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Kindergarten - October Science - Overview



Baltimore Curriculum Project Draft Lessons

Introductory Notes

These lessons generally follow the grade-by-grade topics in the Core Knowledge Sequence, but they have been developed independent of the Core Knowledge Foundation. While the Core Knowledge Foundation encourages the development and sharing of lessons based on the Core Knowledge Sequence, it does not endorse any one set of lesson plans as the best or only way that the knowledge in the Sequence should be taught.

You may feel free to download and distribute these lessons, but please note that they are currently in DRAFT form. At this time the draft lessons on this web site do NOT have accompanying graphics, such as maps or cut-out patterns. Graphics will be added to this site later.

In participating BCP schools, these lessons are used in conjunction with the Direct Instruction skills programs in reading, language, and math. If you use or adapt these lessons, keep in mind that they are meant to address content and the application of skills. You will need to use other materials to ensure that children master skills in reading, language, and math.

October science lessons deal with investigating the five senses of the human body. Each lesson is designed to be "hands-on" for the kindergarten-age child. The lessons are sequential, and therefore it is required that they be taught in the sequence written.

Suggested Books

Aliki. My Five Senses. New York: HarperCollins, 1989.

Borten, Helen. Do You Know What I Know? New York: Abelard-Schuman, 1970.

Evans, David and Claudette Williams. Me and My Body. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1992.

Hayes, Phyllis. Musical Instruments You Can Make. New York: Franklin Watts, 1981.

Miller, Margaret. My Five Senses. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994.

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Kindergarten - Science - Lesson 5 - The Human Body

Objectives

Observe how senses are used.

Identify the five sense organs.

Materials

Popcorn popper

Popcorn kernels, butter, and salt

Large bowl

Cups and/or napkins for individual servings of popcorn

Background

This lesson merely introduces children to the five senses. Each sense will be investigated further in upcoming lessons.

Procedure

Ask students to wash their hands before beginning this activity. Review how washing hands to eliminate germs and dirt is especially important prior to eating.

Give each student one or two kernels of unpopped corn. (Warn children of the choking danger of putting a small kernel of corn in their mouths before it is popped.) Ask: How does the unpopped corn look? Allow several responses. Ask: How does the unpopped corn feel? Again allow for several responses. Ask: Does the unpopped corn have any smell? Ask children to throw away the unpopped corn they have been handling. Stress how proper food handling will eliminate germs and keep us healthy. Be sure all children are seated and safely away from popcorn popper before continuing.

Begin popping clean popcorn kernels. As the kernels are popping, discuss the sounds students hear and what they smell. When popping is complete, serve each child an individual serving of the popcorn. Before they eat it, compare the touch, sight, and smell of the popped corn to the unpopped kernels. Allow time for the children to eat the popcorn. Ask students to describe how the popcorn tastes. Ask: What did you learn about popcorn? Guide students to identify all five sense organs and tell how each sense organ helped them gain information about the popcorn. Sample questions might be: How does the popcorn look before it is popped? (It's yellow. It's small.) What part of our body helped us to know? (our eyes) How does the popcorn smell after we popped it? (yummy, warm) What part of our body helped us to know? (our nose) How does the popcorn taste? (buttery, salty) What part of our body helped us to know? (our tongue; Accept mouth as a correct answer at this point.) How did the popcorn sound as it popped? (It was loud.) What part of our body helped us to know? (our ears) How did the unpopped corn feel in our hands? (smooth, hard, flat, cool) What about after it was popped? (soft, warm, bumpy) What part of our body helped us to know? (our skin; Accept hands or fingers as a correct response.)

Ask: Do you think anyone else in school knew we were popping popcorn today? How might they have known? (They could smell the popcorn. They could hear the corn popping.)

Tell children that our body helps us to learn about the world around us. Tell children they

will be exploring and learning more about their eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin in science lessons to follow.

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Kindergarten - Science - Lesson 5 - The Human Body

Suggested Follow Up Activity

Read The Popcorn Book by Tomie dePaola (Holiday House, 1978) as a follow-up to the lesson. This is a wonderful book full of facts about how popcorn is made, how Native Americans used it, and how Americans today enjoy it.

