grown. Most of the people who live in this country live in cities in the Andes Mountains. The weather is cooler here and a wide range of crops are grown on the hillsides. (Review Science Lesson 41--A crop is a food grown on a farm.) Many people work in the fields raising coffee and potatoes; some people raise cows.

Locate Ecuador on the map. Say: The Andes Mountains run through the center of this country. Some of these mountains are volcanoes. Ask: Do you remember what a volcano is? (History/Geography Lesson 22--A volcano is a mountain created by the flow of melted rock through an opening in the Earth's crust. Mount Fuji, located in Japan, is a volcano. It has not erupted for a long time.)

Say: Some of the volcanoes in this country are active. That means that they occasionally erupt.

Say: Many people in this country live near the mountains. They are farmers. The rest of the people in this country live on the coastline along the Pacific Ocean. Here the weather is perfect for growing bananas, coffee, cocoa, and sugarcane.

Locate Peru on the map. Say: This country was the homeland of an Indian group called the Incas. You will learn more about the Incas in First Grade. Many of the people who live here today are descendants of the Incas. The Incas of long ago built a city on top of a small, steep mountain. This very old city is called Machu Picchu (MA choo PEE choo). Machu Picchu means "Old Peak." For some reason, the Incas left their beautiful city. No one knows why. It is still a mystery.

Say: Most of the people in this country live along the narrow strip of land lining the Pacific coast. Many are farmers who raise cotton and sugar. The Andes Mountains in this country are very, very tall. The tallest mountain in all of South America can be found here.

Say: Some of the animals of the Andes Mountains are most unusual. Perhaps the most important animal of this region is the llama. (Show a picture of a llama. Ask the children if it reminds them of any other animals. They may note its similarity to the camel.) Say: Llamas are used to carry heavy loads and for transportation. Their wool is woven into blankets and rugs, and older animals are killed for their meat and hides. Llamas are patient and strong, but if you annoy them, they will spit at you! (You may wish to compare the llama and camel. Review History/Geography Lesson 10 about the camels of Africa.)

Say: Another animal of the Andes is the chinchilla. Chinchillas are small animals with thick, silky fur. Wild chinchillas used to be hunted for their valuable fur. (Show a picture of a chinchilla.)

Say: The condor, a huge bird, flies high above the mountains. The condor builds its nests only among the highest peaks of the Andes Mountains. (Show a picture of a condor.)

Conclude the lesson by showing pictures of the Andes Mountains, the animals, people and geography of this region. Read one of the books listed above.

Suggested Follow-Up Activity

See the Art/Craft Lesson on Fiesta Headdresses.

 

BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 99

Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 37

Objectives

Review the location of the Amazon River.

Locate Brazil.

Discover some of the people and animals of Brazil.

Materials

A classroom size world map

Pictures of the flora and fauna of the Amazon River region (obtain from books listed below)

Suggested Titles

Read Aloud

Cherry, Lynne. The Great Kapok Tree: A Tale of the Amazon Rain Forest. San Diego: Harcourt, 1990.

Beautifully illustrated, this story tells how the animals of the rain forest convince a woodcutter not to chop down the kapok tree which is essential to their lives.

Cobb, Vicki. This Place is Wet. New York: Walker, 1993.

Simple text and beautiful illustrations describe Manaus, the most economically significant city in the Amazon.

Darling, Kathy. Amazon ABC. New York: Lothrop, 1996.

Each page presents one letter of the alphabet as well as photographs of a rain forest animal whose name begins with that letter.

Dawson, Zoe. Postcards From Brazil. Milwaukee: Raintree, 1996.

Thirteen postcards introduce readers to Brazil's major attractions such as Rio and the Amazon River, and a southern Brazilian farm.

Delacre, Lulu. Vejigante Masquerader. New York: Scholastic, 1993.

In this amusing and colorful picture book, a young boy designs a costume for Carnival.

Haskins, James. Count Your Way Through Brazil. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda, 1996.

While teaching children how to count from 1-10 in Portuguese, this book also presents information about the land, history, and people of Brazil.

Lewin, Ted. Amazon Boy. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993.