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Kindergarten - Science Lesson 6 - The Human Body

Objectives

Investigate the sense of sight.

Identify the eyes as the part of the body used to see.

Materials

Large selection of precut (paper or tagboard) geometric shapes (triangles, circles, squares, rectangles) You may substitute classroom attribute blocks if available.

Drawing paper

Crayons

Procedure

Give each child a geometric shape. Allow children time to study and become familiar with their assigned shape. Ask children to compare how their shape is the same and how it is different from the shapes of their classmates. Call on several children to respond.

Tell the children the class will be going on a walk around the school (inside or out), and they will be looking for things that match their shape. Be sure children realize that shapes come in all different sizes. Provide examples within the classroom prior to the walk. For example: hold up a rectangle and ask students to identify objects in the classroom that have the same shape. Possible answers might include a tissue box, the door, or a window. Point out the size is different but the shape is the same. Provide more examples and non-examples until the concept is firm.

Take children on the walk to look for objects around the school that match their assigned shape. Discuss the students' observations as the walk continues. When children have had an opportunity to identify objects that match their assigned shapes, return to the classroom.

Ask: What part of your body did you use to look for matching shapes on our walk? (my eyes) Say: Your eyes are the part of your body that is used for seeing. Ask: What did we learn about popcorn by using our eyes? Allow response time.

Give each student drawing paper and allow them time to draw a picture of the things they matched to their assigned shapes on the school walk.

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Kindergarten - Science Lesson 7 - The Human Body

Objectives

Investigate the sense of hearing.

Identify the ears as the part of the body used to hear.

Discriminate differences in sounds.

Classify sounds.

Materials

Collection of small items to place in a rattle for sound discrimination (pebbles, dry beans, pennies, small screws, paper clips, rice, sand )

Paper plates (one for each child)

Procedure

Give each student one paper plate. Help the children fold the plate in half. Give each student one type of filler from those you have collected to place in a rattle. Be sure that at least two children receive the same kind of filler. After they have made their rattles, they will play a sound game that depends on having at least two children create the same sound. Have them complete the rattles by stapling or taping the edges of their paper plates together.

Allow children time to shake their rattles. Ask: What are you creating by shaking your rattle? (sound) Ask: What part of our body hears sound? (ears). Say: Make a quiet sound with your rattle. Check for understanding of quiet sound. Say: Make a loud sound with your rattle. Check for understanding of loud sound.

Tell the children to stop all rattle sounds so they can use their ears to listen to your directions. Tell them they are going to play a sound game. They will first need to listen very carefully to the sound that their rattle makes, because only one other rattle will make the same sound. Allow children time to shake their rattle close to their ears to gain familiarity with their rattle sound. Tell children to move carefully around the room and listen to each other's rattle sounds. Say: The object of the game is to find someone else in the room who has a rattle that makes the same sound as yours. Allow time for the movement and noise this activity will create. Assist students as needed in finding the sound that matches their own. As children find matching rattles, ask those two children to sit together until all the matches have been made. When all children have found a matching rattle, continue the lesson.

Ask each pair of matching rattles to shake their rattles to check for accuracy. Spend time classifying the sounds by discussing quiet sounds and loud sounds. Group all the quiet rattles together, then all the loud rattles. Discuss how quiet rattles can still make loud sounds when all shake together in a vigorous way. Show how the loud rattles can also make a quiet sound by shaking gently.

Review: We are able to learn about the sounds of the world by using our ears. When we listen, we use our ears. Experiment by asking children to cover their ears with their cupped hands as you are talking in order to compare how hearing changes.

Suggested Follow Up

Make other musical instruments in the classroom for children to continue exploration of

sound. Musical Instruments You Can Make by Phyllis Hayes (Franklin Watts, 1981) is an

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Kindergarten - Science Lesson 7 - The Human Body

excellent source for musical instruments that are simple to construct.

Read aloud and encourage students to imitate the sounds in the books City Sounds or Jungle Sounds, both by Rebecca Emberly.

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Kindergarten - Science Lesson 8 -The Human Body

Objectives

Investigate the sense of smell.

Identify the nose as the part of the body used to smell.

Discuss the poem "My Nose" by Dorothy Aldis.

Materials

Collection of common classroom objects that have a distinctive smell (such as crayons, glue or paste, soap, clay, tempera paint, potted plant, pencil)

Box to store items in

Procedure

Place a collection of common classroom objects in a box out of sight of the children. Tell the children you are going to play a smell game. Have all children sit on the floor. Call on one student to stand before the class and close his or her eyes tightly. Select an object from the box and caution the other children not to say what the object is. Tell the child with closed eyes that you are going to put something under his or her nose that can be found in the classroom. Say: Do not peek with your eyes, but rather sniff with your nose to guess the name of the object. Give clues about how the object is used if necessary until the child is able to identify it. Select another child and continue the game until all children have had a turn to identify an object even if some of the items have already been identified by someone else. Allow time for children to take turns smelling all the collected items in order to compare scents.

Ask: What part of our body helps us to identify things in our world by the way they smell? (nose) Discuss how smells can warn us of dangers. Ask students to name smells that warn of danger. (smoke, gasoline, poison) Discuss what students should do if they smell a dangerous scent.

Ask: Do you think you could smell things clearly if you had a bad cold with a stuffed nose? Read the poem "My Nose" by Dorothy Aldis.

My Nose

It doesn't breathe;

It doesn't smell;

It doesn't feel

So very well.

I am discouraged

With my nose:

The only thing it

Does is blows.

 

Discuss and enjoy the poem; read it again for pleasure. Perhaps review healthy living tips from previous science lessons.



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Kindergarten - Science Lesson 8 -The Human Body

Suggested Follow Up Activity

Discuss which animals have a very keen sense of smell. Not all animals smell with their noses. Ants, for example have two antennae that are attached to the front of the head. With the antennae, ants tap the ground and pick up scents in the air. Read Whose Nose Is This? by Richard Van Gelder (Walker & Company, 1974) to the class. Allow students to determine which animal each nose belongs to.

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Kindergarten - Science Lesson 9 - The Human Body

Objectives

Investigate the sense of taste.

Identify the tongue as the part of the body used to taste.

Discover that taste buds are used for tasting sweet, sour, salty, and bitter.

Infer that smelling and tasting work together.

Materials

Different types of food, cut into bite size pieces (such as grapes, cheese, peanuts, dry cereal, raisins, carrots, salami, apple, cracker)

Paper plates

Mirror

Procedure

CAUTION: BE AWARE OF ANY FOOD ALLERGIES BEFORE BEGINNING THE ACTIVITY.

For each student, prepare a plate of food samples. Tell students they are going to play a tasting game. Instruct children to hold their noses. Tell them to select a piece of the food from their plates and eat it with their noses still plugged. Then tell them to let go of their noses and continue to taste the food. Ask: Does smell help foods have a taste? Continue the experiment with each food sample by first tasting it with the nose held, and then again with the nose open. Students should conclude that the taste of each food was stronger when they were not holding their noses.

Ask students to recall a time when they had a cold. Ask: Did food taste the same when you had a cold? What difference in the taste of food did you notice? Review the poem, "My Nose," from Lesson 8. Discuss how a cold not only affects the way things smell, but also the way food may taste. Students should understand that the senses of taste and smell work together.

Provide the opportunity for children to examine their tongues in a mirror. Say: Look carefully at your tongue in the mirror. Look for tiny bumps on the top side of your tongue. These bumps are called taste buds, and they are what you use for tasting. Tell the children that the tongue is the part of the body that allows them to taste. Say: The taste buds tell you whether things are sweet, sour, salty, or bitter. Ask: Who can name something that is sweet to taste? Allow response time. Ask: Who can name something that is sour to taste? Allow response time. Ask: Who can name something that is salty to taste? Allow response time. Ask: Who can name something that is bitter to taste? (Children may need guidance in understanding bitter. One example would be unsweetened bitter [baking] chocolate.)