A good introduction to both small-town and urban Brazilian life.

Lewin, Ted. When the Rivers Go Home. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.

Soft watercolors portray various animals and birds unique to Brazil.

Teacher/Student Resource

Kids Discover Magazine. "Amazon," 1996.

Full of color photographs and illustrations.

Sherwood, Rhoda, edited by. Children of the World: Brazil. Milwaukee: Gareth Stevens, 1988.

Photographs and text present the life of two boys who live outside of Rio de Janeiro describing their home, school, activities and the festivals and holidays of Brazil. Excerpts may be read aloud.







BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 100

Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 37

Procedure

Review the location of the continent of South America. Recall information presented in Lesson 36 regarding the people and animals of the Andes Mountains.

Say: We have learned that a great mountain chain can be found in South America. Today we are going to learn about another area of this beautiful continent. Draw attention to the Amazon River on the map. Say: Who remembers the name of this long river that runs through South America. (Allow response.) Say: The Amazon River begins high in the Andes Mountains (locate the river as it begins in Peru and trace with your finger its course to the Atlantic Ocean). The river closely follows the equator as it travels four thousand miles until it enters the Atlantic Ocean.

Say: The largest country of South America is called Brazil (locate Brazil on the map). The brown waters of the Amazon River flow through Brazil. The river passes through the world's largest area of thick, steamy rain forest. A rain forest is a hot, humid jungle. Most rain forests are found near the equator.

Say: In the water, in the air, or on the land, the rain forest of South America is a remarkable place for plants and animals. Screeching parrots and screaming macaws, tiny hummingbirds and huge swarms of beautiful colored butterflies can be found here. Anteaters, jaguars, and vampire bats live here, too. Boa constrictors, poisonous frogs and piranhas, fish with razor sharp teeth, are just a few of the animals found in the rain forest that would be best for you to stay away from. Spider monkeys and howler monkeys swing from the tree tops of the tropical rain forest. (Show pictures and read a few of the books about the animals of the rain forest.) People live in the rain forest, too. Several Indian groups make their homes in the hot, steamy jungle. Many of these Indian groups hunt the wild animals and gather the plants of the forest for food. Plantain, a type of banana, avocados, and sweet potatoes are just some of the plants that grow here and provide food for the people of the rain forest.

Say: The people of Brazil that do not live in the rain forest region, also enjoy outside activities. They go to beaches, and enjoy playing and watching soccer. In late February, just before Lent, everyone in Brazil celebrates Carnival. For four days and five nights, people fill the streets. They eat and drink and dance to samba music. Samba music has a strong beat that is usually played by drums. Samba also refers to the dance people do while listening to the music. Carnival ends on Ash Wednesday. The people like to dress in masks and fancy costumes and march in parades (Show pictures of Carnival from the books listed above.)

Read other books about the people of Brazil and life in the rain forest.

Suggested Follow-Up Activity

See Art/Craft Lesson Carnival Masks.

BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 101

Kindergarten - History/Geography - Lesson 38

Objectives

Review the location of the Amazon River.

Locate Argentina and Chile.

Discover the people and animals of southern South America.

Materials

A classroom size world map

Pictures of the flora and fauna of southern South America

Suggested Titles

Brusca, Maria Cristina. On the Pampas. New York: Holt, 1991.

The author recounts her fun-filled summer as a little girl on her grandparents' ranch on the Pampas of Argentina. Watercolor illustrations and lively text depict the excitement of ranch life.

Grabham, Sue, editor. Circling the Globe, Volume 6: South America. Austin, TX: Steck-Vaughn,

1995.

Excellent resource for showing photographs and illustrations of all of the areas of South America including southern South America. Sections may be read aloud.

Huber, Alex. We Live in Argentina. New York: Bookwright Press, 1984.

Color photographs and text introduce the reader to some of the people of Argentina from a tango dancer, to a polo player, to a gaucho. Sections may be read aloud.

Jacobsen, Karen. A New True Book: Chile. Chicago: Children's Press, 1991.

Simple text and color photographs explore the geography, history, and people of Chile. Suitable for reading aloud.