Firm up: The tongue is the part of the body that is used for tasting. Taste and smell work together to help us learn about our world.

Caution students not to taste anything they do not know about without an adult's permission.

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Kindergarten - Science Lesson 10 - The Human Body

Objectives

Investigate the sense of touch through the skin.

Identify objects using the sense of touch.

Classify objects by the way they feel.

Materials

Small objects such as a pencil, comb, rock, feather, toothbrush, sponge, ping pong ball, plastic fork, cotton ball, an orange. Try to find things that are smooth, bumpy, hard, and soft.

A medium-sized box made into "a touch box" by cutting out a small hole in one side of the box big enough for a student to put one hand through. Decorate the box with contact paper if desired.

Procedure

Tell students that today they are going to play another game. It will show how their bodies help them to learn about the world. Call children together on the floor and show them the prepared "touch box." Tell the children you are going to put something in the touch box that they will have to identify by the way it feels. Have students take turns coming to the touch box and identifying objects by touch only. Allow time for all children to have a turn at the touch box even if some items have already been identified. Then pass all the items around the circle, so that all the children can compare their textures.

Ask: What part of the body helped us to identify the objects in the touch box? If students respond with "hands" or "fingers" accept that answer, but clarify it with these follow up questions: Can we feel things with our toes? Can we feel things with our legs? Can you feel things with your arms? Ask: What covers our whole body that allows us to touch? Guide students to understand that skin is the part of the body that allows us to touch.

Re-examine each of the objects from the touch box. Hold up one of the objects and ask the students to describe how it felt. Develop vocabulary such as bumpy, smooth, hard, soft, rough. Continue to call on students to describe objects from the touch box. Begin to classify the objects by touch and shape. For instance, the cotton ball and the feather can be classified as soft; the ping pong ball and orange can be classified as round.

Firm up: Your skin is the part of the body that allows you to feel and touch.

 

Suggested Follow Up Activity

Allow time for children to finger paint. Discuss how the paint feels on their fingers and hands.

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Kindergarten - Science Lesson 11 - The Human Body

Objectives

Demonstrate that we learn about objects in our world by using our senses of sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell.

Communicate which sense organs are used to identify objects.

Materials

One paper plate and crayons for each student

Yarn, scissors, glue, magazines, mirror, construction paper (various colors)

Sentence strips with the following rebus phrases printed on them:

 

My see _______ ;

 

My touch _______;

My hear _______;

 

My smells _______;

 

My tastes _______;

Post the phrases on a bulletin board titled The World Around Us as illustrated below. Tack up several sheets of blank construction paper under each phrase.





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Kindergarten - Science Lesson 11 - The Human Body

Procedure

Give each student a paper plate and crayons. Have students look in a mirror and use the paper plate to draw their faces. Check that children include eyes, ears, nose, and mouth. Yarn can be attached for the hair. Discuss with the children each part of their faces and ask how that body part helps them learn about the world. For example, say: Look at the eyes you have drawn on your plate, how do they help you learn about the world? (They help me to see things.) Say: Which part of your face helps to learn how things feel? (the skin) Continue questioning until firm. Collect paper plate faces, and add several to the bulletin board The World Around Us.

Direct students' attention to the bulletin board in progress. Read the phrases to the children. Tell the students they are going to help finish the phrases you have posted on the board by looking for pictures in the magazines showing things they see, hear, touch, taste, and smell. When they find a picture that will finish one of the phrases, they are to cut it out and come to the

bulletin board where you will be waiting with a stapler. As children arrive at the board, ask them to identify which phrase their picture will complete. Ask the child if it is possible that her/his picture may complete another phrase. Guide the child to understand that our senses work together to learn about objects. When the two of you have decided which phrase it should be posted under, staple the picture onto one of the colored construction papers you have already attached to the board. Continue the activity until all children have had a turn to identify and discuss a few objects with you.