Procedure

Review the Amazon River region and the Andes Mountain region from Lessons 35 and 36. Say: We have learned that South America is home to tall mountains and a long river. Ask: What are some of the things you remember about life in Brazil and the rain forest? (Allow discussion.) Ask: What do you remember about life in the Andes Mountains? What are some of the animals that can be found there? (Allow discussion.)

Say: Today we are going to finish our lessons about South America. We are going to learn about the people and animals that live in southern South America.

Draw attention to the world map. Locate Chile. Say: This long, thin country is called Chile. The northern part of this country experiences warm, mild weather, while the southern part of the country is cold and stormy. (Locate the equator. Point out how the northern part of the country is relatively close to the equator, while the southern part of the country is relatively close to the Antarctic Circle.) Low mountains, valleys, and high mountains can be found in Chile. The high mountains are part of the Andes Mountains. (Locate this region. It is near Bolivia and Argentina.) Most of the people of Chile live in the central part of the country. This part of Chile has good farmland and a pleasant climate. Fruit and vegetable crops grow very well in this region. Sheep and cattle are also raised for food here. The southern part of Chile has many islands. The weather along Chile's southern coast is almost always stormy, with heavy rains or snow. Ask: Do you think this would be a good place to live? (Allow discussion.)

Say: The first people of Chile were Indian tribes of hunters and food gatherers. Most of the people who live in Chile today are farmers. They live and work on large farms called fundos (FOON dohs). In the cities, many people live in apartment houses.

Say: Another country of southern South America is Argentina. (Locate Argentina on the map.) Say: Argentina also has a warm, mild climate in the northern part of the country, while the southern part of Argentina is cold and icy. There are open grasslands, called the pampas, through the center of the country. On the rolling pastures of the pampas wheat fields and cattle ranches can be found. Cowboys, called gauchos, work to herd the cattle here. Wolves, who were once hunted, live in the pampas. The rhea, a large bird that cannot fly and is similar to the ostrich, lives on the grasslands of the pampas.

Say: Most of the people of Argentina live in towns, and some live across the pampas. Large areas of the country have no one living there because the land is rocky and the climate is poor. The people of Argentina enjoy dancing and sports. Polo, a ball game played by people on horseback, is one of the favorite sports of this country. Soccer, boating, and car racing are also popular sports.

Say: Sea lions live in the cool South Atlantic. They come ashore on the coast of southern Argentina to start their families. Penguins and seals also live in the colder regions of southern South America. Ask: Do you remember the name of the other continent where penguins and seals can be found? (Antarctica) Note the close proximity of Antarctica to southern South America.

Conclude the lesson by reading from the books listed above. Show pictures of the people, animals and geography of southern South America.

BCP DRAFT HIST/GEOG 103

Kindergarten - World Civilization - South America

Bibliography

Read Aloud Titles

*Cherry, Lynne. The Great Kapok Tree: A Tale of the Amazon Rain Forest. San Diego: Harcourt, 1990.

*Cobb, Vicki. This Place is High. New York: Walker, 1989.

*________. This Place is Wet. New York: Walker, 1993.

*Darling, Kathy. Amazon ABC. New York: Lothrop, 1996.

*Dawson, Zoe. Postcards From Brazil. Milwaukee: Raintree, 1996.

*Ehlert, Lois. Moon Rope. San Diego: Harcourt, 1992.

*Haskins, James. Count Your Way Through Brazil. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda, 1996.

*Jacobsen, Karen. A New True Book: Bolivia. Chicago: Children's Press, 1991.

*________. A New True Book: Chile. Chicago: Children's Press, 1991.

*Lewin, Ted. Amazon Boy. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993.

*________. Where the Rivers Go Home. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.

Teacher Resource Titles

*Kids Discover Magazine. "Amazon," 1996.

*Grabham, Sue, editor. Circling the Globe, Volume 6: South America. Austin, TX: Steck- Vaughn, 1995.

*Huber, Alex. We Live in Argentina. New York: Bookwright Press, 1984.

*Sherwood, Rhoda, edited by. Children of the World: Brazil. Milwaukee: Gareth Stevens, 1988.

*indicates annotation in a lesson